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Case studies involve in-depth research into a given subject, in order to understand its functionality and successes. Most importantly: case studies are stories. In particular, business management case studies tell the story of how your product or service helped a person or a company achieve its goals. As well as being valuable marketing tools, case studies are a good way to evaluate your product as it allows you to objectively examine how others are using it.

A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects. Marketing case studies are incredibly useful for showing your marketing successes.

In the marketing case study examples below, a variety of designs and techniques to create impactful and effective case studies. Case studies are meant to show off your successes, so make sure you feature your positive results prominently. Using bold and bright colors as well as contrasting shapes, large bold fonts, and simple icons is a great way to highlight your wins. In this marketing case study example, the big wins are highlighted on the second page with a bright orange color and are highlighted in circles.

Making the important information stand out is especially important in marketing case studies. Using a simple layout in your case study can be incredibly effective, like in the example of a case study below. Keeping a clean white background, and using slim lines to help separate the sections is an easy way to format your case study. Keeping the information clear helps draw attention to the important results, and it helps improve the accessibility of the design.

A case study example like this would sit nicely within a larger report, with a consistent layout throughout. Let your research shine by using a monochromatic and minimalistic color palette. In this case study on Polygon Media, the design is simple and professional, and the layout allows you to follow the flow of information. The gradient effect on the left-hand column helps break up the white background and adds an interesting visual effect. Short-term goals will be what the company or person hopes to achieve in the next few months, and long-term goals are what the company hopes to achieve in the next few years.

In this case study example, the short and long-term goals are clearly distinguished by light blue boxes and placed side by side so that they are easy to compare. Use a strong introductory paragraph to outline the overall strategy and goals before outlining the specific short-term and long-term goals to help with clarity.

Using this strategy can also be handy when creating a consulting case study. When conducting any sort of research stats, facts, and figures are like gold dust aka, really valuable. Being able to quantify your findings is important to help understand the information fully. In the sales case study blow the key data findings have been presented with icons, and stand out from the page. We can clearly understand the information and it shows that the case study has been well researched.

Create a compelling case study by using emotive, persuasive and action-based language when customizing your case study template. Using persuasive language like this helps to inspire potential customers to take action now. Not only that, but if you have a SaaS product, case studies are a great way to show how other people are effectively using your product in their business. In this case study, Network is demonstrating how their product has been used by Vortex Co.

Case studies are particularly effective as a sales technique. A sales case study is like an extended customer testimonial, not only sharing opinions of your product — but showcasing the results you helped your customer achieve. In a case study you should use icons to highlight areas of your research that are particularly interesting or relevant, like in this example of a case study:.

In the example above icons are used to represent the impressive areas of growth, and are presented in a way that grabs your attention. Help the key information stand out within your case study by using high contrast shapes and colors. Use a complementary or contrasting color, or use a shape such as a rectangle or a circle for maximum impact.

This design has used dark blue rectangles to help separate the information and make it easier to read. Coupled with icons and strong statistics, this information stands out on the page and is easily digestible and retainable. Less is often more, and this is especially true when it comes to creating designs.

These simple case study examples show that smart clean designs and informative content can be an effective way to showcase your successes. In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed. This means the normal rules of design apply.

Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study. In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and stand-out icons. Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below. When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.

The U. Fish and Wildlife Service may have jurisdiction over ferry docks and landings due to their potential impact on habitat. State and Local Agencies State and local agencies exercise regulatory control over shorelines and waterfronts and some- times exercise economic control over routes, fares, and schedules. The case studies presented in Section 5 of this report indicate a broad range of state and local agencies that impact ferry ser- vice.

Such impact includes, for example, towns that through their zoning ordinances regulate terminals and other landside facilities, as well as states that regulate state-owned tidelands and control access to state resources such as personnel, funds, and lands. Funding Sources It should be noted that funding is fluid, as budgets and funding programs can change annu- ally. The purpose of the following discussion is to identify the range of funding sources currently in use at federal, state, and local levels.

Federal At the federal level, funding for ferries can come from sources of highway and transit funding as well as from federal loan guarantees, federal tax deferral, and the American Recovery and Reinvest- ment Act ARRA. Highway Federal funding for ferry vessels, terminals, and other ferry-related expenditures is available under various federal funding categories, including ferry-only funding, transit funding, and, in some cases, highway funding.

For example, federal law has allowed states to use non-Interstate funds to build ferry infrastructure including access roads and other facilities when the route is part of a designated federally eligible highway except Interstates. Transit FTA can fund ferry boats through its normal formula and discretionary funding sources. FTA funding has been used for vessels, terminals, and other facilities that provide for an urban, mass transit passenger ferry service.

These programs are not grants, however, and the funds must be repaid or the government repossesses the assets. As a result, both programs have strict credit and business-plan criteria. The fund is not direct assistance, but rather allows the maritime entity including ferry operators to defer a portion of tax monies that would otherwise be paid to the U. Treasury during the tax year.

Like a maritime IRA, the CCF program allows the mar- itime entity to accumulate and use otherwise taxable earnings for the purposes of acquiring, con- structing, or reconstructing vessels built and documented in the United States and operated in the United States foreign, Great Lakes, or noncontiguous domestic trade and in the fisheries.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ARRA appropriated millions of federal dollars for the ferry industry to be disbursed through a number of different transportation-related agencies for a number of different purposes.

Ferry operators can be supported in this grant. State and Local Programs Several metropolitan agencies and authorities, as well as states, provide funding for ferry oper- ations and capital improvements. Often ferries are either part of a larger toll crossing authority or are cross- subsidized to provide supplemental capacity in a bridge corridor.

These revenues are provided to fund the ferry service as part of the overall transit system. Some ports and port authorities subsidize ferries to generate additional traffic and support waterfront real estate development. Some ferries are financed through either special taxes or real estate fees to provide access to remote development sites or areas poorly served by other transporta- tion services. Stakeholders and Institutions Affecting Ferry Services Eight ferry operators were carefully selected for case studies to represent the wide breadth of the ferry business.

The selected operators include small Midwestern vehicle and passenger fer- ries, passenger-only ferries in New York Harbor, and ferries in the U. Virgin Islands and the Pacific Northwest. Initial Survey of Ferry Operators The case studies were guided by the initial findings from a survey of more than 40 ferry operators, which led into focusing on narrower topics for further development in the research program.

The survey was conducted through telephone interviews from May through July The sample also included operators from various geographic regions. The survey was designed to allow for multiple respondents from the same operator to answer questions, which occurred during interviews with larger operators. Forty-three interviews were completed. The survey respondents answered anonymously dur- ing the reporting process.

The complete results of the survey are included in Appendix B. About the Case Studies Based on the findings from the ferry operator survey, the research team focused on in- depth case studies of eight ferry systems or operators. In some cases, the case study focused on one operator; in other cases, entire systems comprising multiple operators in one region were considered. Within these categories, the planning, marketing, and expectations of each type of service are dissimi- lar, even while the actual operations of the vessels are similar.

The Port Jefferson Ferry began with one vessel; in , the owners purchased a larger, passenger vessel. When automobiles became common, the Port Jefferson vessels were retro- fitted to carry them, and this became an increasingly important revenue source for the company. By the s, traffic had increased enough to require a second vessel. The Depression caused traf- fic to drop, but with World War II passenger and freight traffic increased.

In the late s, the company had purchased a used vessel to add to the fleet. While there was recurring considera- tion of bridging Long Island Sound, the projects never occurred, and the Port Jefferson Ferry continued to be the primary access from Central Long Island to Connecticut. In the s, the company added two new, faster vessels: the Grand Republic and the Park City. Two additional vessels were purchased in and Starting with three vessels purchased from the previous operator, Cross Sound began an incremental but consistent capital improvement program.

In , the company developed a new ferry terminal just to the north of the existing New London Amtrak Station. New vessels were purchased in , , and , and in , the company pur- chased and rebuilt an existing vessel.

In , , , and additional vessels were added to the fleet Cross Sound Ferry Service, Inc. In , Cross Sound added a high-speed ferry to complement its conventional vehicle ferry. The Connecticut casinos had increased walk-on passengers to the point where the existing pas- sengers were being inconvenienced. The Sea Jet 1 is a wave-piercing catamaran designed in Aus- tralia and built in Washington state.

Both the ride-control system and the water jets were ini- tially unreliable, but over a period of about 5 years, Cross Sound staff brought the vessel to a high level of service reliability Interview with Cross Sound Ferry, January 7, Both Cross Sound and the Port Jefferson Ferry report that passenger volumes have declined by about 10 to 15 percent and vehicular volumes are about 10 to 25 lower than , which rep- resents the highest year.

In addition, both carriers noted that truck volumes, which are prima- rily agricultural and construction related, declined by as much as 40 percent Organizational Structure Both the Port Jefferson Ferry and Cross Sound Ferry Service are privately owned and are part of larger maritime enterprises. The Port Jefferson Ferry was purchased in by the McAlllister Towing and Transporta- tion Company, which operates 70 tugboats and 24 tractor tugs in 12 ports. All facilities used by Cross Sound Ferries, including terminals and vessels, are owned by the company.

It should be noted that the company has received public funding to repower its vessels to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Ferry Case Studies 21 Table Barnum, and the Park City. Figures and show photographs of Port Jefferson ferries. The Bridgeport ferry terminal is located in downtown Bridgeport and is adjacent to the Bridge- port train station.

The company leases about 3. The facility provides space for automobile queuing, as well as limited kiss-and- ride capacity. The Bridgeport Port Authority is planning to build an onsite garage for the ferry ter- minal; in the meantime, automobile parking is also available in structured parking on the other side of the train tracks and freeway.

Port Jefferson ferry approaching the Long Island terminal. Figure Port Jefferson ferry vehicle deck. The Bridgeport ferry terminal provides good intermodal connectivity between com- muter and intercity rail and local and intercity bus service and good vehicular access from the Connecticut Turnpike. The parking access is limited, and the pedestrian path from the structured parking into the terminal is not attractive.

The elevated Interstate highway and railroad structures create a large visual and physical barrier between the ferry terminal and the waterfront and the downtown. Cross Sound Ferry. The one-way crossing time is 75 to 80 minutes. During the summer, ser- vice operates every 90 minutes; on Fridays, Sundays, and holidays, ferries operate as frequently as hourly. In the winter, service is reduced to seven round trips on weekdays.

Cross Sound Ferry has a fleet of seven conventional ferries that operate at speeds between 12 and 15 knots and can carry from 22 to automobiles and from to 1, passengers. In addition to the conventional ferries, during the spring and summer, Cross Sound also oper- ates a high-speed knot ferry on the same route Sea Jet 1. This ferry seats passengers but carries no vehicles. The Sea Jet1 can sail between Long Island and New London in about 40 minutes and operates up to six round trips daily.

In New London, the ferry terminal is adjacent to downtown and the train station and intercity bus station and also has connections to the local transit system. About 11 Amtrak trains serve the train station in each direction daily. However, the railroad has an at-grade cross- ing, which creates an awkward pedestrian path connecting downtown, the train, and the ferry.

Automobile parking for ferry passengers is available in a municipal garage nearby. Shuttle buses operate to the Foxwoods Casino, and New England colleges often shuttle students to the New London Ferry Terminal when school sessions begin and end. The New London Ferry Terminal is located on a acre site at the mouth of the Thames River, with queuing areas leading to the conventional automobile ferry and a separate dock for the high-speed catamaran.

The terminal uses an Internet-based reservations system that provides the customer with the ability to print a bar-coded boarding pass. Access from the west is via NY Highway 25, a two-lane rural road. The terminal has a queuing area for the conventional vehicle ferries and a parking lot with space for about automobiles.

Monday through Saturday bus ser- vice is provided hourly during daytime periods and connects Orient Point with Greenport and Riverhead. More than 50 possible sites were investigated for possible service and were ranked based on community acceptance, land use compatibility, and technical and market feasibility. The study identified six fast ferry routes including two routes already operated by conventional craft as viable, and two new conventional ferry routes in the first screening.

However, after further technical review and comments from local governments, the study recommended only one new Connecticut to Long Island service and three Connecticut to Manhattan services. Several water taxi services were also recommended for further study. Viking Fleet Ferries. This service only operates on Ferry Case Studies Friday and Sundays and some holidays. The crossing time from Montauk to New London is about one hour. Viking Fleet uses a passenger monohull to provide this service.

Viking Fleet is pri- marily a party fishing operator but also operates daily scheduled ferry service from Montauk to Block Island, Rhode Island. The Port Jefferson Ferry vessels carry 85 to automo- biles and 1, passengers. Over the last several years, the ferry company has received federal funding to repower its vessels with more modern and fuel-efficient and less carbon-intensive engines.

Not only have emissions been reduced by about 13 percent, but power has been increased to 1, horsepower, and the engines operate with less vibration and noise. On Long Island, Port Jefferson Ferry owns the ferry terminal and about linear feet of shoreline to perform maintenance work and administrative functions at the Port Jefferson Ter- minal. The Town of Brookhaven and the Village of Port Jefferson provide several parking lots, totaling about spaces, within walking distance of the Port Jefferson terminal.

Local bus ser- vice is provided between the ferry terminal and the LIRR station on four routes, with a combined frequency of about every 20 to 30 minutes. Highway access to the ferry dock is via non-grade- separated state highways and local roads. Over the last several years, Cross Sound Ferry, like the Port Jefferson Ferry, has received federal funding to repower its vessels with more modern and fuel-efficient and less carbon-intensive engines.

Cross Sound Ferry has achieved a percent reduction in emissions and fuel consumption with this retrofit. The company also maintains its vessels and rebuilds engines at its own shops and provides commercial repair services to other vessel operators. Cross Sound esti- mates that its largest ferry, the John H. The Sea Jet 1, a knot, passenger-only fast ferry, burns about gallons of fuel on each trip Adam Wronowski, Cross Sound Ferry, personal communication, March 22, Port Jefferson Ferry employs about people during the peak season and about in the off-peak periods.

Some of this expense is reimbursed by DHS funding. Cross Sound employs about employees in the peak season and about in the off-peak season. The company hires almost all its employees at an entry level, trains the personnel, and encourages all of its maritime employees to become licensed masters. Cross Sound Ferry, like most ferry operators, takes security concerns seriously and has an active training pro- 24 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services.

Employees are trained to be aware and participate in drills and exercises. In addition, the company used federal funds to purchase lighting and surveillance equipment to provide addi- tional security. Financial Structure All ferries providing service between Connecticut and Long Island are privately owned and operated.

The only government funding they have received has been for engine upgrades relat- ing to emissions reductions and security enhancements. The peak periods for these services are generally on weekends and holidays. In addition, commuter tickets are also available. These systems provide the ability to manage vessel capacity and ensure the capacity is well used throughout the day. Market studies conducted by each company indicate that the majority of ferry passengers live on Long Island.

The other 45 percent of passengers are distributed throughout Central and Eastern New England. In addition, Port Jefferson Ferries reports that about 70 percent of its walk-on, return-day-trip passengers originate in Bridgeport these trips make up about 20 percent of their total passengers.

Funding Sources As all of the operators in this case study are privately owned, each garners revenues from a vari- ety of sources. Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry obtain revenues through passenger fares, onboard and terminal concession stands, and restricted federal emission grants. Viking Ferries also has a large charter and private rental business that supplements their passenger ferry service. Ferry Case Studies 25 Table In interviews, their executives expressed comfort with their maritime operations, their ability to maintain and operate vessels, and their ability to provide necessary capital enhancements needed to maintain market share.

Both operators, however, identified government leadership and public policy as important to enhancing the ability of the marine transportation mode to divert automobiles from the highway system and to create more sustainable transportation systems. Both Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry have experienced challenges in expanding their services due to local concerns and the high financial expense and permitting maze of investing in terminal facilities.

Environmental and Regulatory Issues From a systems perspective, both Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry noted that fer- ries could decrease energy consumption and help achieve other public policy goals. However, there is not a consistent recognition of the importance of and the opportunities provided by a marine highway system. Ferries carry about 2. Travel between Connecticut and Long Island can be accomplished via ferry or automobile.

The ferry operators think of their catchment areas as an oblong circle where their Long Island terminals are located west of the midpoint. Trips within that oblong are ferry-competitive but trips outside are not. For comparison, Table provides data for the trip from Huntington, New York, to Bridgeport, Connecticut, on highway and ferry. Table shows the change in travel time and fuel use with a fast-ferry option. Table provides data for a different trip from Long Island to New London via either high- way or ferry.

As ferry speeds increase or highway travel times decrease , the ferry catchment area increases because the ferry travel times become more competitive than the highway travel times. In congested corridors, ferry travel times to the ferry terminal are com- 26 Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services Table This is the IRS allowance.

Conventional ferries allow for automobile use at either terminal, but the passenger-only, fast-ferry market is limited by the need to complete trips beyond the immediate ferry terminal area. As a result, while using passenger-only fast ferries could be more fuel efficient than driving per Table , the market for these trips may be limited and hence not financially viable. Land Use Issues Cross Sound Ferry and Port Jefferson Ferry mentioned that their Long Island host communi- ties are sensitive to increases in service and expansion of terminal facilities.

However, both com- panies recognize that there is latent demand that cannot currently be accommodated and that results in additional highway trips and vehicle miles traveled. In New London, the town is interested in developing a multimodal center where ferries are one piece of the puzzle. The multimodal center is seen as an economic catalyst for redevelop- ment in the town center. Bridgeport is faced with urban design issues that limit the ability to create optimal pedestrian and bicycle environments that encourage movements between the train station and ferry termi- nal.

It is unlikely that changes in the urban infrastructure scheme will change in the near future to allow for redevelopment to occur. Port Jefferson and Orient Point communities have both restricted land use growth around the ferry terminals.

Emergency Response After the attacks of September 11, , ferries provided the only transportation from Long Island. While there is no formal emergency response system that the ferry operators work with, a more structured arrangement is being considered by local and state authorities.

Ferry Case Studies 27 Table Fast-ferry alternative assumes a 25 mile drive to ferry terminal and then walk-on passengers. Rowboats connected Manhattan with Brooklyn before the Revolution. Service to Staten Island began in the s. New York City records indicate that by eight ferries were authorized to operate across the Hudson River to New Jersey. After the Civil War, as both commerce and rail- way traffic increased, ferry traffic also continued to grow.

The Hudson Tubes opened in and immediately diverted passengers from the ferry services, although the Pennsylvania Railroad continued to operate its ferries from Jersey City. The Hudson Tubes carried almost 50 million passengers annually just a few years after opening and now carry about 85 million passengers.

In , the Pennsylvania Railroad opened Pennsylvania Station on 34th Street, a terminus for rail connections to New Jersey, through an extensive network of commuter trains and two under- water tunnels. These tunnels now carry about 45 million passengers annually under the Hudson.

About 34 million vehicles annually now use the Holland Tunnel. In , the George Washington Bridge opened between New Jersey and Manhattan and soon carried more than 5 million vehicles annually. The Lincoln Tunnel now carries more than 42 million vehicles annually, and the PABT handles about , passengers daily. The George Washington Bridge serves more than million vehicles each year. These ferries were among the first to cease operations when the city built the Brooklyn and the Williamsburg Bridges.

In , the Long Island Railroad was extended into Pennsylvania Sta- tion connecting Manhattan to Brooklyn and Queens directly with fast electric trains. As a result of these new fixed links, ferry service dwindled. Passengers either took direct trains into Manhattan or drove their automobiles into the city.

The last scheduled ferries operated from Hoboken to Manhattan in Wikipedia, accessed March 4, Revival, Growth, and Stabilization By the early s, the cross-Hudson fixed links were straining to keep up with demand. At the same time, industrial brownfield sites on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River became available as industry moved to new locations and factories became obsolete.

The sites were large, which allowed for master planning and dense, efficient development. Additionally, these sites had views of Manhattan and direct access to the Hudson River. What they did not have was easy access from the mainland. Arthur Imperatore, the President of NY Waterway, credits Regional Plan Association staff with inspiring the New Jersey Waterfront reuse vision, which combined residential and com- mercial development with access improvements.

This vision has resulted in more than 6, housing units being developed on the west side of the Hudson between and , with additional units developed over the last 10 years, along with millions of square feet of commercial space U. Census Bureau. Within a year, approximately 1, daily passengers were rid- ing the Weehawken ferry Regional Plan Association, The Port Authority considered extending PATH station platforms to allow longer trains, but this alternative was too costly.

Instead, the agency decided to try ferries. When searching for additional ferry service opportunities, it is these characteristics to be kept in mind. Regional Plan Asso- ciation, New York Harbor now has 21 ferry routes serving Manhattan operated by six different ferry operators five private operators and one public agency. Most routes are 3 to 5 miles long and take 10 to 15 minutes.

More than 30, daily passengers use private ferry services from 13 New Jersey ferry terminals to four Manhattan landings. Additional service is provided from Brooklyn and Queens to Manhattan. Ferry Case Studies In effect, the arrangement was a free market system with the freedom to enter the market and the freedom to fail. Fees charged to ferry operators funded operating and maintenance expenses for the fixed facilities, and the City and Port Authority continued to build terminal capacity as private oper- ators incrementally expanded service.

The route now serves about 4, passengers daily, with another 2, passengers using the Hoboken Ferry Terminal to access other Manhattan destinations. Ridership incrementally expanded and, by , about 35, passengers were using privately operated ferries in addition to the 65, passengers using the Staten Island Ferry.

In , PATH resumed service to lower Manhattan and ferry ridership dropped back to the levels preceding the attacks of September 11, Fuel costs put financial pressure on ferry providers because fuel costs are a much larger part of overall costs for ferry operators than fuel costs are for operators of other modes.

Ferry operators increased fares as a result, and ridership dropped again to about 30, There have been calls for ferries to be subsidized, just as other modes of transportation are subsidized. New York Waterway. The largest operator is New York Waterway, which operates 16 ferry routes, including eight operated for BillyBey Ferries.

BillyBey then con- tracted with New York Waterway to provide the service on their behalf. New York Waterway routes carry about 17, passengers not including the Belford route in Monmouth County , while the BillyBey routes carry about 10, daily passengers. Most of the access to the New Jersey ferry terminals is by walking or other transit. While a few ter- minals have large parking lots, ferries were often developed to encourage dense, urban development.

Five peak period routes operate, and, in the midday and at night, a separate set of five routes oper- ates in longer loop routes one route also connects to the World Financial Center Terminal. On the New Jersey side, a combination of shuttle buses and free transfer arrangements on one NJ Transit route provide local access. New York Water Taxi.

The next largest private ferry operator is New York Water Taxi. Until , the company operated service from Manhattan to Brooklyn and Queens, locations that tend to be distant from subway lines these services are now operated under public agency contract by New York Waterway. On some days, IKEA ridership has reached 5, passengers. Ferry service to Monmouth County, New Jersey, is a distinct niche, catering to residents in a high-income residential area that will pay premium fares for shorter travel times as compared to highway or train.

Seastreak uses four high-speed vessels to provide this service Ferry Case Studies 31 Figure New York Waterway Weehawken Terminal. Both operators terminate in Manhattan at Pier Seastreak carries about 3, daily, while New York Waterway carries about 1, In contrast to the other New Jersey ferry terminals, the Monmouth County terminals have large park-and-ride lots to serve a dispersed ridership.

Seastreak notes the importance of park-and-ride lots in attracting and maintaining market share Halcrow Interview with Jim Barker of Seastreak, on behalf of Port Authority, December 8, Staten Island Ferry. Finally, the Staten Island Ferry continues to provide service between Manhattan and Staten Island and carries about 65, passengers daily, making it the busiest ferry operation in North America.

Service is provided by large, 1, to 6,passenger ferries oper- ating every 15 minutes in the peak period and every 30 minutes at other times. The 5-mile route takes about 25 minutes, and there is no fare. About people daily use the service.

See Figures and for route maps. Facility and Vessel Maintenance Ferry operators employ a variety of vessels, which has resulted in the development of ferry ter- minals that can serve vessels that board from the side or the bow. Nonetheless, bow loading is the predominant docking arrangement in New York Harbor because it allows the vessel opera- tor to avoid excessive maneuvering into a dock; instead, the vessel bumps against the dock and a gangway is lowered onto the deck.

Approach and boarding are faster because the gangway allows several streams of passengers to board at once. Furthermore, because the dock and vessel have the same freeboard, a separate ramp is not required, and capital costs are reduced.

This design also facilitates emergency responses. Safety is a high priority, and ferry operators report that their conflicts are primarily with kayaks, jet skis, and swimmers. In addition, the waterways can sometimes be closed for digni- taries, thereby creating schedule concerns. New York Waterway operates 34 vessels, mostly small passenger catamarans with three crew members, operating at 15 knots. New York Water Taxi operates 10 vessels, including five passenger, knot vessels and five passenger, knot vessels.

Service for the Staten Island route is provided by large, 1, to 6, passenger ferries. Staffing Levels Each ferry operator has a unique culture and different approaches for hiring and retaining ves- sel crews. Most of the private operators hire locally, at entry level, and then gradually promote employees into higher levels of responsibility.

Some operators hire personnel with fishing boat Ferry Case Studies New York Waterway ferry services. Every 30 to 40 min in the p. Ferry Case Studies 35 Table Every 30 min weekdays from a. Hudson River and East River crossings to Manhattan. Crew training and coordination with the Coast Guard is continuous for all ferry operators.

New York Waterway employs about people as crew members and administrative staff. New York Water Taxi employs 50 to employees depending on the season. The Staten Island Ferry employs about staff, two-thirds of which are vessel crew. Funding Sources Other than the Staten Island Ferry and a handful of demonstration services, the New York Harbor ferries do not receive operating subsidies. New York Harbor ferries now routinely carry 30, passengers each weekday not including the Staten Island Ferry , with most of the use occurring on the trans-Hudson corridor.

Ferry Case Studies 37 Table Fares for New York Waterway. There is some concern that the model is fraying. All operators report some level of financial stress related to providing commuter services. While public agencies, through their ownership of the terminals, have removed a significant capital expense from the operators, the carrying costs of vessels are still assumed by the ferry companies and are significant.

In addi- tion, diesel fuel costs in the mid-Atlantic area roughly doubled between and com- pared to inflation which increased about 25 percent over that period U. Department of Energy, accessed April 14, , changing the financing assumptions that the pre ferry system was based upon. These costs include vessel capital expenses. It is likely that if the vessel costs were considered a public capital expense and were removed from the oper- ating expenses, operating expenses would be reduced by 15 to 20 percent National Transit Data- base, a, b, c.

Planning Issues In spite of the current financial challenges facing ferry operators, City policy continues to encourage expansion of waterborne transit services. The public benefits of such services are eco- nomic development, congestion relief, and improved emergency response. New York City pro- vides a good example of the public benefits of patient, incremental expansion of ferry service under private control.

However, interviews with a broad range of operators revealed that this model might eventually work, but it may take up to a decade for individual ferry routes to become profitable, and dur- ing this period public assistance is necessary. Land Use Issues Experience with New York ferries suggests that creating a density of travel, either through land development or because of it or by connecting with other transit services is an imperative.

Filling up the vessels requires passengers, and when ferries operate at full capacity they are a very efficient mode of transport. The City is currently identifying prime infill development sites along the East River, and all sites require good transit to succeed. Some of the best sites are at a distance from existing transit, and the best option for good transit could be fast and frequent ferry service.

Emergency Response While the New York ferry resurgence was initially based on trans-Hudson congestion relief and Hudson River shore economic development, the system also became an important public safety service during the evacuation of Manhattan on September 11, Since then, emergency response has become an important public benefit of providing and maintaining ferry service. As part of this expanded role, ferry operators participate in numerous training programs, Homeland Security initiatives, and practice drills to ensure that the ferry system can perform during an emergency.

These are mandated costs to the ferry operators; however, except for some minor equipment grants, these costs are not reimbursed by an agency. In addi- tion, when an emergency does occur, the costs incurred are often reimbursed many months later or may never be paid. These requirements place additional financial stress on the ferry operators. History North Carolina has a long history of using ferries as a form of transportation, especially in areas that are otherwise inaccessible by roads or are lacking easy road access.

Initiated as a private tug and barge conveyance system and later as a wooden trawler ferry, in , the North Carolina State Highway Commission Commission began subsidizing the crossing to reduce the toll rates. Over time, the crossing gained in popularity and users and, in , the Commission instituted fixed reimbursement for the ferry operator so as to discontinue tolls completely. New ferry routes came on line during the s and s, operated both by private entities and by the Commission.

Concurrent to the expanding ferry system, the paving of Highway 12 allowed for greater access to the Outer Banks area, leading to increased demand on the ferry system. During the early s, ferry service across the Croatan Sound was operated by a private entity before being acquired by the state in The Croatan Sound service continued until , when the Governor Umstead Bridge was completed, thereby ending the Croatan Sound ferry operation. Highway 12 brought new demand for a ferry service between Hatteras and Ocracoke Island.

The new ferry service was started by a private operator before being purchased by the state in The Alligator River crossing, the first ferry service constructed and operated by the state, began in and operated until , when the Alligator River was bridged North Carolina Department of Transportation, n.

Between and , the North Carolina ferry system evolved as new services were added and then retired when new bridges replaced existing ferry service. The State Ferry Operations department was charged with maintaining the ferry fleet, as well as managing all personnel. By , the fleet had grown to a point where the state created the Marine Maintenance Facility, separate from ferry oper- ations, to more efficiently manage the two divisions. The Operations office moved to Morehead City to be more centrally located.

In , on the recommendation of a specially formed committee, the governor combined the State Ferry Operations and the Marine Maintenance Facility under one department, the Ferry Division, which would exist at the Highway Division level and be responsi- ble for all aspects of the state ferry system North Carolina Department of Transportation, n. The ferry routes and vessels that operate on these routes are con- sidered an extension of the state highway system, although the Ferry Division is on the same administrative level as the Highway Division within the DOT.

Legislative influence extends to yearly budgets and federal and state funding sources. The governor has the ultimate approval through the annual state budget process. North Carolina border. While the ferry system is operated by the state, the routes are a mixture of free and tolled crossings.

Most of the shorter crossings are free for all users, with longer- distance routes charging one-way fares. The state has discouraged the implementation of tolling across all routes except for the long-distance routes with the understanding that the ferry system is part of the state highway system and thus is provided free to all users.

This notion may be chal- lenged as the global economic downturn has begun to affect long-term budget allocations. In addition to the statewide ferry system, there are a few ferries that provide service to national parks located in the Outer Banks. These ferries are provided free of charge to park visitors. The National Park Service provides ferries to manage the number of people visiting the parks while maintaining the integrity of the park conditions.

In , the ferry system reduced service as a response to budget shortfalls and increased expenses. The Coast Guard mandate requiring additional crew aboard vessels forced North Carolina to remove some vessels from service in order to redistribute staff to the more heavily patronized routes.

The governor recently announced that the service cutbacks were temporary, and service would be restored to previous levels in Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, The system has seven ferry routes that provided service for nearly 1 million vehicle trips and 2. The North Carolina routes have developed organically, with implementation guided by demand for service.

North Carolina began the ferry service through purchasing existing services from private operators with the aim of preserving or creating low-cost or free service. As demand for ferry service grew over the years, more routes were added, but in most cases bridges were seen as the permanent solution to providing access.

The practice of replacing ferry service with bridges continued until most ferry routes that could be reasonably replaced were as is documented with ferry routes that once existed across Croatan Sound, Alligator River, Oregon Inlet, and Bogue Sound. The ferry routes that remained are a collection of services for areas where bridges were either unwarranted or unwanted, such as Ocracoke Island.

Table highlights the current routes in the North Carolina ferry system. Figure provides a route map. Water landings and vessels were either pur- chased or built during the state ferry expansion. Some vessels were purchased directly from pri- vate operators and were folded into the agency, while others were acquired in conjunction with the United States Department of the Interior, which had established the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Park.

Still other vessels were commissioned directly by the state to satisfy increasing ferry service demand. See Figure for a photo of a typical North Carolina ferry vessel. The vessels are a mix of River Class and Sound Class ferries, of which the Sound Class ferries have specially designed hulls and propulsion systems to handle tricky sea conditions; some ferries are double-ended ferries. In total, the system has 21 vessels in its fleet, and there is one vessel on order Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, The state also owns and operates a vessel for dredging and piling work, the Dredge Carolina, and three tugs that assist it Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, The Dredge Carolina does work during the permitted time period allowed by regulators and is equipped for workers to live on board during the working season.

North Carolina maintains all of its vessels at its central maintenance facility located at Manns Harbor. Maintenance is conducted by in-house engineers and technicians. They complete all required haul-outs, engine repowers, painting, and handle any vessel breakdowns. North Carolina ferry routes. Maintenance parts are trucked to the three satellite facilities as needed. The three satellite facilities handle lighter-duty repairs to allow the vessels to return to duty within a short period of time.

In addition to maintaining its own vessels, the state performs its own dredging, piling, and clus- ter work to maintain clear waterways within the various sounds. The state works closely with the United States Army Corps of Engineers to determine the optimal time for dredging allowance. When the dredging season is over, maintenance crews work to improve pilings and other water- side improvements and maintenance.

North Carolina is one of the very few operators that provide percent of maintenance in house Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, The state completed a new state-of-the-art maintenance facility at Manns Harbor that can handle the necessary capac- ity needed for vessels in dry dock.

The centralized maintenance facility also enables the Ferry Division to effectively manage maintenance tasks, such as parts inventory, for a fleet that is sep- arated across many miles. Staffing Levels The ferry system has approximately to employees during the low season November to April and to employees during the high season May through October Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, Administrative staff is split between Manns Harbor, where the main maintenance facility is located, and Morehead City, where the previous State Ferry Operations department was located.

Due to the great distance separating the various routes from the maintenance facility and head administrative office, there are three satellite maintenance facilities. Vessel crew also report directly to their route loca- tions. Coast Guard regu- lations require a minimum number of crew members on board at any one time, which has forced North Carolina to increase its crew staffing. Ferry Case Studies 43 Figure As a majority of the ferry routes serve the Outer Banks, a well-known vacation destination, the cost of living for staff members is significantly higher than the cost of living in other parts of the state, especially the interior.

This circumstance has made it difficult for the Ferry Division to attract the necessary workforce. In response, the Ferry Division has completed a staff dorm where staff and crew can live during the work week; a second dorm is under construction. Two dorms are already operational at Hatteras. Room and board is provided free of charge. The intent is to reduce the cost for staff traveling from home in the interior part of the state and also to entice prospective workers with a benefit.

It has so far proven to be very popular with the staff Interview with North Carolina Ferry Division, January 14, Table shows the fare breakdown by route. Motorists with reservations must claim their reservation at least 30 minutes prior to departure or it will be canceled. Funding Sources North Carolina receives its ferry funding through a combination of state revenues and federal funds or grant monies.

The annual ferry budget is set through the state DOT, which portions out the state revenues accordingly. Federal grants and funds are applied for on a year-to-year basis, depending on the type of funding available. Most of the federal funds received are applied to cap- ital projects rather than operating needs.

Ferry route fares. There are only four tolls in the state of North Carolina, three of which are for ferry crossings. Implementing additional tolls on ferry routes has been politically infeasible in the past, with a high degree of opposition from both citizens and elected officials.

A study currently being conducted by North Carolina State University is examining how the ferry system can increase efficiency in a variety of ways. One option being looked at in the study is the effect on ridership and revenue of increasing tolls or implementing new tolls. A survey conducted as part of the study found that most people agree with the idea of paying a toll to help offset some of the budget reduction, although a proposed toll was not included as part of the study.

Other forms of new tolling being studied include seasonal tolling or increased tolling prices. In , the United States experienced rapidly rising fuel and gasoline prices during a short period of time. This affected not only the everyday layperson, but all industries with gasoline and fuel as primary operating expenses. The state indicates that there likely will be no change in operating procedure for purchasing and dis- tributing fuel among the different DOT departments, and individual departments will not be responsible for purchasing or budgeting for their own fuel.

Planning Issues Environmental and Regulatory Issues The state of North Carolina complies with all state and federal environmental regulations, including the regulations of the Coast Guard and Homeland Security. A new ferry is on order and is under construction at a ferry dock in Texas; its delivery is expected in A separate bid has recently been awarded for a second Sound Class ferry to be completed in Outside of regulation compliance, the state DOT and Ferry Division are engaged in environ- mental stewardship through an environmental policy, as well as programs such as the ferry- based water quality monitoring program.

The North Carolina DOT Ferry Division also strives to meet or exceed relevant environmental leg- islation, regulations, and other requirements. The Ferry Division is also compliant with ISO: , which is the international standard for environmental compliance.

Land Use Issues Each ferry terminal in the North Carolina system consists mainly of a small terminal build- ing, a waiting area for vehicles and passengers, and a loading dock. Most terminals are located in areas where it made sense to establish a water crossing. Historically, there has been little effort to focus landside development immediately around the terminal areas.

In some cases, the lack of development is encouraged, as the terminals are gateways or entry points to existing communi- ties such as on Ocracoke Island. Ferries are seen more as a form of transportation than a catalyst for landside development. In the past, ferry routes have given way to bridges, which tend to limit development along the shoreline.

Most passengers using the ferries arrive by vehicle, as the ferries are just one link in an overall transportation trip. There is also little local transit coordination, as ferry routes often cross mul- tiple local jurisdictions and involve trips that are generally not conducive to transit. North Carolina experiences a dramatic high-season ridership during the summertime. The Outer Banks experiences both vehicular traffic and ferry traffic congestion as vacationers flock to the area.

Given the capacity constraints of Highway 12, ferry users often experience one to two boat waits during the high season. While ridership had been falling over the past few years, the summers of and experienced a modest ridership increase during the high season. This increase was likely due to more vacationers staying in state or closer to home to save money dur- ing the economic downturn.

Emergency Response The Outer Banks is vulnerable to large storms and hurricanes that can wipe out Highway 12, which is the major entrance and exit to the area. Ocracoke Island, the only access is via ferry. During an emergency, ferries from the Ferry Divi- sion are called to aid once the disaster warning has been released.

Ocracoke Island has an onsite emergency coordinator and, as part of Hyde County, is part of an overall county emergency plan. During an emergency, the Ferry Division follows the protocols of Hyde County. John, Inc. History The U. The population of all three islands, according to a estimate CIA Factbook, accessed March 20, , is , Much of the population is split between Saint Thomas and Saint Croix, with Saint John functioning mostly as a tourist and resort destination.

This is reflected in the distri- bution of government services, which are located mainly in Saint Croix and Saint Thomas. As a territory, the U. Virgin Islands system of government is similar to that of a state, with three branches of government: the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, and the Judicial Branch.

Virgin Islands are governed by the laws of the United States Constitution, as well as the Revised Organic Act of that further defined the laws and rights for citizens in the U. Currently, the U. Virgin Islands have a proposed constitution that is before the United States Congress for review. Saint Croix, which is 83 square miles, is the largest of the three islands.

Saint Thomas is the next largest island in the territory at 31 square miles. It is the closest island to Puerto Rico, another U. Saint Thomas and Saint John are only separated by 4 miles 3. Saint John is the smallest of the three islands at 20 square miles.

It is also the only island without an airport and is completely reliant on ferries for inter-island travel. Virgin Islands require a robust ferry service. Ferry service has tradition- ally been offered by small, private operators who met demand for travel between the main islands of Saint Thomas and Saint John, where most of the government services are located. In , the government created a franchise agreement with two private ferry operators to maintain passenger- based ferry service between Saint Thomas and Saint John Interview with Transportation Services, January 29, The franchise agreement gave the ferry operators the right to operate on approved routes between the two islands and regulated ferry fares through the public services commission.

Only the two contracted ferry operators were given the right to provide ferry service between the two islands. The two ferries provide non-competition-based services dictated by the franchise. Other for-profit ferry services exist for vehicle transportation although services are not as frequent as the franchised service United States Virgin Islands, accessed March 21, Organizational Structure Under U.

For the purpose of maintaining transportation facilities and services between the Islands of Saint Thomas and Saint John, the Governor shall contract for, purchase, or otherwise acquire all such equipment, labor, services, and facilities as are necessary or appropriate.

Title 25 is the precursor to enacting the ferry franchise agreement. In , the U. Virgin Islands enacted a franchise agreement to operate ferry services between Saint Thomas and Saint John, as well as bus services on Saint Thomas.

The franchise agreement is part of Act No. The fran- chise agreement exclusively gave the right to Transportation Services of St. The franchise agreement requires maintaining existing service levels from for the length of the year franchise. The two franchises are on a temporary extension and as a result are still operating under their franchise agreements. As part of the franchise agreement, the two operators are considered as a public utility, to be regulated by the Public Ser- vices Commission.

Ferry services between Saint Thomas and Saint John currently continue to operate under the franchise agreement established in by the same private ferry operators. Both operators pro- vide duplicate routes between the two islands, with demand split evenly between the two oper- ators. Because the franchise agreement eliminates competition between the two operators and fares are regulated by the Public Services Commission, the two operators in essence operate as one unit, although the internal functioning of the two entities remains independent.

Virgin Islands Code Title 25, Chapter 3 mandated that vessels in service under the fran- chise agreement be under the auspices of the Governor. Since the franchise agreement was insti- tuted in , the two contracted operators have continued to operate their own private vessels in service. Both operators own and operate similarly sized vessels, one vessel for each route plus one space boat, for a total of three boats for each operator.

The two boats in daily service are approximately passenger vessels. By contrast, the crossing between Saint Thomas and Saint Croix is not considered part of the federal highway system, thus there is no franchise mandate. The two franchise operators provide identical service with identical service schedules and very similar fare structures. Passengers can board either ferry for passage between the two islands.

Cruz Bay on Saint John is the main entry point to the island. Table outlines the ferry routes. Figure shows a route map. Red Hook has more frequent service compared to ferries departing from Charlotte Amalie.