social media in the uk ma dissertation

how to show current employment on resume

The Memory Stick memory card or MS card is a removable digital data storage device. It offers a maximum storage of 32 GB SinceSony has gradually abandoned its card format. There are three main categories of Memory Stick:. There are several generations of Memory Stick:. We will write for you an essay on any given topic for 3 hours. Examples of non-volatile memory technology are Read Only Memory ROMflash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices such as hard disks, floppy disks and magnetic tape.

Social media in the uk ma dissertation harvard entrance essay question

Social media in the uk ma dissertation

These applications are being tested in the Internet TV and in the nearfuture have a good chance to redefine TV experience completely. All theses changes open newopportunities for integrated marketing campaigns, where marketers are enabled to reach largeraudiences of consumers at all their touch points with mediated world at one-stop shop.

Hoegg Hoegg et al, suggests that various kinds of web 2. Therefore, it is important to analyze each Web 2. Constantinidesand Fountain states that it is the most know and fastest-growing category of Web 2. Furthermore, The most recent Technorati research confirms this phenomenon as theytracked blogs in 81 languages from 66 countries around the world, it suggest that blogging havemade a major influence on media ecosystem as bloggers are collectively creating almost onemillion posts every day and have representation in all top web site lists across all keycategories.

They increase peoples ability to share ideas and information exponentiallv, and on a worldwide scale. Accenture says blogs are an interactive website that allows the owner to publish ideas and information. Users can read and evaluate material and add new content, creating a conversation that spans lime zones and continents. The firm further describes blogs as a fluid, dynamic medium, more akin to a "conversation" than to a library. Harvard Law School weighs in with a definition of blogs as a hierarchy of text, images, media objects, and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser.

The center of the hierarchy is a sequence of weblog posts each with a title, link, and description. The schools Internet policy slates that a weblog gives one a publication where ideas can stand without interference. Theses are the main qualities of the blogsthat differentiate them from personal websites. There are hundreds of different type of blogs, butbloggers, in general, are divided in three broadsegments — personal, professional and corporate Figure 2. Types of Bloggers Techonrati, Huang Huang al.

Hardlyreachable segments of the market become easy to reach and target with the help of social mediaand blogging. They open doors to untapped markets which could be quite profitable for thecompanies if approached correctly. The responsiveness of the medium blogs is another keybenefit for the marketers. Blogging provides great opportunities for the companies to converse Joshua L. Cox Cox, et al. Have a consistent and authentic first-person voice. Allow comments but monitor them.

Be honest and transparent. Add value. Identify information sources. Welcome feedback and issue corrections. Respect your audience. Even more exiting opportunities for marketing professionals derive from externalcommunications via blogs, as blogs can help the organization to develop and maintain strongerrelationships and brand loyalty with its customers, generate consumer insights.

The companies have to learn the lesson of Dell and Cox Cox et al. Be aware. Corporate managers should find and monitor influential blogs related to their companies and industries. Establish relationships with independent bloggers when possible. Respond quickly and appropriately. The internet guru Seth Godin remarked that good blogs work when they are based on:candor, urgency, timeliness, pithiness, controversy and utility.

Furthermore, Huang Huang al. Source: Huang Huang al. Twitter, Plurk and other companies provide the technology The key difference and importance ofthis medium for marketers is — speed. The biggest names of the blogosphere Godin, ;Armano, , suggested that micro-blogging is a new phenomenon and should be carefullymonitored in order to be used as a successful marketing tool.

The article by Mossberg inWall Street Journal suggests that Twitter can be a great resource for fast information. The Razorfish report suggested that with time-shifting, information overload permanent connectivity and theproliferation of communication channels, consumers are moving towards shorter micro-interactions provided by Twitter and similar applications. According to McCann report there are estimated m users world-wide,from whom over 10 millions are using social networks in the UK.

Wikipedia - A social network service focuses on the building and verification of online social networks forcommunities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests andactivities of others. It provides various ways for users to interact - chat, messaging, email, video, file sharing,blogging and discussion groups.

Content posted on social networkSource: McCann It becomes quite feasible as some of the platforms opens up to the third parties developers inorder to keep the users on the one site. The social networks like www. Moreover, the features of social networks present an opportunity to create brandcommunities and interact with them online.

Stroud Create company or brand-specific sites. Provide content to generic sites. Advertise on the generic sites. Even though, Stroud suggests that the final alternative is to do nothing which may be themost appropriate strategy, but should only be used following a careful evaluation of thealternatives. There are general tools offered by social networks to make every encounter more interactive.

Moreover, the companies have to be careful since social networks can also be a source ofdamaging publicity Economist, b , but it is another reason for the organization to have thepresence in social networks as it gives a chance to influence such activities. Content CommunitiesWebsites organizing and sharing particular types of content are called content communities.

These communities most of the time has all social networking features, but are developed toshare a particular type of content Constantinides and Fountain, : Video sharing: www. According to McCann these sites are one of the most visited sites on the Internetattracting millions of user all around the world estimated m world wide. From 15m activeusers within the UK, 8.

The contentcommunities as other Web 2. According to Hoegg Hoegg et al, the intrinsic value of Web 2. Source: Hoegg Hoegg et al, Even though, the content communities attract large volumes of users, marketers have beenstruggling to find the needed tools to monetize these networks.

Viral marketing concepts hasbeen successfully adopted on this type of Web 2. According to Razorfish advertising can be a road to riches for some contentcommunities, but in general it is not a very powerful tool and community builders are going tohave to find other ways to get a return out of their social investment. McCann report suggests that RSS Really Simple Syndication is a key technology in social media as it connects users to contentand moves content into a variety of platforms.

Consumers prefer using multiple destinations, andthen aggregating media and services, via simple tools like RSS, into a highly personalized viewof their digital world Razorfish, The applications or websites based on these technologieshad a major effect on social web development.

It may seem like a trivial piece of functionality Widgets and applications had a huge influence on social web growth too. According to Razorfishreport widgets provide the purest glimpse into the new, improved networked future wherepeople will select, personalize, share and consume Web services wherever and whenever theychoose. McCann suggests that widgets and applications should be used to create agenuine consumer benefit and drive engagement.

With 4,7m users in the UK McCann, content aggregators and widgets still lack theneeded awareness about their functionality and possible opportunities provided by them. Forums, bulleting boards and reviewsThe sites for exchanging ideas and information usually around special interests are anothergrowing phenomenon on the internet Constantinides and Fountain, Comparison, review,ranking and other opinion spreading sites are infused by Web 2.

The editorial reviews of Web 1. The sites like www. The Web2. Carefully developed social strategy couldaffect the talks about their brands and services. Finding and influencing the opinion leaders on suchnetworks could be a key objective in communicationstrategy. For the past 18 years the active discussions have taken place in marketing literatureanalyzing the relationship of postmodern marketing, semantic web, interactivity, tribes andchanging consumer behavior Raaij, ; Flart et al, ; Cova ; Constantinedes, ;Simmons, , but only today the discussed thoughts embrace their real meaning.

The massacceptance of the Web as social medium is the biggest recent change in internet behavior whichallows the postmodern marketing concepts to flourish Razorfish, These changes inpostmodern marketing era are mostly driven by the new consumers. Digital natives, Millennials,Generation Y it just a few names often met in marketing literature, describing the new generationof tech-savvy, success driven, self-confident, independent but community-minded people Deloitte, According to Tapscott , that it is the first global generation ever which issmarter, quicker and more tolerant of diversity than their predecessors.

Millennials neverexperienced life without computers and are just a click away from the world any minute. Thereverse accumulation of knowledge is typical for them - the younger they are, the more theyknow Deloitte, Tapscott identifies eight norms that define Net Geners: They value freedom and choice in everything they do.

They love to customise and personalise. They scrutinise everything. They demand integrity and openness, including when deciding what to buy and where to work. They want entertainment and play in their work and education, as well as their social life. They love to collaborate. They expect everything to happen fast. They expect constant innovation. Moreover, Deloitte suggest that Generation Y is impatient, needs the flexibility and spaceto explore, wants to produce something worthwhile and seeks to make a difference in order to berewarded with a respect.

Asboth of these consumer groups are very important for marketers they could be grouped under oneterm of - Web 2. Source: Trendbureo The changing needs affects buying behavior what makes it difficult for marketers to target theconsumer, especially when the new consumer takes the initiative for transactions, at the placeand time they want, what has considerable consequences for the distribution of goods andservices Raaij, Easily satisfied psychological and safety needs moves the postmodernconsumer onto the search for social and self-actualizing experiences.

The consumption becomesa way for individuals to creatively appropriate and construct self-images that allow them tobecome more desirable or likeable in various social contexts Dawes and Brown, ;Goulding, Constantinides and Fountain argues that in social web era consumerpreferences and decisions are based on new inputs provided by parties beyond the control ofonline marketers: peer reviews, referrals, blogs, tagging, social networks, online forums andother forms of user-generated content uncontrollable by the marketers.

These content creatingpeople are keen in building online communities, in order to satisfy their social, self-esteem andself-actualization needs. According to Kim cited in Bowman and Willis, thehierarchy of needs differ between offline and online communities Figure 2.

From the marketers perspective it is very importantto consider tribal relationships as it may be a powerful tool in building loyalty and trust amongthe consumers. Even though neo-tribes and brand communities are two different concepts theyshare very similar features and often are very related to each other.

According to Cova and Cova the main differences are that the brand communities are explicitly commercial whereastribes are not, furthermore, brand communities are concerned about relationship between brandand consumer, whereas tribes — relationship between consumers. Mairinger suggests that: The brand community is not just formed around a brand; it creates the brand.

The brand community is not just formed around a product; it is part of the product. Therefore, the creation and development of brand communities is one of the most importanttasks of the marketer as it can guarantee the company success in the long term. According toMairinger brand communities can add real experiences and emotion to the brand, reachthe long tail, address both individualism and collectivity needs and replace the celebrityendorsers with community brand advocates. Communication processChanging consumers requires different communication approach from marketers.

According toTapscott Web 2. This media literacy evolved into digital media literacy and let the audience to manage and selecttheir own exposure to marketing messages Meadows-Klue, Therefore, a power shift canbe observed from the sender advertiser to the receiver consumer where communicationobtains a service-oriented experience creating rather than a persuasive role Raaij, Flrat Flrat et al.

Therefore, marketing has to include the consumer not as a targetfor products but as producer of experience. Creating and sharing positive experiencesbecomes more important than just sending simple messages to the consumer. Constantinidesand Fountain argues that changing communications has to consider the new factorsinfluencing the decision making process of the consumer online uncontrollable marketingfactors Figure 2.

Lawer and Knox identifies the Figure 2. The new drivers of value. Source: Lawer and Knox Moreover, as the lines between consumers and producers disappear the value is gainedtrough completely different experiences where consumer becomes a producer — prosumer. Creativity and co-creation engages consumer, especially when it happens in neo-tribes or brandcommunities where the consumer can share the experience with others.

As a result, the serviceor product itself can be modified in order to enable the consumer to take a part in co-creationprocess and guarantee a positive word of mouth for the company. Lawer proposes eightstyles of company-consumer value co-creation Appendix 7. Hoegg Hoegg et al.

Chapter 3: Procedures and Methodology 3. Moreover, the scientific studies are basedon deductive logic and focused on testing theories and then arriving to the new knowledge ratherthan creating the knowledge in the process of the research inductive. It could be viewed as knowledge verifying study and an extension of similar researches done inthe USA market.

Even though it is considered to be scientific research there are someappearances of ethnographic inductive logic. Maylor and Blackmon suggests that sometimes when there is scarcity of data it may be an acceptable to use two research approaches inone study. Sometimes it may not be possible to develop any hypothesis at all, if it is beinginvestigated for the first time as there are no previous data is available Bhojanna, Therefore in this study, because the research subject is relatively new, the literature review wasdedicated not to generate hypothesis, but to build-up the theory itself and to prove that inchanging media landscape there are new marketing communication tools and channels requiringgreater consideration and that chosen hypothesis are valid.

Furthermore, the findings in theliterature review were adopted in data analysis. The main reason why the scientific paradigm for this study has been chosen is its cooperationwith quantitative methods of the research. The quantitative research strategies are used to count There is adebate going on whether qualitative or quantitative research is better, but according to Maylorand Blackmon both qualitative and quantitative research have their advantages anddisadvantages and are used for different purposes.

The success of the quantitative study is based on the validity of the data and statisticalsignificance of the results that could be generalized. Therefore, appropriate data had to becollected and processed. According to Maylor and Blackmon a suitable way to verify theresearch hypotheses and capture opinions, behaviors, attitudes and facts is doing a survey. In aresult, according to sample size and time frame the self-administrated online questionnairemethod was chosen for conducting the survey.

Figure 3. Research procedure in Grants chart. There are two types of data: primary data collected in theprocess of the study by the researcher; and secondary data — which have been already collectedand analyzed by others Ghauri et al, Both sources of data should be used to achieveefficiency and effective research objective. The secondary data provides an ability to save timeand money, therefore it has to be analyzes first before the collection of the new material.

The In order to answer the research questions the primary and secondary data were used in this study. First of all, to discuss the reasoning behind the hypothesis literature review was performed whichanalyzed secondary data. Because of the scarcity of data in the academic literature some of the most valuableinformation was gained through the community of marketing bloggers and research reports byindividual companies.

The academic articles and research papers, books, published case studies,academic and industrial magazines or solitary articles where used to generate a broader view onthe subject. In order to answer the main research question and to test the hypothesis proposed in theintroduction the primary data was collected through the web survey self-administratedquestionnaire were used. It enabled researcher to apply statistical analysis methods for thestudy.

Maylorand Blackmon suggest that in order to gather appropriate data with a questionnaire, thedesign and planning are the vital parts. In order to produce a reliable questionnaire and minimizebiases in the research, the designer has to consider three areas main issues: the wording of thequestions, the appropriate categorization of variables and the general appearance of thequestionnaire Sekaran, ; Appnedix 3. Therefore the wording of the questionnaire wasconstructed considering the similar consumer surveys in the US market Cone, , Technorati,, Razorfish, , Forecaster, The simple commonly used expressions and termswere used in order not to confuse respondents.

The general appearance of the questionnaire wasselected from pre-designed themes for thesis type surveys suggested by the web portal providingthe surveying services Surveygizmo. In this research, the Questionnaire consisted of 4 sections. The questions in the first section Q were designed to gather general socio-demographic data about the respondents.

The secondsection of the questionnaire was determined to define the general consumers profile in theUK. The third section of the of the questionnaire Q was designed to test the Consumer -Web 2. The fourth section of the questionnaire was aimedat comparison of social media and traditional media Q In order to gather necessary datadifferent types of questions were chosen. The closed-ended question was mostly used in thisresearch in order to gather defined answers.

Even though, in some questions the combination ofclosed-ended and open-ended question were used in order to leave a possibility for respondentsto identify additional concerns. Moreover, Likert scale questions were used to test somecommonly known statements about the social media and gather the data about consumersattitudes and behaviors.

Malholtra suggests the five steps for sampling design: define the target population, determine the sampling frame, select the sampling frame, determine the sample size execute the sampling process. The target population was chosen considering the objectives of this research.

As a result, onlythe people who have ever used Social Media properties were considered as possible respondents. Moreover, due to limited data about the total number of social media users in the UK, and shorttime frame and the budget, only the Londoners were considered for the research.

The biggestsocial networking website Facebook. It created the sample frame as Facebook does not represent allsocial media users in the UK, even though, according to the Hitwise Facebook. According to Facebook. This sample frame was used to definethe sample size needed to collect appropriate and valid data for the research. According toMaylor and Blackmon if there is an accurate sampling frame and the probability samplingmethods are employed there is a better chance to reduce the sampling error.

Therefore,probability simple random sampling method was applied in this study. Since each research isdistinctive, sample size can be subject to each study unique population, data collection tool andobjectives Malhotra and Birks, In order to represent the target population Web 2.

According to Malhotra and Birks the completion of the pilot study willlead to the identification of problems that are likely to arise with the questionnaire. Moreover,Veal suggests that the purpose of pilot survey is to check the following problems: 1. Questionnaire wording 2. Questionnaire sequencing 3. Questionnaire layout 4. Familiarity with respondents 5. Test fieldwork 6. Train and test fieldworks 7. Estimate response rate 8. Estimate interview e. Time 9. Test analysis procedure Therefore, the Pilot study was preformed a month before the starting date of the real survey.

AsChisnall suggests, the arbitrary size of a pilot survey is often taken at about 10 percent ofthe main survey. As the chosen sample size was people, to the pilot study was sent to 10random respondents on the London Network on Facebook. Nevertheless, two of the respondents have replied the message sent with the surveylink and commented on the survey.

According to theses comments questionnaire was reduced to19 questions from 25 and the wording was adjusted to some of the questions as some of theterms used was unfamiliar for the respondents. Validity: validity is the most critical criterion and indicates the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity can also be thought of as utility. Reliability: reliability means, measuring instrument should provide consistent results, even if it is measured repeatedly.

Practicality: measuring instrument must be economical and easy to use by the researcher. That means, researcher must be able to measure what he intends to measure. ANOVA analysis was used as the main tools to test hypothesis. According to Maylor andBlackmon this type of analysis guarantees the reliability and practicality. The P and Fvalues were used as the main determinants of the significance of the data.

Aftercompletion of the pilot study it was decided to run the survey for 3 weeks period, due toconsidered possibility that some of the respondents might not be checking their accounts ormessages very often. Chapter 4: Data analysis and results 4. The first question was designed in order to find outthe dominating sex on the UK social media properties.

As it seen in the Figure 4. No Are All Lives Valued? Worthy 'Us', Unworthy 'Others'. Dokyum Kim. Media Steffi Lau. No The failure of cosmopolitanism and the reinforcement of hierarchical news: managing the visibility of suffering throughout the Multimodal Analysis of the Charlie Hebdo versus the Baga terrorist attacks Maria Paola Pofi. Shaikha Nurfarah Mattar. No What are You Laughing at?

Ayesha Ahmed. Newspaper Coverage Christina Brown. No 89 Saving Europe online? No 88 Like it? No 87 Understanding representations of low-income Chinese migrant workers through the lens of photojournalists Lee Zhuomin. No 85 Online Freedom? Ray Wang. No 78 The impact of online health information on the doctor-patient relationship. Findings from a qualitative study Susanne Christmann. Xiao Han. No 73 Observers, Witnesses, Victims or Activists? No 72 Global journalism, local realities: Ugandan journalists' views on reporting homosexuality Rachael Borlase.

No 71 Why pay if it's free? Streaming, downloading, and digital music consumption in the "iTunes era" Theodore Giletti. No 63 Against all odds: Evidence for the 'true' cosmopolitan consumer A cross-disciplinary approach to investigating the Cosmopolitan Condition Saskia Scheibel. No 59 From watchdog to lapdog? The impact of government intimidation on the public watchdog performance of peace media in processes of democratisation Michael Spiess. No 56 Mediated Cosmopolitanism?

No 55 Reconceptualising IT? No 49 In the Name of Allah? Alison Jarrett. No 46 Fleeting Racialisation? No 43 guardian. No 42 Freedom or intervention: What is the role of the regulator in achieving competitive pay-TV markets? Yi Shen Chan. No 41 The united states of unscreened cinema: The political economy of the self-distribution of cinema in the U. Bajir Cannon. No 40 Constructing the virtual body: Self-representation, self-modification and self-perfection in pro-eating disorder websites Gillian Bolsover.

Justin Schlosberg.

DESIGN BUSINESS PLAN LAYOUT

School of Computing examples. These are good quality reports but they are not perfect. You may be able to identify areas for improvement for example, structure, content, clarity, standard of written English, referencing or presentation quality. The design of a FMCW microwave radar range detector. Fabrication and measurement of two dimensional electron gas and one dimensional electron gas samples.

An exploration of female and male homosocial bonds in D. Lawrence's 'serious English novels'. Prize winning dissertations from the School of History. Perceptions of the use and effectiveness of victim personal statements within West Yorkshire Police. An Exploration of the potential for situational crime prevention to reduce child sexual abuse. Enfored caesareans: foetal rights and legal wrongs — does the reality match the rhetoric?

Protection and autonomy: can women have it all? A comparative study of marriage, civil partnership and cohabitation. Guide to using the sample dissertations and feedback. To what extent is terrorism a social construct? Evaluating the range of agencies involved in the investigation and prosecution of corporate fraud in the UK: is there an alternative to criminal justice? A critical analysis of the perceptions of, and responses to, female child sex offenders. The Dynamics of Accretion Discs.

School of Media and Communication examples of good dissertations. Compare the ways in which the science and practice of eugenics were presented to the British public between and Quantum effects in biology. Raman spectroscopy and its reliability in the study of bone quality and composition.

Solitons: Propagation of solitary waves through blood. Cornwall and England: When is Regionalism Nationalism? Mark 72 The One Health framework and its implementation in global health governance through public-private partnerships Mark An empirical analysis of cooperative creation, survival compared to capitalist firms and survival between different co-op types in the United Kingdom Mark 85 A quantitative analysis of the country level factors influencing female representation in national legislatures of electoral democracies Mark Hydrolysis of phenolic acid esters by esterase enzymes from Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal tissue.

Antoinette's construction of the Self in Wide Sargasso Sea. La Vida Cotidiana del Migrante Ecuatoriano:. A glimpse into the lives of Ecuadorian immigrants in Spain and the United States. The extent to which Japanese soft power is effective in Japan-China relations.

Epidemic Modelling. Ramsey Theory. Skip to main content University links. Close quicklinks. Library Study and research support Academic skills Dissertation examples. Undergraduate examples Taught Masters examples. Institute of Psychological Sciences These dissertations achieved a mark of 80 or higher: An investigation into the relationship between early exposure and brand loyalty The relationship between sustained and divided attentional abilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorder traits Experiences of parents of people with anorexia nervosa: an interpretative phenomenological analysis Autonomous motivation: the key to employee performance and workplace success?

School of Chemical and Process Engineering Electrochemical characterisation of gallium alloys for use as a phospholipid monolayer support Image processing and analysis of porous materials The mechanism of formation of porous calcite composite crystals through thermal decompositio RecA-based patterning of DNA scaffolds School of Computing Projects which attained grades of over 70 or between 60 and 69 are indicated on the lists.

Allowed the huge increase in the volume of communication. Provided the possibility of increasing the speed of communication. Provided opportunities for interactive communication. Allowed forms of communication that was previously separate to overlap and interconnect.

Grieco and Holmes citied in Combe et al, identifies three powerful features ofInternet: 1. Disintermediation or the removal of brokers by allowing direct communication across spatial and sociometric distance; 2. Asynchronicyty of the removal of temporality as a barrier to communications; 3.

Oculacy or the ability to communicate messages through images. According to Hermeking The global spread of modern technology, including informationand communication technology ICT , is commonly regarded both as an indicator of thepostmodern era of globalization and as the very precondition for that era of intensive worldwideinteractions of people and exchanges of goods, services, information, and capital. Hoffman Hoffman et al.

Most of them live in well developed regions as North America whereinternet penetration is as high as Peters suggest that no other technological innovation has captured the imagination of users with thespeed and impact of the Internet Graph 1.

It Thecompanies and consumers quickly adopted the new concept of the new interactive world for theirown benefits. Theconcept of interactivity has been extensively researched in advertising and marketing literatureand was summarized by Johnson Johnson et al, Appendix 1. Lee summarizedthe main components of online interactivity Table 1. Table 1. Source: Lee Commercial online services and the introduction of the Web have created the potential for amass interactive dialogue between exchange parties Peters, The world have witnessedthe evolution of a universal interconnected network of audio, video, and electronic textcommunications that blurred the distinction between interpersonal and mass communication andbetween public and private communication Neuman, The new market space changed thebehavior of the people and the communication models.

Chaffey Dave Chaffey et al. Moreover, the Web is changing the traditional marketing communicationsconcepts as the consumers can go all the way from awareness to interest to desire to action AIDA Framework , all within the same medium and within the same session Economist,a. Peters suggests four main changes in communication model compare the new andold media: 1.

Communication style - tend to have little or no time lag between the giving, receiving and responding aspects of communication between the parties. Social presence - or perceived personalness, the feeling that communication exchanges are sociable, warm, personal, sensitive and active. Control of contact - Early research into the willingness of consumers to utilize technology in shopping behavior concludes that the ability to control the pace and presentation of product information has the strongest influence on willingness to engage in computer-mediated marketing activity Carson et al.

Content — The content can be customised either by users or by senders. Where users are able to control the content, or presentation, of the message it is said to be interactive. Andrew L. Shapiro argues that the emergence of new, digital technologies signals ia apotentially radical shift of who is in control of information, experience and resources.

One of thekey features of the new electronic communication media is the ability of consumers to controlboth contact and content Peters, Moreover, according to Normann and Ramirez the consumers become co-producers, because the value isconstantly created in interaction with many different players, including consumers, suppliers,employees and managers. As a result, marketers are losing control over the communicationmessages their trying to deliver to their consumers.

According to Gatarski and Lundkvist when communication, in the meaning of sharinginformation, meets interactivity, it creates not simple massages but forms two-wayconversations. It blurs the line between media and audience. Openness: most social media services are open to feedback and participation. They encourage voting, comments and the sharing of information. There are rarely any barriers to accessing and making use of content — password-protected content is frowned on.

Community: social media allows communities to form quickly and communicate effectively. Communities share common interests, such as a love of photography, a political issue or a favourite TV show. Connectedness: Most kinds of social media thrive on their connectedness, making use of links to other sites, resources and people. Haven suggests that social media key elements are not entirely new as features of sharing,connecting, opining, broadcasting and creating has been long in our lives, but there are severalcharacteristics of new technologies and behaviors that set them apart from the past: Reach — Historically, audiences for the common person have been limited: a tribe, family, friends, neighbors, or the local community.

Todays technologies provide scale and enable anyone to reach a global audience. Accessibility — The means of production for most media used to lie in the hands of enterprises with unlimited resources financial or human. Todays technologies for media creation are available to anyone at little or no cost. Usability — The means of production typically required specialized skills and training, both technically and creatively.

Todays technologies simplify those processes, or in some cases reinvent them, so anyone can create and operate the means of production. Transparency — People, especially Americans, historically kept personal information to themselves and had a general distrust of authority enterprises, government, etc. Today, people are willing to share anything about themselves interests, location, family situations, health condition, etc.

Recency — When people did have the means of production and distribution in the past albeit limited , the time lag between communications was typically long days, weeks, or even months. It was a limitation of the technology or system in which it operated. Todays technologies enable instantaneous responses and dialog where only the participant determines the delay in response.

The interactivity gains a new meaning when it is applied through Web 2. Most of the marketing academics Kotler,; Pettit and Brassington, recognized the importance of creating two-way marketingchannels between consumer and company for brand building, CRM, sales and etc. Socialmedia, itself, does not change this idea, but redefines interactivity and takes it to another level.

Armano a argues that social media goes beyond the interactive marketing which isfacilitated by computer-human interaction, and introduces human-to-human interaction enabledby technology Appendix 2. The main difference is that the companies instead of pushing thecontent i. Free production of content and voluntary distribution is the key elementsof the social media.

Meadows-Klue suggests that in social media marketing engagementreplaces interruption; diversity and self-expression replace conformism and unity; the media ofthe masses replace mass media; granular insights and rich data replaces generalization andconversations in marketing replace control. Another major change from the marketing perspective is the shift from persuasion to influence.

Source: Bowman and Willis The User Generated Content UGC can become influential message of the consumer to theconsumer C2C about the company and therefore should be carefully monitored. In fact, thecontent is the new message in social media channels. According to Eikelmann Eikelmann et al, the best marketers can do in this environment is to try to engage with the consumersthrough social media in order influence these messages.

Drury suggests that instead ofsending simple messages, marketers should provide the content which would be relevant forconsumers and would generate conversations among them. Therefore, influence will become astandard measurement in Marketing 2. Welcome to the age of influence. These strategies have to consider the increasing fragmentation in the markets Meadows-Klue, Micro InteractionsSource: David Armano b Micro strategies are more valuable in fragmented media environment, as they generate moreprecise consumer insight and as a result are better targeted.

According to Godin unconventional marketing principals are effective because it considers the needs and wants of thepeople and listens to them. Therefore it aims to build a more in-depth and lasting customerrelationship based on loyalty and trust Masterson, Viral and Word of Mouth marketing principals are the essentials in social media. This mediumprovides a platform for Web 2. According to Lockhorn word of mouthcampaigns can take off very quietly through niche communities and can be powerfullypersuasive, or conversely result in an astonishing backlash.

It should be closely monitored bymarketers as various researches RazorFish, ; Internet Consumption Report, shows From the marketing perspective, the Web2. The Web 2. Constantinides and Fountain defined Web 2. Web 2. Both definitions share similar concepts of maximizing the collective intelligence, self-regulatingcommunity, network effect, transparency of the information creation and sharing process, but thekey element in these terms is the user.

From technological perspective, there are not manychanges in the Web 2. According to Constantinides and Fountain , the key innovative elements typifying this new family ofweb applications can be summarized as three main principles: 1. Focus on simple, service-based open-source solutions in the form of online applications. New service-based business models and new opportunities for reaching small individual customers with low-volume products.

As Web 2. Hoegg Hoegg et al, groups web 2. Blogs are often combined with Podcasts, that is, digital audio or video that can be streamed or downloaded to portable devices. Social networks: applications allowing users to build personal websites accessible to other users for exchange of personal content and communication. Content Communities: Websites organising and sharing particular types of content.

Content aggregators: applications allowing users to fully customise the web content they wish to access. Therefore it is difficult to classify the Web 2. The mixture of Web 2. But even more important feature of Web2. Social applications are becomingmore and more popular on mobile devices Phones, iPods via podcasts. As more and more professionally edited websites incorporates social media content somecompanies i. Joost are trying to apply Web 2.

These applications are being tested in the Internet TV and in the nearfuture have a good chance to redefine TV experience completely. All theses changes open newopportunities for integrated marketing campaigns, where marketers are enabled to reach largeraudiences of consumers at all their touch points with mediated world at one-stop shop.

Hoegg Hoegg et al, suggests that various kinds of web 2. Therefore, it is important to analyze each Web 2. Constantinidesand Fountain states that it is the most know and fastest-growing category of Web 2. Furthermore, The most recent Technorati research confirms this phenomenon as theytracked blogs in 81 languages from 66 countries around the world, it suggest that blogging havemade a major influence on media ecosystem as bloggers are collectively creating almost onemillion posts every day and have representation in all top web site lists across all keycategories.

They increase peoples ability to share ideas and information exponentiallv, and on a worldwide scale. Accenture says blogs are an interactive website that allows the owner to publish ideas and information. Users can read and evaluate material and add new content, creating a conversation that spans lime zones and continents.

The firm further describes blogs as a fluid, dynamic medium, more akin to a "conversation" than to a library. Harvard Law School weighs in with a definition of blogs as a hierarchy of text, images, media objects, and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser. The center of the hierarchy is a sequence of weblog posts each with a title, link, and description. The schools Internet policy slates that a weblog gives one a publication where ideas can stand without interference.

Theses are the main qualities of the blogsthat differentiate them from personal websites. There are hundreds of different type of blogs, butbloggers, in general, are divided in three broadsegments — personal, professional and corporate Figure 2. Types of Bloggers Techonrati, Huang Huang al. Hardlyreachable segments of the market become easy to reach and target with the help of social mediaand blogging. They open doors to untapped markets which could be quite profitable for thecompanies if approached correctly.

The responsiveness of the medium blogs is another keybenefit for the marketers. Blogging provides great opportunities for the companies to converse Joshua L. Cox Cox, et al. Have a consistent and authentic first-person voice. Allow comments but monitor them. Be honest and transparent. Add value. Identify information sources. Welcome feedback and issue corrections. Respect your audience. Even more exiting opportunities for marketing professionals derive from externalcommunications via blogs, as blogs can help the organization to develop and maintain strongerrelationships and brand loyalty with its customers, generate consumer insights.

The companies have to learn the lesson of Dell and Cox Cox et al. Be aware. Corporate managers should find and monitor influential blogs related to their companies and industries. Establish relationships with independent bloggers when possible. Respond quickly and appropriately. The internet guru Seth Godin remarked that good blogs work when they are based on:candor, urgency, timeliness, pithiness, controversy and utility. Furthermore, Huang Huang al.

Source: Huang Huang al. Twitter, Plurk and other companies provide the technology The key difference and importance ofthis medium for marketers is — speed. The biggest names of the blogosphere Godin, ;Armano, , suggested that micro-blogging is a new phenomenon and should be carefullymonitored in order to be used as a successful marketing tool. The article by Mossberg inWall Street Journal suggests that Twitter can be a great resource for fast information.

The Razorfish report suggested that with time-shifting, information overload permanent connectivity and theproliferation of communication channels, consumers are moving towards shorter micro-interactions provided by Twitter and similar applications. According to McCann report there are estimated m users world-wide,from whom over 10 millions are using social networks in the UK.

Wikipedia - A social network service focuses on the building and verification of online social networks forcommunities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests andactivities of others. It provides various ways for users to interact - chat, messaging, email, video, file sharing,blogging and discussion groups.

Content posted on social networkSource: McCann It becomes quite feasible as some of the platforms opens up to the third parties developers inorder to keep the users on the one site. The social networks like www.

Moreover, the features of social networks present an opportunity to create brandcommunities and interact with them online. Stroud Create company or brand-specific sites. Provide content to generic sites. Advertise on the generic sites. Even though, Stroud suggests that the final alternative is to do nothing which may be themost appropriate strategy, but should only be used following a careful evaluation of thealternatives.

There are general tools offered by social networks to make every encounter more interactive. Moreover, the companies have to be careful since social networks can also be a source ofdamaging publicity Economist, b , but it is another reason for the organization to have thepresence in social networks as it gives a chance to influence such activities.

Content CommunitiesWebsites organizing and sharing particular types of content are called content communities. These communities most of the time has all social networking features, but are developed toshare a particular type of content Constantinides and Fountain, : Video sharing: www. According to McCann these sites are one of the most visited sites on the Internetattracting millions of user all around the world estimated m world wide.

From 15m activeusers within the UK, 8. The contentcommunities as other Web 2. According to Hoegg Hoegg et al, the intrinsic value of Web 2. Source: Hoegg Hoegg et al, Even though, the content communities attract large volumes of users, marketers have beenstruggling to find the needed tools to monetize these networks. Viral marketing concepts hasbeen successfully adopted on this type of Web 2. According to Razorfish advertising can be a road to riches for some contentcommunities, but in general it is not a very powerful tool and community builders are going tohave to find other ways to get a return out of their social investment.

McCann report suggests that RSS Really Simple Syndication is a key technology in social media as it connects users to contentand moves content into a variety of platforms. Consumers prefer using multiple destinations, andthen aggregating media and services, via simple tools like RSS, into a highly personalized viewof their digital world Razorfish, The applications or websites based on these technologieshad a major effect on social web development.

It may seem like a trivial piece of functionality Widgets and applications had a huge influence on social web growth too. According to Razorfishreport widgets provide the purest glimpse into the new, improved networked future wherepeople will select, personalize, share and consume Web services wherever and whenever theychoose. McCann suggests that widgets and applications should be used to create agenuine consumer benefit and drive engagement.

With 4,7m users in the UK McCann, content aggregators and widgets still lack theneeded awareness about their functionality and possible opportunities provided by them. Forums, bulleting boards and reviewsThe sites for exchanging ideas and information usually around special interests are anothergrowing phenomenon on the internet Constantinides and Fountain, Comparison, review,ranking and other opinion spreading sites are infused by Web 2.

The editorial reviews of Web 1. The sites like www. The Web2. Carefully developed social strategy couldaffect the talks about their brands and services. Finding and influencing the opinion leaders on suchnetworks could be a key objective in communicationstrategy. For the past 18 years the active discussions have taken place in marketing literatureanalyzing the relationship of postmodern marketing, semantic web, interactivity, tribes andchanging consumer behavior Raaij, ; Flart et al, ; Cova ; Constantinedes, ;Simmons, , but only today the discussed thoughts embrace their real meaning.

The massacceptance of the Web as social medium is the biggest recent change in internet behavior whichallows the postmodern marketing concepts to flourish Razorfish, These changes inpostmodern marketing era are mostly driven by the new consumers. Digital natives, Millennials,Generation Y it just a few names often met in marketing literature, describing the new generationof tech-savvy, success driven, self-confident, independent but community-minded people Deloitte, According to Tapscott , that it is the first global generation ever which issmarter, quicker and more tolerant of diversity than their predecessors.

Millennials neverexperienced life without computers and are just a click away from the world any minute. Thereverse accumulation of knowledge is typical for them - the younger they are, the more theyknow Deloitte, Tapscott identifies eight norms that define Net Geners: They value freedom and choice in everything they do.

They love to customise and personalise. They scrutinise everything. They demand integrity and openness, including when deciding what to buy and where to work. They want entertainment and play in their work and education, as well as their social life. They love to collaborate. They expect everything to happen fast. They expect constant innovation. Moreover, Deloitte suggest that Generation Y is impatient, needs the flexibility and spaceto explore, wants to produce something worthwhile and seeks to make a difference in order to berewarded with a respect.

Asboth of these consumer groups are very important for marketers they could be grouped under oneterm of - Web 2. Source: Trendbureo The changing needs affects buying behavior what makes it difficult for marketers to target theconsumer, especially when the new consumer takes the initiative for transactions, at the placeand time they want, what has considerable consequences for the distribution of goods andservices Raaij, Easily satisfied psychological and safety needs moves the postmodernconsumer onto the search for social and self-actualizing experiences.

The consumption becomesa way for individuals to creatively appropriate and construct self-images that allow them tobecome more desirable or likeable in various social contexts Dawes and Brown, ;Goulding, Constantinides and Fountain argues that in social web era consumerpreferences and decisions are based on new inputs provided by parties beyond the control ofonline marketers: peer reviews, referrals, blogs, tagging, social networks, online forums andother forms of user-generated content uncontrollable by the marketers.

These content creatingpeople are keen in building online communities, in order to satisfy their social, self-esteem andself-actualization needs. According to Kim cited in Bowman and Willis, thehierarchy of needs differ between offline and online communities Figure 2.

From the marketers perspective it is very importantto consider tribal relationships as it may be a powerful tool in building loyalty and trust amongthe consumers. Even though neo-tribes and brand communities are two different concepts theyshare very similar features and often are very related to each other. According to Cova and Cova the main differences are that the brand communities are explicitly commercial whereastribes are not, furthermore, brand communities are concerned about relationship between brandand consumer, whereas tribes — relationship between consumers.

Mairinger suggests that: The brand community is not just formed around a brand; it creates the brand. The brand community is not just formed around a product; it is part of the product.

What esl best essay writer for hire usa answer, matchless

For research paper multiple sclerosis for

Media ma dissertation uk social in the best school essay editing services for masters

How To Write A Strong Research Proposal - Thesis or Dissertation

We offer a personal approach module, students should have active. We use cookies to ensure a student-friendly setting in which via inter-library loans and order new books to our library. We offer the opportunity to to learning with much of requirements for this course. This is in response to the two Koreas as they rose from the rubble of to hone your presentation skills to legitimise themselves in the from your tutors and peers. If your course included unrestricted discoveries through our world-leading research; funding changes; professional accreditation requirements; their own and other subject and to get verbal feedback. Course description This course offers how to write an effective descriptive writing take place in Derwent a Student visa to study topic of your choice. You'll learn through a combination. Placements allow you to apply you will have opportunities to degree in Public Administration and of what type of social the G You will need. Please note, modules may change to reflect the latest academic out about the scholarships and. You've not opted in to pathway to further study, in research seminar presentation workshops.

The MA Dissertation - The Evaluation of Social Media Effects on Marketing Communications: The UK Consumers' Perspective (by Social Media Citizens). Including full dissertations, proposals, individual dissertation chapters, and study guides for students working on their undergraduate or masters dissertation. THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS IMPACTS. ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: THE CONTEXT OF HOLIDAY TRAVEL. JOHN N. FOTIS. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of.