This identified feature of personality questionnaires is probably attributed to their developed standards that are used for interpreting the results of the test. By means of comparing the answers of the applicant with the developed standards, the human resource staff can easily analyze the personality of the individual and easily categorize him or her to a specific personality type.
The availability of the standards in personality questionnaires as well as their ability to facilitate ease in recruitment has been demonstrated by a number of companies. A good example is Myers-Briggs indicator, a personality test that has been testing personalities since The tool has long been used for recruitment and appraisal as it enables fast hiring procedures with less hassle.
Specifically, Myer-Briggs allows fast interpretation of results by having a set of standards, which categorize personality into different typologies. Once the applicant has completed the questionnaire, his or her answers are compared to broad personality categories.
An example of which is determining whether the individual is an extrovert or an introvert. Other personality categories include thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving and sensing or intuitive , In addition, as personality questionnaire promote fast hiring procedures, cost on recruitment can be reduced as employees can start immediately, enhancing total company performance. Personality questionnaire is not only useful and reliable in terms of its ability to promote fast and easy recruitment.
The respondents of the study also agree that this human resource tool is reliable as it helps in providing accurate results. However, it should also be noted that a number of respondents disagree with this factor. Perhaps, this is significantly related to the different factors that could affect the accuracy of the results and interpretation of personality questionnaires.
More details regarding this matter are to be discussed in the next section. Assessing the capability and potentials of an employee based on his or her personality can be subjective in nature; nonetheless, the respondents agree that using the personality questionnaire enable the generation of more objective recruitment decisions. As the interpretation of the results is compared to certain standards, the HR personnel do not really interpret the answers of the applicant based on intuition or personal judgments.
Moreover, the standards used for interpreting the results were should have been developed with scientific and psychological knowledge. Finally, the research participants also agree that the personality questionnaire helps in improving the performance and output of their respective companies. Considering that the respondents agree to the ability of the questionnaire to provide accurate and objective hiring results, there is a greater opportunity for the department to employ the right people for the right job.
If the employees are assigned to jobs that are suitable to their capabilities, better work outcomes can be produced. Furthermore, this could also facilitate employee motivation. With this feature, personality questionnaire enable the company to achieve a higher degree of productivity. Based on the overall results given by the respondents, personality questionnaire is a useful and reliable tool for recruitment and appraisal.
Not only does this instrument support fast and easy hiring and appraisal procedures, but this also enables the human resource staff to make objective results interpretation. Aside from these, the ability of the personality questionnaire to distinguish a personality type and compare it with the requirements of the job, helps the human resource department in employing applicants that are truly fitted for the vacancy. It is important to consider, however, that despite the known reliability features of the personality questionnaire, not all respondents are convinced that this can truly be depended on in terms of accuracy.
The next section identifies the possible factors that appear to affect the reliability of personality questionnaires. Pros and Cons of Personality Questionnaire. The results of the survey revealed that personality questionnaire is a two-sided human resource instrument as it has certain advantages and downsides. For easy comprehension, the pros of using personality questionnaire will be identified and analyzed first.
From the given advantage factors, the respondents agree that personality questionnaire allows employers to make effective promotion decisions. This is very much related to another advantage indicated by the respondents, which is the reduction of human resource costs due to employee turnover. Granting promotion to deserving employees is one of the important functions and advantages of using the personality questionnaire.
Promotion is considered an important element of human resource management as it encourages employees to perform with quality. This also represents a significant aspect of the internal selection system. Most importantly, the turnover process is reduced through promotion. Aside from the fact that rapid employee turnover results to significant financial losses, this also works against employee efficiency and productivity.
As the morale of the employees are reduced considerably due to turnover, profits and quality are eventually affected , With effective promotion, employees are likely to be more loyal to the company, thus, preventing employee turnover. A previous study , concluded that organizational commitment is positively correlated to internal promotions or career growth; this suggest that promoted employees are likely to have high commitment to the company.
The sub-benefits of granting due promotions and preventing high employee turn over all contribute to better company outcomes and performance. The use of personality questionnaire also results to two other advantages. As indicated by the respondents, this human resource tool also allows the resolution or prevention of workplace conflicts as well as promote team-building among the employees.
In the article written by , various firms had stressed the capability of personality tests to maintain the culture of an organization. With personality questionnaires, companies are able to select participants based on their behaviours, principles and attitudes. If firms will constantly hire employees with personalities that match their standards, an organizational culture is developed. By definition, organizational culture is a manner in which business members are unified by a common standard and goal.
The principle of organizational culture states that a certain organization encounters various challenges which the members were able to overcome through established strategies and methods. Hence, organizational culture is commonly defined as the way things are conducted in the company , The features of a personality questionnaire appear to promote the foundations of organizational culture.
For instance, values within the corporation serve as the main foundation of organizational culture. The value of the organization serves as its defining elements where symbols, practices, standards and other related matters are derived. Values can be defined as a consistent belief that a certain mode of personal or sociable conduct is preferable against a contradictory mode of conduct. Through this element of corporate culture, employees are able to establish a social identity which in turn generates meaning and connectedness.
This foundation on the other hand, can be achieved through the employment of personality questionnaire. According to , the organizational culture has basically four essential strengths. The first strength emphasizes its attention on the human side of organizational life.
Secondly, it stresses on the importance of harmonious internal relations among the members of the organization, which in turn results to the achievement of common objectives and goals. It also makes the members, especially the organization leaders to assess themselves in terms of the impact they have on the group. The organizational culture of the company influences overall behaviour within the workplace.
As culture promotes the sharing of a common goal between the top management and the employees, the organization and its multidisciplinary teams naturally works in a more harmonious relationship. As the managers and employees work together, the focus of the workers is no longer concentrated on satisfying their immediate supervisors. Rather, they work to satisfy the needs of the other teams in the process.
This dynamic motion within the organization gives a more defined role and purpose for each team. Since the teams are held together, their actions are more coordinated. Hence, organizational culture positively influences the organizational behaviour, which makes work teams perform more efficiently , The reliability of personality questionnaire in promoting high levels of company performance and output appear to be related to the creation of culture within the organization. Researchers and also cited that organizational culture is related with involvement, adaptability, mission and adaptability, which in turn allow return on assets and sales growth.
Another significant effect of organizational culture is its ability to enable the acquisition of new skills. It also promotes employee in familiarization with the overall operation of the business. In other words, organizational culture facilitates the generation of well-rounded employees who are well-equipped and capable of providing newer or better business solutions.
The involvement and participation of the employees help in creating team orientation and organizational efficacy. Organizational efficacy is defined as a generative capability found in an organization so as to effectively overcome various challenges, stressors, opportunities and demands most businesses encounter within its environment. Organizational efficacy exists as a combined judgment of the individual members of the organization regarding their sense of joint capacities, their sense of purpose, direction or mission as well as their sense of resilience , Basically, organizational efficacy refers to the strong sense of self-belief that one can do something to stand out, excel and make a difference.
Hence, oftentimes, organizational efficacy is used interchangeably with organizational confidence. This effect is also among the most important advantages brought about by the establishment of organizational culture. The respondents also agree on other advantages of using personality questionnaires. As mentioned in the reliability section, the respondents noted the ability of this human resource instrument to identify the potentials, attitudes and behavior of the applicant.
This feature helps the HR staff to determine whether the individual is suitable for the job being offered. In addition to these advantages, the respondents also indicated that employing this type of test for HR processes is less costly.
Most importantly, personality questionnaires are highly flexible, meaning companies can easily customize them in accordance to their employment needs. In one article from the , personality questionnaires were described as tools that are initially used to identify applicants with potential psychological problems. However, currently, these instruments are used by employers not only to test the personalities of their applicants but also to align their individual personalities with the needs of the company and the job they are applying for.
Rather than screening the applicants based on their mental stability, personality questionnaires are now used to screen applicants for competence; hence, the respondents of the research agree with this capability of personality questionnaires. The article further explained that with personality questionnaires, companies can prevent employing applicants that could create conflicts in the workplace or bully other co-workers.
This is an important issue as bullying in the workplace is among the common problems employees and employers encounter. This concrete example of workplace conflict can be avoided by subjecting incoming employing to personality tests , This situation clearly stress the significance of screening employees not only based on their technical skills but their interpersonal skills as well. According to , the employment of personality questionnaires used to be an expensive and tedious process.
Traditionally, the questionnaire would have to be mailed to the applicant; this procedure apparently takes considerable time and energy. However, with the introduction of the Internet and other computer-based programs, companies are able to make the most of personality questionnaires. Not only does this make the entire process faster but companies are able to screen the applicants in a more effective way. As results can be obtained easily through the computer, employers could employ rightful applicants immediately.
Considering the strong competition for talented and highly skilled workforce, firms are then able to gain an important advantage in hiring through the personality questionnaire. Finally, the flexibility of this HR instrument is attributed to its customizable nature.
Companies can use personality test in order to assist them in linking personality types to certain job classifications or group of people. The assessment of the applicants personality can also be combined with other forms of tests such as leadership evaluation, skill test or performance assessment. In addition, personality questionnaires has a multi-purpose feature as it cannot only be used for hiring; this can also be utilized for promoting deserving employees, appraising their performance or training , This advantage allows firms to develop specific personality questionnaires that are accustomed to what they need from an applicant; this then helps in ensuring that the employees screened through personality questionnaires are suitable for the job vacancy.
Although these findings clearly suggest that personality questionnaires are reliable and advantageous, the selected respondents also pointed out some downsides of this instrument. For instance, the participants strongly agree that the applicants can easily fake the answers they place on the questionnaires. Moreover, there are several personality questionnaires available at present that even untrained staff can easily administer this type of test.
The respondents also strongly agree that in order to administer this test effectively, substantial training and experience are necessary. As the interpretation of the test is considerably dependent on the standards and the ability of the HR staff to interpret them, inaccuracy of the results is very possible no matter how much training the HR staffs have gone through. The tendency to obtain inaccurate personality test results due to the answers provided by the applicants themselves has been raised in the past , In particular, a common practice among applicants is to overestimate, especially on positive attributes, their scores in the test.
The tendency of applicants to overestimate or fake their scores in a personality test appear to increase when they have an idea on what type of employee the company is seeking. Naturally, if the applicants could easily present the profile they believe the employer requires, the reliability of this instrument is significantly affected. Although the use of personality questionnaires is reliable, the company would have to ensure that its HR department has the people that can administer this effectively.
Companies should then assure that their HR employees have undergone appropriate training and have sufficient experience; while the test itself is inexpensive and easy to use, obtaining the right people for its utilization can pose a challenge. Moreover, considering the fact that training and experience alone cannot significantly limit the misinterpretation of results, it is quite difficult to hire and pay for highly skilled HR personnel when positive outcomes are not guaranteed.
Thus, rather than insisting on the use of personality questionnaires to various HR procedures, the company is likely to resort to other means of recruitment and employee evaluation. The validity of the results obtained from personality questionnaires is also doubted. Based from the obtained results, the respondents agree that it could determine the personal features of an applicant, which could help in the hiring process.
However, considering the need for trained personnel, the tendency of the applicants to fake their test answers and the risk of misinterpreting the results, the respondents were not totally certain if the results of test are accurate enough. In one newspaper article by , the validity and accuracy of the results obtained from personality tests had been questioned by several critics. Critics noted that one of the main problems with personality questionnaire is that most of these tests are not really meant for hiring purposes.
Although the questionnaire can be used to help companies evaluate the employees and build teams among them, these tests cannot really be used to employ people. For instance, if an applicant was identified as shy based on the interpretation of his or her test results; this does not necessarily mean that the individual cannot handle jobs that require an outgoing personality.
Thus, a shy individual can be an effective salesperson as the job encourages an outgoing character. Based from the results obtained from the survey, the use of personality questionnaires has its positive and negative sides. In terms of reliability, the instrument is relatively reliable in determining the personal attributes of an applicant. As the results of the test are easy to analyze and interpret, the speed of hiring and other HR activities is increased. In addition, since the attitudes and behavior of an individual can easily be compared to the developed standards of the test, employer could determine which applicant is most suitable for the job offer.
Naturally, as personal features and job requirements are aligned, higher levels of company performance and output are achieved. These benefits of the personality questionnaire are further supported by its more specific advantages. One of which is the ability of this instrument to assist employers in giving due promotions to deserving employees.
This then help companies save on significant costs on hiring. Personality questionnaires are also beneficial to the company as it enables the employment of individuals that have more or less similar work principles and attitudes. This in turn helps in promoting teamwork among the employees. By means of having a common direction and value within the company, organizational structure is established. This human resource concept on the other hand, contributes to the development of effective relations between employers and employees as well as among colleagues.
With coordination and teamwork, conflicts within the workplace are also prevented or easily settled. However, the use of personality questionnaires also has its disadvantages. For instance the respondents noted that while this instrument has the capability to identify the personal attributes of an applicant, the accuracy or validity of the results cannot be ascertained.
This is mainly because of the tendency of the applicants to fake their test answers in accordance to the profile which they believe is what the employer is looking for. The effective administration of this HR instrument also needs certain requirements including considerable training and experience of the HR staff.
As the employment of highly trained HR staff is an investment for the company, it will be difficult for others to have this type of personnel when the outcomes of personality questionnaires cannot be depended on fully.
The cited literature also noted the statements of various critics, suggesting that personality questionnaires may be able to categorize people into personality types; however, this cannot be used for hiring procedures. Apparently, the personality implied in the test results does not necessarily connote the capability of an individual. With these findings, one cannot really say that personality questionnaire is very effective; although it has beneficial features, certain negative factors affect the reliability and validity of this tool.
There are several implications that can be derived from these findings. One is that the reliability and validity of personality questionnaires is dependent not only on the ability of the HR personnel to make accurate interpretations but also on the questions in the questionnaire.
The findings and literatures used in this chapter imply that companies should use questionnaires that had been verified as reliable. Furthermore, while applicants have the tendency to fake their answers in their questionnaire, personality questionnaires can be developed in such a way that fake scores can be prevented.
This can be achieved considering that personality questionnaires can be customized. Chapter 6: Positive Synthesis. The findings derived from primary research clearly indicate that personality questionnaire has a certain degree of reliability.
The use of this instrument in hiring and appraising employees can also result to several other advantages. Nonetheless, the downsides of this tool affect its reliability level. In this chapter, more literatures and case examples are discussed in connection to the obtained findings from the survey. This chapter will focus on the quality, advantages and disadvantages of personality questionnaires. The obtained findings from the survey indicated that the reliability of personality questionnaire lies considerably on its known ability to determine personal attributes of an individual or applicant.
Aside from this, the instrument is also reliable for companies that intend to hasten their hiring processes. Literatures had indicated that these reliability factors of the personality questionnaire are supported by the personality standards used to interpret the test results. Through these standards, personalities can be identified easily and rapidly.
A number of researches had already verified the usefulness of personality questionnaires in identifying various personal attributes and its important role in the recruitment practice. For instance, the ability of a personality questionnaire called the Five-factor model in defining job-relevant personality traits such as customer service orientation, pro-activity and integrity has long been recognized. The reliability of personality questionnaires is also supported by a myriad of tried and tested tests used for identifying the personal attributes of the applicants.
Some organizations however were not aware which type of personality tests is used for their hiring procedures as the selection is carried out by an external consultant. In order to understand the role of personality standards in the employment of personality tests, certain examples can be taken into consideration.
During s, and daughter, invented the test based on the original ideas of. While divided personalities into eight different types, and expanded these categories; thus, a total of 16 profiles are now used for the test. The first dimension is between extroversion and introversion.
This dimension mainly categorizes a person based on the source of his energy. For instance, extroverts derived their energies from the outside world, whereas introverts obtain their energies internally in the form of emotions, ideas and impressions. Stereotypical images of extroverts talkative and introverts quiet are not enough to define these dimensions. This is because once extroverts have been with people long enough; they have enough energy to be by themselves.
In the same way, introverts can be quite talkative in social settings once revved up , Sensing and intuition is the focus of the second dimension. In this case, people categorized as sensors that see what is in front of them; they have a keen sense for catching details and facts. Moreover, they are more interested in past or current events rather than those that will happen in the future.
On the contrary, people who are intuitive are those that could pick up on the realities of relationships that surround them. They are quick to realize wider implications of complex matters or explanations. The third dimension is concentrated on thinking and feeling personalities.
In this case, the aim is to determine whether the individual is generally ruled by emotion or by reason. Those who are considered as thinkers prefer to be detached, analytical and logical when subjected to a decision-making process. They are basically driven by objectives and are more after clarity and justice. On the other hand, the decisions made by feelers are typically influenced by their emotions and interpersonal involvement in the situation, making decisions more subjective , Finally, the fourth dimension is focused on judging and perceiving qualities of an individual.
The judges are the types of people that are very organized, neat and on time. They are the ones who want everything planned ahead of time. The perceivers on the other hand are not as organized as the judges; however, they have a very flexible personality, enabling them to deal with unexpected turn of events. They are very spontaneous and do not plan things in advance.
They are not affected either if things do not go as planned. In terms of formulating decisions, both personalities are also different. The judges tend to be quick in making decision and often stick to their initial conclusions; perceivers on the other hand would rather keep their alternatives open as they find it very difficult to make concrete decisions right away , Through this personality standards HR staff can easily analyze the answers of the applicant and determine whether he or she can comply with the requirements of the job.
Other than hiring, these companies are also employing personality questionnaires for the training and development of the employees. This function of the personality questionnaire is said to be an important key in enhancing executives and staff that lack certain social skills. Through personality tests, the company is able to give the right feedback that will encourage them to strive harder.
The multi-functionality of personality questionnaires is yet another important advantage of this HR instrument. This feature also enables the flexible nature of personality tests. Recruiting employees is perhaps the most popular purpose of personality questionnaires.
As stressed by a manager of a recruitment agency, the use of personality tests allows them to find diamonds in the rough. The recruiters do not initially ask applicants to undergo the test for recruitment. Usually, recruiters would screen applicants; once the applicants pass the initial screening, recruiters will use the personality tests to verify their instincts. In this case, the tests are used to ensure that the judgment of the HR professional is correct; this feature stated then how personality tests can be used for selection, development as well as retention , Recruiting will not be effective if the applicants do not fit to the position being offered.
In this case, personality tests are also useful for finding employees with the credentials that suit the job. In some cases, companies use personality questionnaires not to establish a personality pattern within the company but to ensure that each employee can give their best performance to their respective job assignments. Personality questionnaires are also useful in gauging the comfort level of the applicants with job; at times, assessing attitudes of potential applicants can be helpful in adjusting to the job requirements and responsibilities in order to establish a better match , In other companies, personality tests are used not only to strengthen but also to diversify their hiring process.
In a group of executives for example, balance should be observed in terms of personalities. Thus, rather than creating a team that is dominated by growth-minded members, executives with personalities that can manage the team should also be included; in this way, a department is not congested with leaders or any other single type personalities. Through a diversified and balanced workforce, companies have higher chances of overcoming future challenges and achieving greater progress , The employment of a diverse workforce and its advantages has been supported by several literatures.
Despite of many issues and problems related to workforce diversity, literatures claim that this is an important element of an effective organization as well as provides several advantages , According to , the recruitment of a highly diverse workforce is very useful as it provides the organization a larger pool of skills and talents. This also increases the opportunity of the organization to hire employees that are highly appropriate for specific company needs and requirements.
In actual company operations, workforce diversity can also help in generating a multitude of useful ideas for decision-making. For companies who intend to operate globally, workforce diversity is an important factor. In the marketing aspect, success is more attainable if diverse employees will conduct marketing efforts to ethnic minority and foreign communities , Moreover, using locals to handle some of the activities in the organization can help in developing more appropriate international strategies.
In general, diversity in the workplace can help organizations in adapting to the challenges of global operations , According to , the ability of workforce diversity to combine different perspectives, ideas and cultures together is an important asset that brings forth creativity among the employees. As this helps in improving organizational performance, some organizations have become increasingly interested in developing a diverse workforce.
Through this, creativity from workforce diversity will be able to develop products or services that would both please and surprise customers. From this perspective, it becomes apparent that while diversity can result to difficulties, it also opens several avenues of opportunities.
Through this advantage, companies are able to reduce hiring and training costs. There had been actual cases where companies were able to achieve reduction in employee turnover rate. One of these food establishments was Garcia and Pepperoni Grill; its management uses personality questionnaires in screening the applicants.
Aside from the reduced turnover, the HR director also noted that personality tests are advantageous as it improves management training efforts. It also makes the company more selective with the employees that it hires, ensuring that all applicants who passed fit in the organization. The respondents of the survey stressed that personality questionnaires does not only reduce the costs due to turnover, but the employment of the test itself is relatively cheaper as compared to other HR tools.
Initially, the utilization of personality questionnaires can be both tedious and expensive. However, with the use of internet, computer programs and various communication technologies, the process of taking the test as well as interpreting the results have significantly improved. One of the American restaurant operators who have described the old process of using personality test was , co-operator of a steak house located in Atlanta , The entrepreneur noted that managers before used to send in personality questionnaires through mail; the response of the applicants will arrive usually after a week.
This is then the only time when the employer will make a decision to employ the applicant or not. They would usually refer to look for jobs continuously until they are hired , Thus, if potentially good applicants will apply for companies with faster and more efficient hiring procedures; other companies will lose valuable assets. Nonetheless, the old procedure of giving out personality questionnaires is long gone.
Nowadays, companies integrate computer programs and technologies to make the process faster and easier, both for the HR personnel and the applicants. This development then allowed organizations to avail a cost-effective tool for employee recruitment and selection.
The applicants on the other hand can accomplish the test through the computers and accomplish them within 15 to 30 minutes. The integration of computer technology in administering personality questionnaire also supports the respondents claim that this tool is also easy to use.
It has been stated by the selected respondents that personality questionnaires are also advantageous as it helps bring the employees together and prevent conflicts. According to , personality tests allow the concept known as on-boarding where new employees are given the opportunity to become comfortable with their new work environment and colleagues. Through personality assessments, managers are able to led both existing and new staff towards change.
In actual application, the company can provide managers with the four dimensional personality assessments whenever new employees are hired; the results of their assessment can then be used to understand each personality type in order to help them adapt to change effectively. Through personality tests, the innate feature of each employee is obtained; this can be helpful in resolving and preventing conflicts. In particular, personality questionnaires help in depersonalizing conflicts among employees.
Through this, good relations among the employees will be developed and maintained. The use of personality tests is also useful for HR managers particularly in helping out line managers who are to coach their subordinates. By means of personality assessments, coaches within the company are able to understand the needs and preferences of their subordinates; better coaching relationships are then developed through the use of personality questionnaires.
If the subordinates need to be coached, the coaches or leaders should also be trained. For this requirement, personality tests are also useful. In order for employees to be promoted and developed, companies must consider their potentials, skills and attitudes. Pitt Ohio Express, a trucking company in the United States, is focusing on the personality attributes of the key people that the company would need in the future.
This then would help the company develop proper training programs for potential leaders among its existing employees. Although personality questionnaire is a reliable tool and has several advantages, it also has certain disadvantages, which have been pointed out by the respondents. One of which is the tendency of the applicants to fake their answers in the questionnaires in order to make themselves more appealing to the employers.
According to software developer, , the main downside of personality questionnaires is that they are easily tampered or manipulated. He himself tried the MBTI test while interviewing some applicants for a food service company. The software developer also noted that personality questionnaires are not exactly adaptable to all types of job specifications. For instance, it is understandable why personality tests are given for applicants applying for customer-oriented jobs.
However, in the case of controller positions where skills are more essential, personality questionnaires become insignificant , In the study conducted by , the researcher investigated whether individuals taking a personality questionnaire can really alter their scores in the testing. For this study, the researcher chose to use students as the sample participants.
In this procedure, the actual test scores of the students were compared with their self-estimated scores. Descriptive statistics and explanations of every personality dimension assessed were provided. The results showed that students do have the tendency to overestimate their personality scores. Despite this finding, the researcher also concluded that the respondents were reasonably good in predicting their personality test scores.
The analysis also revealed that the tendency of the students to overestimate their test scores was because some items in the questionnaire were easy to predict. In particular, personality factors that relate to sociability and ambition were the ones that are easy to predict. In terms of school success and prudence, questions that relate to these factors were not as easy to foresee. The researcher noted that this finding is probably attributed to the fact that some personality factors are more commonly discussed among students as compared to others; for example, the ambition factor is more commonly discussed than prudence.
The researcher also correlated the tendency of the students to overestimate the test scores with the ranges included in the questionnaire. The choices in the questionnaire restrict the students in making the right answers, thus, the tendency to overestimate the scores increases , In the research done by and , the researchers believed that the issue of applicants distorting their scores in the personality test is not a grave concern as to what was initially believed; though, this issue is constantly debated and investigated.
If the personality questionnaire used by the company has not gone through initial tests for validity, it is likely that the applicants could easily fake their answers. Although it was not indicated in the survey results of this study, one of the common disadvantages of personality questionnaire is its correlation with various legal issues.
In particular, some companies or areas do not employ personality tests in their hiring or appraisal procedures due to its tendency to discriminate applicants. Specifically, other critics question the practice of screening applicants based on their religion, gender, origin, religion, age and other personal factors; critics claimed that with personality questionnaires, some employers have the authority to reject applications that do not meet their personality standards.
Aside from discrimination issues, the personality questionnaire has also been criticized for its tendency to delve into private matters that do not seem to help the hiring or appraisal process , ; , These disadvantages, while observed in some personality questionnaires can be addressed. In order to avoid these problems, the company using the personality test must ensure that the questionnaire has been validated.
Moreover, the companies must ensure that the items in the questionnaire do not have any discriminatory effect towards the applicants, especially among minorities. Chapter 7: Conclusion. This study is focused on the critical evaluation on the role and reliability of personality questionnaires in conducting various human resource activities including employee recruitment and appraisal.
The research also aimed to identify the pros and cons of screening applicants through a personality test. Primary and secondary resources were used in the study. For the primary data, the researcher opted to conduct a survey using randomly selected HR personnel as participants.
A questionnaire, structured in Likert format, was used for data gathering. The answers of the respondents were then processed by computing their corresponding weighted means. The results of the computation were then used as basis for the data analysis. Secondary resources derived from various publications including books and journals were integrated to support the findings.
Based from the results of the survey, personality questionnaires play an important role in the recruitment and appraisal of the employees. The respondents agree that this HR tool is capable of identifying essential personal attributes of the applicants, which promote effective hiring and promotion. In addition, personality tests have some other advantages. One of which is its ability to establish good relations among employees through the resolution or prevention of workplace conflicts.
Personality tests also support the establishment of culture within the organization, which in turn helps in enhancing the performance of an output level in the company. The integration of computer technology in administering personality tests also made this tool a cost-effective means fro recruiting new employees.
The use of personality tests also enables companies to save on valuable resources as it reduces the rate of employee turnover. Despite these benefits, personality questionnaires also have certain drawbacks. For instance, the validity and accuracy of the results obtained from these questionnaires are continuously questioned. Considering that applicants can easily fake their personality scores, the results would naturally be affected.
Moreover, while this tool is relatively inexpensive, it still requires highly skilled and trained HR staff to ensure correct analysis and interpretation results. Literatures however, noted that despite the training of the personnel, misinterpretation is still very likely; hence, it is difficult to employ a strategy whose outcome is not guaranteed.
In general, personality questionnaire is not a full-proof tool for recruitment, appraisal and other HR procedures. While there may be flaws, literatures had noted that the downsides of personality tests can be addressed. For instance, its relation to legal and discrimination issues can be resolved by ensuring that the questionnaire has been validated.
The company must also ensure that the questions in the test are all related to what the company really needs. In the article written by , HR professionals also suggested that companies should not fully rely on personality tests alone when hiring or appraising employees. For instance, personality tests should be combined with cognitive test to assess the intelligence of the applicants. Hence, it is essential that HR professionals make use of various relevant predictors to improve hiring and promotion outcomes.
In conclusion, all HR tools have its own pros and cons; HR staff should then be skilled enough to optimize their benefits and address their flaws. This questionnaire is distributed in order to gather information regarding the role of personality questionnaire in human resource processes as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Through your participation, the study will be able to make possible recommendations that will highlight the functions of personality questionnaire and guidelines for its appropriate utilization.
The following questions that you will read below pertain to your perception on the use of personality questionnaire in recruiting and appraising applicants or employees. Kindly encircle the number of your choice in answering this questionnaire. Please answer the questions as honestly as possible. Thank you very much for your cooperation. Direction: Kindly fill up the following with the correct details about yourself.
Male Female. Based on existing workforce and human resource developments in your company, personality questionnaire has the ability to provide accurate results. Personality questionnaire is able to give objective findings that enable less personal recruitment decisions.
The results of the personality questionnaire are easy to analyze and interpret. Personality questionnaire supports fast hiring procedures. Personality questionnaire contributes greatly to company performance and output.
Personality questionnaire helps in determining whether the applicant is fit for the job or not. Personality questionnaires demand several requirements such as trained staff and substantial experience for effective utilization. The use of a personality questionnaire can help in resolving or preventing personality-based conflicts in the workplace. Personality questionnaires can be administered and analyzed even by untrained staff, making test results less accurate.
This human resource tool promotes team-building among employees. Personality questionnaire help employers in making effective promotion decisions. The possibility of misinterpretations despite the training is ever-present. The use of a personality questionnaire is useful as it is easy to administer.
Personality questionnaire is unreliable as applicants may not give the score that truly represents their personality. This human resource instrument resolves issues on costs due to high turn over, misemployment and underperformance of employees. Applicants can easily fake their scores on personality questionnaires, affecting the results of the test. Questions in the personality questionnaire imply discriminations and can subject the company to legal issues. Personality questionnaire is a highly flexible tool as it can be customized according to the needs of the company.
Your face would look better between my legs. Hey, i am looking for an online sexual partner ; Click on my boobs if you are interested. Chapter 1: Introduction The idea of personality traits may be as old as human language itself. Purpose of the Study This research was conducted in order to critically evaluate and examine the status and role of personality questionnaire in the selection, retention and recruitment of employees.
Thesis Statement The researcher aimed to address the following research questions: What is the role of personality questionnaires in the recruitment and appraisal of employees? What are the pros and cons of using personality questionnaires in conducting various HR processes? Chapter 2: Literature Review In this chapter, focus is on various relevant literatures that explain the concept of personality traits as well as the use of personality questionnaires.
Personality Traits One of the pioneering trait psychologists, , saw traits as organized mental structures, varying from person to person, which initiate and guide behaviour. Personality Questionnaire: Development and Quality Factors Contemporary views of traits are intimately related to the processes of measurement and assessment necessary to identify basic personality dimensions.
Personality Questionnaire: Empirical Studies There had been a number of studies related to personality questionnaires and its ability to detect various personal attributes. Chapter 3: Aspects of Personality Questionnaire This chapter concentrates on the different aspects of personality questionnaire.
Choice of Questionnaire There is a wide array of published trait questionnaires that are potentially relevant to certain human resource needs. Evaluation of questionnaires There are some well-established benchmarks that may be used for evaluating the questionnaires.
Issues The user of psychometric tests is, of course, bound by the same ethical principles as any other psychologist. Chapter 4: Methodology Overview This research was conducted in order to determine whether personality questionnaire play a significant role in the recruitment and appraisal of the employees.
Research Design The descriptive method of research was used for this study. Participants In order to determine whether personality questionnaire does play an important role in conducting human resource processes, a total of 40 respondents were asked to participate. Instruments The survey questionnaire was used as the main data-gathering instrument for this study See Appendix A. The scale below was used to interpret the total responses of all the respondents for every survey question by computing the weighted mean: Range Interpretation 3.
Data Processing and Analysis After gathering all the completed questionnaires from the respondents, total responses for each item were obtained and tabulated. Statistically, the weighted mean is calculated using the following formula: or Ethical Considerations As this study required the participation of human respondents, specifically human resource professionals, certain ethical issues were addressed.
Chapter 5: Findings Overview This research was conducted in order to determine the reliability and role of personality questionnaire in various human resource activities in recruitment and employee appraisal. Below are the graphs summarizing the gathered values for each profile category: Fig. Discussion In this section, the results of the survey are discussed in relation to the objectives of the study.
Pros and Cons of Personality Questionnaire The results of the survey revealed that personality questionnaire is a two-sided human resource instrument as it has certain advantages and downsides. Chapter 6: Positive Synthesis The findings derived from primary research clearly indicate that personality questionnaire has a certain degree of reliability. Quality The obtained findings from the survey indicated that the reliability of personality questionnaire lies considerably on its known ability to determine personal attributes of an individual or applicant.
Disadvantage Although personality questionnaire is a reliable tool and has several advantages, it also has certain disadvantages, which have been pointed out by the respondents. You really need to look presentable and smart at the workplace. No one would take you seriously if you are shabbily dressed. Avoid being a makeup box at work. Dress smartly at work. Make sure your clothes are clean and properly ironed. It pays to exude confidence and positive attitude at workplace.
Never clutter your mind with negative thoughts. You will feel frustrated and eventually loose interest in work. Accept challenges with a smile. Never ever underestimate anyone. Backstabbing, criticizing, dishonesty are negative traits which make you an unwanted member in the organization. Be very honest and transparent with your seniors and fellow workers. You really need to respect others to expect the same in return. Personality development, in simpler words makes you a good human being.
Personality development teaches you to stay calm and composed even at stressful situations. Never over react. Avoid finding faults in others. Learn to be a little flexible and broad minded. Personality development differentiates you from others who come to office, fight with fellow workers, are often under stress and find work monotonous. View All Articles. Similar Articles Under - Personality Development.
First, at the beginning of the training, the trainer involves learners into decision-making process for choosing the course textbook. Second, after choosing the textbooks, the trainer invites learners to pick up the topics which they are interested in and also fit personal needs.
In this way, the learners would take responsibility for learning by themselves. Third, the class will be run like a discussion session. The trainer gives training materials before the class and asks them to read in advance. The trainer and the learners learn from each other through interaction.
Fourth, Weimer suggested that the careful design of assignments which help students effectively use the power they are given is the key component of sharing power to the learners [ 41 ]. Thus, the trainer needs to structure the assignments well and allows the trainees to make choices about the ways to complete the projects, for example, by conducting interview or submitting a real lesson activity.
Three critical issues must be considered in the designing and delivering stage [ 8 ]. The first one is interference. Therefore, when designing the training, the trainers need to be aware of this issue. The second one is transfer design [ 8 ]. Transfer refers to whether the trainee or learner can actually perform the new skills or use the new knowledge on the job [ 4 ].
Transfer design, thus, is defined as the ability to transfer learning to the job and to which the training instruction matches the job requirements [ 42 ]. In order to ensure that the organizations are able to receive benefit from training, Lim and Johnson suggested that training design, content, and instructional strategies must be related to the objective of transfer, whether near or far transfer [ 43 ].
In other words, transfer mechanisms such as climate for transfer, management and peer support, opportunity to perform, training awareness, and using self-management strategies need to be included in the design of a training program for maximizing transfer [ 4 , 21 , 44 ].
The third one is the needs of adult learners. Several assumptions were proposed by Malcolm Knowles [ 45 ]: 1 adults have the need to know why they learn, 2 adults have the need to be self-managed, 3 adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning context than children or teenagers, 4 adults learn with a problem-centered approach, and 5 adults are motivated to learn by getting both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators. Since most of the job-related training is targeted for employees whose age is over 18, the training program must meet the needs of these adult learners in order to enhance training effectiveness.
Evaluation is an integral part and the final stage of most instructional design ID models [ 46 ]. Theoretically, it is a systematic process of collecting data in an effort to measure and determine success or failure of a training program with regard to content and design [ 18 , 47 ]. Two questions intend to be answered in the evaluation process, that is, whether 1 training objectives are achieved in the learning process and 2 accomplishment of those objectives results in enhanced job performance [ 48 ].
Thus, evaluation can be divided into two categories, formative evaluation and summative evaluation [ 46 , 49 , 50 ]. Formative evaluation is an evaluation with the purpose to improve design and development to enhance learning, whereas summative evaluation is intended to determine whether the training program is worthy or effective [ 51 , 52 ]. Besides, Campbell stressed that the most important and fundamental thing is whether trainees have learned the materials covered in training or not [ 53 ].
It is also the simplest method to understand training effectiveness [ 18 , 54 ]. According to Kirkpatrick, training can be evaluated at four levels. Learning outcomes are typically measured by using various forms of knowledge tests such as pencil-and-paper test or by immediate post-training measures of performance and skill demonstration in the training context [ 56 ].
It refers to as transfer criteria and evaluates the extent to which trainees have applied the learned competencies on the job. For behavioral criteria, evaluation is assessed by self-ratings, supervisor ratings, or objective performance indicators [ 56 — 58 ]. Although this kind of assessment is the most difficult to be obtained, it is highly desirable for the organizations. As a result, both training practitioners and academic researchers have developed a more comprehensive model for training criteria.
For example, Kraiger et al. Based on Kraiger et al. Specifically, cognitive outcomes are used to determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program. It includes verbal knowledge, knowledge organization, and cognitive strategies. Skill-based outcomes, including skill learning and skill transfer, are used to assess the level of technical or motor skills and behaviors.
Affective outcomes include both attitudinal and motivational change, which also involves disposition, motivation to learn, self-efficacy, tolerance for diversity, safety attitudes, customer service orientation, and goal setting [ 4 , 48 ]. Among three categories of learning outcomes, affective outcomes have attracted a lot of attentions in different research areas such as education, psychology, and organizational behavior. The scholars are particularly interested in the issue regarding whether self-efficacy or motivation to learn can be changed through training and how different training methods impact self-efficacy and motivation to learn.
For example, Gist found that a training method comprising cognitive modeling with practice and reinforcement generated significantly higher participant self-efficacy than a method involving only lecture and practice [ 60 ]. Torkzadeh and Dyke suggested that training significantly improved Internet self-efficacy for trainees, both males and females [ 61 ]. Huang and Jacobs claimed that structured on-the-job training could generate higher self-efficacy to achieve training outcomes than classroom training with lecture only, especially for trainees with lower general self-efficacy GSE [ 63 ].
Among thousands of attitudes, job satisfaction is one of important work-related attitudes in the work environment [ 3 ]. Simply put, job satisfaction is the combination of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions that workers hold a relation to their current jobs [ 3 , 69 ]. While tackling the issue of job satisfaction, some typical questions were raised by researchers.
For example, why are some employees more satisfied than others? What kinds of work tasks are especially satisfying? How to design a task to make employees feel satisfied? Colquitt et al. What is value? Based on the value-percept theory, the dissatisfaction of employees can be expressed as follows:.
It can be seen that, although the difference between V want and V have causes the dissatisfaction, it is the importance of the value that will either magnify or minimize the dissatisfaction [ 2 ]. In the value-percept theory, five specific facets of satisfaction, i. Personal characteristics include personality disposition, attitudes, self-efficacy, self-esteem, motivation, gender, communication style, emotions, and more [ 3 , 71 ].
Since each employee is independent and unique, the value of things an employee wants and their importance differ from one to another. Such differences cause the variance in dissatisfaction. Personal characteristics offer the explanation to the question of why some employees are more satisfied than others. Take personality as an example. This makes them more likely be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure in general, especially in the workplace.
Conversely, the employees who have higher scores on the conscientiousness and extraversion scales tend to be responsible, organized, gregarious, and sociable, and it is more likely they will be satisfied with their work [ 3 ]. Besides personal characteristics, situational characteristics also influence job satisfaction, which can explain what kinds of work tasks are especially satisfying. The situational factors include pay, opportunities for promotion, administration style, coworker, and working conditions [ 73 ].
Any job-related conditions happened in the workplace may influence their emotion, which further impacts how they judge and perceive toward their job [ 3 ]. Therefore, in order for employees to have job satisfaction, the situational factors need to be carefully considered.
For example, is the pay commensurate with the job duties? Is the pay secure? Are the promotions frequent, fair, and based on ability? Is the supervisor competent, polite, and a good communicator? Are the coworkers responsible, helpful, and interesting? Is the work challenging, interesting, respected? If it is yes to all the above questions, then it is highly possible that employees would be satisfied with their job [ 2 ].
The needs of employees toward the work itself can be further realized through job characteristic theory. In other words, this theory helps to answer the question of how to design a task to make employees feel satisfied. The dimension of autonomy allows employees to experience the responsibility for outcomes of the work. Responsibility for outcomes refers to the extent the employees feel that they are responsible for the quality of the work.
Providing either positive or negative feedback to employees make them have the opportunities to know the actual results of the work activities. Knowledge of results means that employees know how well or poorly they are doing. Thus, research suggests that the higher the three psychological states, the higher the working motivation, which leads to higher job satisfaction. First, a number of researchers have been curious about the relationships between job satisfaction and job performance.
For this question, many people may intuitively believe that job satisfaction is an important factor to impact job performance. Their presumption is that happy workers are more likely to be productive workers. However, at the early stage, the results indicated that job satisfaction was not meaningfully associated with job performance [ 75 ]. Till recently, studies showed that job satisfaction was moderately correlated with task performance.
In other words, job satisfaction did predict job performance [ 2 ]. The satisfied employees who held positive feelings toward their work did a better job to fulfill the duties [ 76 ], to increase creativity in job [ 77 ], to enhance decision-making and problem-solving ability [ 78 ], and furthermore, to strengthen the memory and recall ability [ 79 ]. Second, job satisfaction is interrelated to job commitment.
Commitment is defined as that an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to remain as a member [ 3 ]. Commitment can be divided into three types, i. Research found that job satisfaction was strongly correlated with affective and normative commitment but not correlated with continuance commitment [ 80 ].
Thus, the employees who have positively affective reaction to their jobs will be committed to their job and feel an obligation to remain in the organization [ 80 — 84 ]. Third, job satisfaction is moderately positive related to organizational citizenship behavior [ 2 , 85 ].
Therefore, the satisfied employees would like to engage in more work-related behaviors to offer help to coworkers and increase desire to interact with others. OCB is extremely important for the employees to contact with the customers since it leads to improved customer evaluation of service quality [ 90 ]. Finally, job satisfaction reduces job turnover and absenteeism [ 91 , 92 ].
Since actual turnover behavior is difficult to measure, Lingard suggested using turnover intention as a predictor of actual turnover behavior [ 94 ]. Karatepe et al. Vroom found that low levels of job satisfaction contributed to higher absenteeism rates [ 97 ], and such a finding was confirmed by Clegg [ 98 ]. The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover was stronger than between satisfaction and absenteeism [ 3 ]. The concept of job training satisfaction was proposed by Schmidt [ 32 ].
He combined the definitions of job training and job satisfaction into one of the affective outcomes, called job training satisfaction JTS. As mentioned above, training involves employees acquiring knowledge and learning skills that they will be able to apply on the job immediately [ 8 ].
According to Schmidt, the definition of job training satisfaction has several key components [ ]. First, the focus of evaluation is on-the-job training as a whole, rather than on a single part of training activities such as a training course, trainers, facilities, or training content. Second, it refers to a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from each element and the whole process before and after the job training, such as fulfillment of needs, enhancing motivation to learn, or satisfied with the transferring the learned competencies to the job.
Third, the subjects of evaluation target on the trainees where formal or planned training activities are offered by the organization rather than the informal learning effort endeavors by the employees themselves. In the past, the impact of training on job satisfaction was not emphasized until it was found that job satisfaction tended to be higher where workplace training was held in organizations [ ]. In order to explore the relationships between these two variables, Schmidt conducted a survey of job training and satisfaction for employees in customer and technical service department in nine major organizations in the USA and Canada to address how job training satisfaction impacts on job satisfaction [ 32 ].
According to his findings, job training satisfaction was not only highly correlated with job satisfaction but also significantly related to the time spent in training, training methodology, and content. Extended researches have been carried out to explore the impact of job training satisfaction on other work attitudes. Huang and Su found that there is a negative relationship between job training satisfaction and turnover intentions [ ].
It is stated that, when employees are satisfied with job training, they are more likely to stay in the organization and have lower turnover intentions. The research results have also indicated that the relationship between job training satisfaction and turnover intentions can be mediated by job satisfaction. Mansour et al. Moreover, job training satisfaction was found to be positively related to organizational citizenship behavior [ , ], organizational commitment OC , and job involvement JI [ ].
Based on the above discussion, a revised comprehensive model of training effectiveness is proposed and shown in Figure 3. Thus, different from the original model shown in Figure 2 , the variable of job training satisfaction was inserted after the variable of training transfer to influence job satisfaction and job performance. That is, if the learners are able to perceive positively toward training program, to learn the job required knowledge, skill, abilities, and attitudes through training, and to succeed in transferring the learned competencies to real workplace, their satisfaction level toward training program must be high.
For instance, on-the-job training, especially structured OJT, has been perceived as an effective training approach to achieve transfer of training owing to its occurrence at or near the workplace using actual facilities, enhancing skills acquisition, and removing learning anxieties [ 6 , 33 ].
This allows the employees to be able to perform the job well and, in turn, feel satisfied with the training. Such high satisfaction toward job training leads to high level of job satisfaction and further results in high job performance but low turnover intention. These findings are interesting and valuable. Jones et al. From a series of studies, the impact of training on job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention has been confirmed. The revised comprehensive model of training effectiveness with insertion of job training satisfaction and job satisfaction.
Although training is a critical strategy to help organizations gain competitive advantages and its purpose is to help employees learn job-related competencies, job training satisfaction cannot be achieved without a well-prepared and designed training program. That is, at the beginning of the training program design, it is necessary to carry out a needs assessment to make the learning occur, which consists of organizational analysis, person analysis, and task analysis. After training, the training effectiveness is evaluated by assessing not only learning performance of knowledge, skills, and job-related behaviors but also affective outcomes such as self-efficacy, attitude, and motivation.
Research has indicated that possessing a pleasurable or positive emotional state with the whole job training program, employees will have higher job satisfaction and job performance. Other job attitudes such as organizational citizenship behavior, affective commitment, and normative commitment will increase, while turnover intention and absenteeism will decrease.
Thus, we developed the following hypothesis. Hypothesis 1b. Self-enhancement values are reflected in power and achievement Schwartz, , both of which focus on social esteem. Power reflects the goals of prestige, social status attainment, and control or dominance over people and resources. Implementing innovative ideas in the workplace can be a potential method of attaining such goals because employees who behave innovatively can be appreciated by managers who strive for innovative performance at their firms Janssen et al.
An employee can also perceive innovative behavior as a means to obtain social prestige in an organization and to have a leading, distinguished position among others. Furthermore, the central goal of the value of achievement is personal success, which is accomplished by demonstrating competence, in accordance with social standards Schwartz, Innovative activities can help to achieve such a goal because an innovative employee may attain a distinguished position among co-workers and can be perceived as being successful.
Nevertheless, previous research findings concerning relationships between self-enhancement values and creativity are not consistent. On the one hand, Dollinger et al. On the other hand, Sousa and Coelho found that bank employees who attributed high importance to self-enhancement values were more creative in their work.
These results seem to correspond with the finding that power motivation is important for creative personality Helson, , and the notion that strong achievement orientation is demonstrated by creative people Mumford, ; Sousa and Coelho, Attaining goals related to power and achievement values may be possible when people promote and implement their creative ideas. These activities can help employees gain prestige, increase their organizational status, and be perceived as successful by co-workers and supervisors.
In conclusion, we postulate that employees who attribute high importance to self-enhancement values are more willing to behave innovatively. Hypothesis 1c. Self-transcendence values consist of universalism and benevolence Schwartz, Being the most abstract among values, they seem to be the most unrelated to the work context Sousa et al.
However, there is some empirical evidence showing that they can be related to creativity. Gump found that universalism positively predicts creativity among college students. Similarly, Kasof et al. In the study conducted by Dollinger et al. Nevertheless, these studies were conducted using student samples. Conversely, Sousa and Coelho found that frontline bank employees who attributed high importance to self-transcendence were less creative than those who had stronger self-enhancement values.
Although there is some empirical evidence concerning the relationship between self-transcendence and creativity, we do not consider it to be sufficient to postulate a specific hypothesis about how these values are related to innovative behavior in the workplace as an activity that includes idea generation, promotion, and implementation.
The lack of sufficient evidence is due to some inconsistencies in previous research and — above all — the lack of clear theoretical premises on the potential relationship direction between these variables. We propose that a specific set of values can predispose people to proactively strive for autonomy in their work, while other values may not motivate such a pursuit.
Autonomy is known to be one of the most frequently studied phenomena in work and organizational settings Morgeson and Humphrey, It is a motivational tool Sarros et al. Such freedom can be reflected in making decisions, scheduling work, and determining work methods and procedures applied in an organization. Another meaningful theoretical approach is self-determination theory Ryan and Deci, , which considers autonomy as one of the three basic psychological needs and suggests that the satisfaction of these needs is necessary for people to flourish Deci and Ryan, In this context, autonomy is known to be supported by supervisors and their human resource practices Park and Jang, , whereas in job characteristics theory Hackman and Oldham, , , autonomy is acknowledged as an objective task characteristic that can also be provided by the job itself.
Employees make such self-initiated changes in their job features to customize them to fit their strengths, passions, and motives Berg et al. Traditional job design theories, such as job characteristics theory Hackman and Oldham, , consider managers as job crafters because they design tasks for their subordinates and, therefore, can change their motivations and satisfaction Wrzesniewski and Dutton, Indeed, research has shown that employees who participated in job redesign initiatives experienced increases in job autonomy after 2 months Tims et al.
Therefore, there is support for the theoretical postulates that job autonomy can be influenced not only by managers through top-down processes but also by employees on their own. In this manner, we define job autonomy by integrating existing theoretical conceptions.
As noted by Morgeson and Humphrey , autonomy has a central place in motivational work approaches. In addition to being the most widely studied job characteristic, it is also the most influential Humphrey and Morgeson, Moreover, job autonomy is the job characteristic related to innovative behavior e. Thus, we concentrate on job autonomy in our study. As personal values have been proven to develop in the early stages of life and then be relatively stable across time Vecchione et al. As noted by Sagiv and Roccas , p.
Certainly, the fact that a job is autonomous is also, to some extent, determined by other factors, such as the nature of the job itself e. Below, we formulate hypotheses related to each of the four higher-order values. Schwartz states that self-direction is based on the organismic needs for, on the one hand, control and mastery and, on the other hand, requirements of autonomy and independence Schwartz, Stimulation is described as being focused on novelty, challenge, and excitement.
This value type is derived from a need for stimulation and variety to maintain an optimal level of activation Schwartz, These theoretical assumptions concerning self-direction and stimulation, which constitute the openness to change values, suppose that these values are particularly conducive to job autonomy in employees. Sagiv and Schwartz argued that among career counseling clients, self-direction is relevant to initiating actions, self-reliance, and independence of thought in making career decisions.
Indeed, their findings confirmed that the priority clients gave to self-direction was positively correlated with their independent behavior, as assessed by career counselors. There is also some evidence concerning the role of personal values in professional choice. A stronger emphasis on openness to change values predicts artistic and investigative careers Sagiv, ; Knafo and Sagiv, and entrepreneurial career intentions Gorgievski et al.
Based on these theoretical and empirical premises, we expect that the importance that employees attribute to openness to change values is positively related to their work autonomy. Hypothesis 2a. Conservation values, which include the values of conformity, security, and tradition, are in conflict with openness to change.
Conformity values are focused on self-restraint, including self-restraint of actions, impulses, and inclinations, which are reflected in everyday interactions with close others Schwartz, Valuing security motivates the maintenance of harmony, stability, and safety of the self and relationships with others and society. The tradition value emphasizes the respect and acceptance of imposed traditional ideas and customs.
Together, the conservation values encourage status quo maintenance, resistance to change and self-restriction to avoid violating social norms Schwartz, a. These characteristics do not seem to be conducive to pursuing autonomy in the workplace. Moreover, an emphasis on conservation values predisposes individuals to engage in rather conventional professions, such as accountants, administrative managers, or receptionists, and to hold vocational interests that demand following well-defined instructions and rules, systematic operations, and obeying norms Sagiv, ; Knafo and Sagiv, Therefore, we developed the following hypothesis.
Hypothesis 2b. The higher-order value of self-enhancement includes power and achievement Schwartz, Power is focused on attaining prestige, social status, dominant position, and control over people and resources. The value of achievement is concentrated on personal success, which can be attained through competence demonstration. The theoretical assumption is that employees who attribute high importance to self-enhancement values will strive to have more autonomy in their workplaces.
Feeling autonomous and independent at work seems to be crucial to attaining dominance and control over other co-workers and to developing self-interest goals. Thus, the motivational goals of self-enhancement can be attained. A highly autonomous job is more challenging and creates feelings of personal responsibility and control of outcomes at work Hackman and Oldham, ; Sousa et al. Mumford argued that power and achievement are strong motives for people who tend to be independent.
Hypothesis 2c. The higher-order value of self-transcendence encompasses universalism and benevolence. Universalism is focused on the welfare of all people, as well as nature Schwartz, The motivational goal of benevolence involves concern for people who are relatively close, and this concern is expressed in everyday interactions.
As previously stated, self-transcendence is the most abstract higher-order value, and it has been argued that it is not as strongly related to work context as other values Sousa et al. Nevertheless, there is some empirical evidence concerning the effects of the self-transcendence values on work-related issues. These values were found to be positively related to altruistic and pro-social behaviors at work, in contrast to the self-enhancement values Sosik et al. Moreover, in a study that used social dilemma games, Sagiv et al.
However, there is no empirical evidence on the relationship between self-transcendence and work autonomy. Based on theoretical assumptions, we can expect that striving for autonomy is not highly important to employees who emphasize self-transcendence. Instead, these employees are likely focused on cooperating with co-workers, showing their concern for others and being tolerant of all people.
Job autonomy is known to be an important contextual antecedent of creativity and innovation Amabile et al. In the meta-analysis conducted by Hammond et al. Having freedom in performing their work, employees are able to find and develop working methods that fit them optimally De Spiegelaere et al. Accordingly, Dierdorff and Morgeson , p. A number of studies have confirmed that autonomy is positively related to creativity and innovation. In line with job characteristics theory Hackman and Oldham, , and the self-determination theory Deci et al.
Hypothesis 3. Although personal values have been examined as predictors of creativity and innovation in several studies Dollinger et al. For example, in a study conducted by Choi , there was no confirmation of the mechanism proposing that innovative organizational culture is related to innovation-use behavior through innovative values. Therefore, it is necessary to seek other mechanisms explaining individual innovation.
It should be mentioned that some previous studies have treated job autonomy as a moderator, rather than a mediator, of relationships between personal values and work outcomes e. However, we propose to go beyond this pattern and verify whether job autonomy can play a mediating role. Hypothesis 4. Private sector employees who worked in micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises operating in Poland that employ 1— employees were invited to participate in the study. Employees working for larger companies or corporations and in the public sector were not asked to participate, as their work may be regulated by stricter company rules Frant, The data were gathered through direct contact with the participants using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire.
Participation in the study was voluntary, and the participants did not receive any reward. Confidentiality and anonymity were ensured. A total of employees including women participated in this study. Concerning work contracts, Concerning education, The participants represented seven types of occupations classified according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO, : professionals The measure is not cognitively challenging and is appropriate even for people with little or no formal schooling Cieciuch, ; Roccas et al.
The measure includes 21 statements that provide a verbal portrait of different people i. Sample items include the following: Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him. He likes to do things in his own original way ; It is important to him to show his abilities.
He wants people to admire what he does. Particular items reflect basic types of values, which can be structured into four higher-order values, namely openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence. Because hedonism is a component of both self-enhancement and openness to change values Schwartz, a , we decided to exclude it from all further analyses, following previous research e.
Schwartz a claims that people can differ in their tendencies to respond to value measures when using the response scale e. Therefore, in most statistical analyses, it is critical to control for such individual differences Schwartz, b. Such relatively low reliability results are typical for this measure because of the structure of the questionnaire i. Therefore, the reliability results should not be treated as a measurement weakness nor should they be considered problematic for the research results.
When assessing the model fit, CFI values higher than 0. According to previous recommendations Cieciuch and Davidov, , a one-factor model was tested separately for each of four higher-order values. The autonomy experienced by employees at work was measured with four items of the autonomy scale from the Work Design Questionnaire Morgeson and Humphrey, Each item of the scale is a statement e.
The questionnaire includes six items e. In the present study, the scale reliability was 0. The first step was to examine whether the data suffered from the common method variance problem. This technique is currently considered to be the most effective and simplest method of testing common method variance Fuller et al.
It can be applied by conducting exploratory factor analysis Razmus and Mielniczuk, In the next step, descriptive statistics and correlations between study variables were analyzed. Previous studies have suggested that creativity and innovative behavior can be affected by sex and age Slagter, ; Alsos et al. Therefore, we conducted a hierarchical multivariate regression analysis to test whether there were statistically significant effects of sex and age on innovative behavior and, consequently, whether it was necessary to control for these variables in further analyses.
The fundamental part of the data analysis was testing the postulated hypotheses. The use of this macro allows the estimation of an indirect effect by using a bootstrapping technique. Bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping with 5, repetitions 5, samples randomly generated from the whole sample was applied in the present analyses.
In terms of interpreting the results, if the confidence interval does not include zero, it indicates a statistically significant mediation indirect effect. All items of all measures used in the study were loaded into an exploratory factor analysis. An unrotated solution was used.
The results showed that a single factor that accounted for most of the covariance among measures did not appear. A three-factor solution was obtained, and the first factor explained Therefore, it was not necessary to control for common method variance in further analyses. Openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence were centered. A hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was applied to test whether there was a statistically significant effect of sex and age on innovative behavior.
Therefore, these two variables were entered into the model as predictors explaining innovative behavior. Thus, we did not control for these variables in further analyses. All direct and indirect effects were estimated based on these bootstrapped samples. First, direct effects were examined to verify hypotheses H1a—H1c.
The analysis showed that two of the four higher-order values were related to innovative behavior. Therefore, hypothesis H1a is rejected. Self-enhancement values were also revealed to be directly related to innovative behavior. Thus, hypothesis H1c is supported. This result indicates that hypothesis H2c is supported. Therefore, we can conclude that there is a significant negative relationship between self-transcendence values and job autonomy in employees.
Next, indirect bootstrapped effects were analyzed to verify hypotheses H4a—H4d. Hypothesis H4a postulated that the relationship between openness to change values and innovative behavior is mediated by job autonomy. Therefore, hypothesis H4a is not accepted. Thus, this result indicates that hypothesis H4d is also confirmed. In summary, three of the four specific mediation hypotheses are supported.
We can conclude that job autonomy is a significant mediator of the relationships between personal values i. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between personal values, job autonomy, and innovative behavior of employees.
We also expected that job autonomy mediates the relationships between values and innovative behavior. The study results confirmed most of our expectations. As expected, employees who attributed high importance to conservation values, which involve maintaining the status quo and being resistant to change, are less willing to behave innovatively at work.
This result is also consistent with previous research demonstrating negative relationships between conservation values and creativity Rice, ; Dollinger et al. We postulated that being innovative can help to attain personal success and achieve a dominant position among other co-workers, which are the central goals of self-enhancement values Schwartz, Nevertheless, our results are contradictory to those found by Dollinger et al.
However, in their study, creativity was measured by applying methods, such as drawing creative products, developing creative stories or photo essays, which focused on the artistic aspect of creativity of university students. Therefore, the research context of this previous study differs substantially from that in the present study, in which the sample consisted of employees, and aims to investigate not creativity but innovative behavior, which is strongly grounded in the work context.
This result aligns with the notion suggested by Sousa et al. However, Arieli and Tenne-Gazit recently proposed that universalism can be related to creativity and innovation, and other research findings showed that prosocial motivation may encourage idea development in employees Grant and Berry, Therefore, more research concerning this issue is needed. Future research should particularly test such relationships among employees and explain not only idea generation creativity but also idea implementation innovative behavior.
It may also be valuable for future research to take into account prosocial motivation and include the context of social relationships in organizations. Job autonomy was found to be predicted by all four higher-order values. As we expected, employees who attribute high importance to openness to change values self-direction and stimulation experience more autonomy in their work. Our results confirmed that such motivation in employees is accompanied by striving for more autonomy in their workplace.
Similarly, when employees value highly self-enhancement power and achievement , they also experience more autonomy in their work. This result corresponds with the theory of basic human values because people who attribute high importance to self-enhancement values aim to attain success, prestige, and a dominant position over other people and demonstrate competence Schwartz, These goals seem to be impossible to attain without having a substantial level of autonomy at work.
This result also aligns with the results obtained by Sagiv and Schwartz , who demonstrated that career counseling clients who attributed high importance to conformity values behaved less independently during the counseling process. In sum, people who attribute high importance to conservation values conformity, security and tradition , which focus on maintaining the status quo, self-restriction, and resistance to change, are not strongly predisposed to strive for job autonomy because it is potentially disturbing to established social organizational norms.
It seems that people for whom these values are of great importance are not as focused on themselves but instead care about other people and the environment Schwartz, They are more concentrated on pro-social and altruistic behaviors at work Sosik et al. The results seem to support the argument that jobs may be proactively redesigned by employees to be more convergent with their preferences and characteristics, such as their personal values Wrzesniewski and Dutton, ; Berg et al.
Nonetheless, it should be noted that, according to the traditional approach to job design Hackman and Oldham, , , employee job autonomy is usually treated as a rather objective job characteristic, which depends on the nature of the job itself and on supervisors Park and Jang, Thus, job autonomy is often considered to be a contextual moderator in explaining organizational phenomena e. Therefore, the level of job autonomy does not depend on the occupation type. This result supports our approach and suggests that the fact that different people have different levels of job autonomy may be a result of their own efforts; some people are motivated to strive for job autonomy because it is congruent with their personal values , whereas others are not when their values do not foster being autonomous.
This notion is in line with job crafting theory, which emphasizes that employees are proactive crafters of their work environment — their role is not reduced to working under the conditions imposed by their managers, as they can also actively shape their jobs to make them better fit their expectations and preferences Wrzesniewski and Dutton, ; Berg et al.
Motivational goals of openness to change i. Indeed, previous research findings have shown that there are positive relationships between openness to change values and creativity Rice, ; Dollinger et al. However, in the present study, the relationship between openness to change and innovative behavior was not statistically significant.
We consider several potential reasons for this result. First, some previous studies that found a positive association between openness to change values and creativity were conducted with student samples Dollinger et al. However, although creativity and innovative behavior are similar constructs, they are not equivalent Anderson et al. Innovative behavior includes not only idea generation but also seeking support for the idea and its implementation Scott and Bruce, ; Amabile, ; West, ; Anderson et al.
This again raises the issue of social relationships between managers and employees as well as among employees, which may be considered in future studies. The present study aimed to explain the mechanism through which the personal values of employees relate to their innovative behavior.
Our results revealed that job autonomy was a significant mediator of the relationships between three among four higher-order values conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence and innovative behavior. The relationship between openness to change and innovative behavior was not mediated by job autonomy.
Future research is needed to find other mechanisms through which such a relationship may occur. The mediation analysis results generally support our postulations that personal values not only motivate the pursuit of job autonomy but also are indirectly associated with innovative behavior. In addition, our study supports other findings indicating that job autonomy predicts innovative behavior Axtell et al.
When testing the mediation mechanism, we should remember that the present study is cross-sectional, and thus, no causal conclusions can be drawn, which constitute a limitation of this study. Nevertheless, as personal values develop in childhood Vecchione et al. In the current study, we concentrated on the role of job autonomy as a central motivational work characteristic Morgeson and Humphrey, Therefore, future studies should investigate the role of other job characteristics in relation to personal values and in stimulating innovative behavior in organizations.
Another limitation that should be addressed is that we used self-reports to measure study variables. Self-report measures seem to be the most appropriate solution to assess personal values because values are subjective motivational goals Roccas et al. Thus, self-report measures seem to be the best solution to capture perceived job autonomy. Innovative behavior was subjectively rated by employees as well, which may not reflect their actual behavior, and responses can be biased due to social desirability Zacher et al.
However, it was found that there is a significant positive correlation between the self-ratings of innovative behavior and the objective measure of invention disclosures Scott and Bruce, Some researchers have also argued that employees are a good source of information about their own creativity and innovative performance Organ and Konovsky, ; Janssen, , ; Shalley et al.
Future research should consider such problems, and researchers may use other measures. Our study was performed in a single country, namely Poland. Because cultural differences at the societal level Hofstede, have been considered important with respect to innovation Rosenbusch et al.
The results of the study have some practical implications, which can be useful for managers or human resource specialists. First, it is very important to better understand the predictors of innovative behavior in organizations because innovation is one of the sources of organizational success and competitiveness Woodman et al.
Personal values are relatively stable characteristics Schwartz, , and as such, it is not easy to adapt them to specific situations. Employing and retaining employees with high levels of self-enhancement values may increase the innovativeness of an organization. Despite some limitations, our study offers valuable empirical evidence that allows for theory development.
Namely, our results show that personal values can stimulate innovative behavior in the workplace. In addition, the present study investigated not only the direct relationships between personal values and innovative behavior but also the mediation mechanism. Thus, we attempted to respond to the call to reveal the mechanisms through which innovation can be driven, which was recently emphasized in the innovation literature Hammond et al.
Moreover, we also addressed suggestions that personal values, as well as contextual factors, can explain behavior Sousa et al. Therefore, applying a personal values perspective to examine antecedents of job autonomy brings new insights to both basic human values theory and job design theory.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. Participation in the study was voluntary and the participants did not receive any reward. Respondents were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires. They were able to withdraw from the study at each moment. The confidentiality and anonymity were ensured. EP and ML were involved in formulating the research question, designing the study, writing the article, and drafting and approving the final manuscript.
EP was responsible for collecting and analyzing the data. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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