place value literature review

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Place value literature review write me political science speech

Place value literature review

The English language does not provide consistent patterns with all of its numbers. In English, the concept of ten, for example, has three names: ten, -teen, and -ty. For example, tekau ma rua ten and two is much more revealing of the part-whole nature of this number than is shown by the English word, twelve. Likewise, rua tekau ma rua two tens and two tells the young child more about the part-whole character of this number than is revealed by the word twenty two.

According to Cotter , counting to in an Asian language requires knowledge of just eleven words, whereas an English-speaking child needs to know a total of twenty-eight words. Kamii , Thompson and Ross claim that when children are taught place value too early they may become confused by it if they are also engaged in counting activities.

While their knowledge is situated within a counting-based model of number, children are not ready to move to working with collections-based, or part-whole, concepts. This focus on counting by ones is thought to interfere with the development of place value understanding. It can be contrasted with the approach of the Japanese school system where children are discouraged from using only one-by-one counting Cotter, and are encouraged to see multi-digit numbers as part-whole concepts from an early stage.

Young-Loveridge argues that the best age to introduce place value is after the concept of ones has been established and the child has built up a network of relationships that will lead to the concept of ten. This approach is disputed by Cotter who sees children becominyg confused by an early unitary, or counting-by-ones focus. Clearly there is a range of opinion within the literature about how best to teach place value. Kamii , Cobb and Wheatley , Fuson et al.

These research findings support the approach taken by the ENP with its focus on building concepts and mental strategies. Within the literature there appears to be a variety of approaches to the teaching of place value, which can lead to confusion about best practice methods.

Research has found, however, that many teachers are not as effective as they could be because they have only fragmented and vague mental models of children's development of place value knowledge Jones et al. Higgins recommended, after studying the teaching and learning of place value in ten Wellington classrooms, that enhancing teachers' pedagogical content knowledge was the most effective way of improving learning outcomes about place value.

Apart from teachers perhaps lacking confidence and competence in the teaching of mathematics, one of the reasons many teachers lack a clear mental model for the teaching of place value is that researchers have not agreed upon a best practice approach Young-Loveridge, Several models show what is thought to be the conceptual development of place value knowledge and strategies in children.

Knowledge, in these models, shows a recognition and understanding of an increasing range of numbers and also a move from concrete to abstract concepts about number. Young-Loveridge notes that there are two broad concepts of number that are the basis of children's understandings when adding or subtracting multi-digit numbers. They are counting-based and collections-based models.

Counting-based models of number involve keeping one number intact when adding or subtracting. This model is reflected in Stage 4 Advanced Counting of the ENP where the child, adding two numbers together, can count on from one of the numbers and does not have to count both numbers individually. The Jump method for addition also reflects the counting-based model of number.

It can be used as a visual prompt when adding or subtracting. Yackel quoted in Young-Loveridge, argues that even when there is no obvious counting, solutions to problems such as these are still counting-based. Collections-based models of number involve the partitioning of numbers e. Resnick quoted by Young-Loveridge, emphasised that developing an understanding of the part-whole properties of multi-digit numbers is perhaps the most important mathematical achievement of the early years at school.

Examples of collections-based models of number are described by Fuson et al and are also included in the part-whole stages of the ENP Number Framework. Other researchers Ross, , Cobb and Wheatley, , Baroody, and Young-Loveridge, have developed similar models of place value understanding.

As children become more sophisticated in their number knowledge they can recognise and problem-solve with an increasing range of numbers. Yackel quoted in Young-Loveridge, argues that it is important for children to have access to both counting-based and collections-based models of number if they are to become flexible in their approach to problem-solving. Chapter 1: Introduction and literature review. Diagram 1: The Empty Number Line.

In teaching addition operation, children should be taken through practical activities to revise addition of facts Benson, This implies that children must be allowed to use concrete objects to count and add before they are introduced to the abstraction way of adding.

They stress that a child can think logically provided his or her thinking is guided using real things and actual situations. They continue by saying that it is important to start operation of addition with two separate sets and combine them to make a total set. Through this, the child will abstract the mathematical operation of addition from all the situations of forming the union of sets which he or she needs. Jones and Thornton pg. Teachers will have to innovate and reconsider some educational practice to make the topic more child centered Graham et al, pg Also remainder is different from carrying, meanwhile they are the same.

According to Lockhead and Vespoor , child labour and lack of parental supervision of who are not able to do their homework and practice what they are thought in class face problems because introduction of new topics or sub heading in addition needs previous lessons or knowledge. Children encounter difficulties because; they do not understand the words used by the teachers when the concepts are being introduced.

Even if the vocabulary are appropriate, they find it hard to understand the mathematical tense and therefore interpret statements literally, but this sometimes changes the meaning of what the teacher intends to say. Errors pupils make when working with place value Research has shown most basic school pupils make numerous errors when doing addition of place value.

Adusei, quoting Jones and Thorton opines that investigating into areas of pupils difficulties in learning place value concept revealed that despite several years of place value learning, pupils are enable to interpret rudimentary place value concept pg 5. This means that despite the considerable efforts that teachers make aiming at helping children to conceptualize the concept of place value, the problem or difficulties of pupils in learning place value still persist.

As children carry tens and hundreds from the units and tens columns respectively they fail to recognize their positional values. Below are some common errors pupils commit when working with addition of two 2 digit numbers with renaming. Resource Materials for teaching place value A sound knowledge of place value is important for a full understanding of the algorithms for addition, children will need a great deal of experience of the actions associated with place value name grouping, regrouping renaming and exchanging.

In the first instance these experiences should be with concrete learning materials. Children should be able to split a set into subsets, into set of sets of equal sizes. It is not enough for children to be able to group only in tens; they should be encouraged to group in groups of any size. It was very important for the researcher to introduce concrete materials in the initial lessons and gradually to semi-concrete materials before abstract representation.

According to Palmas et al , teaching and learning materials such as bundles of sticks Abacus and multi base blocks are visual used by classroom facilitator to elaborate more on a concept in order ease transition of knowledge. When these teaching and learning materials are used appropriately, they help make lesson practical and real. They help save time and energy because; fewer words are used to explain concepts.

Another essential reason is that when concretes and pictures are used in teaching, pupils begin to have the opportunity to interact with the objects and their colleagues and thereby make the learner active in the lesson, when there are done, boredom is highly reduced. Furthermore, these materials promote development of generic for learning.

These skills include observation, measuring and recoding. Dondieu , argue that using teaching and learning materials like multi base blocks abacus and bundle of sticks in teaching a topic of this nature, helps to stimulate the interest of the child, make the class lively, involve the child in the lesson, higher participation in the lesson is assured, enhances memory retention and thereby be able to associate concepts and theories. Below are brief descriptions of several different teaching aids you might use in teaching place value.

Multi base Blocks: it is a material used for teaching place value. An abacus consists of several rows of beads threaded on wire. Beads on each proceeding row are worth ten beads from the row before. This abacus can be constructed from wood or metal, beads, bottle tops, etc. Examples of bundles of sticks All these materials will help to reduce the difficulties pupils have in understanding addition of two-digit numbers with value as well as teachers difficulties in teaching this concept.

Tasson and Gough, argue that sometimes children have anger and deeper frustration when teachers do not use appropriate teaching and learning materials in teaching them. Conclusion Through the views of these authors it is presuppose that children should be at the center of the lesson with involvement of educational activities and relevant teaching and learning material for teaching place value concept in mathematics.

Research design The research design for this study is an action research. According to Kafui an action research is a study that is conducted with immediate solution to a local problem. It is a type of applied research. He also specified that an action research is a form of enquiry that enable practitioner to investigate and evaluate their work. It is done by practitioners themselves rather than a professional researcher.

This design was chosen because; it involves a systematic approach with intervention embedded in the process. The steps used to solve problems with this format are orderly, which means at the end, a solution is found. It is mostly concerned with diagnosing a problem in a specific context and attempting to solve it. In another vein that format is a participatory type of research where the researcher or practitioner and pupils worked together in finding solution to the problem.

This is because, it involves around finding solutions to a local problem. They involved addition of two 2 digit numbers with the aid of appropriate teaching method and learning materials. The population of the town is within the margin of 20, plus according to population and housing census conducted. Population The target population for the study includes the basic pupils of Kweabibirem, in the Eastern Region.

However, the accessible that was involved in the study was the basic pupils of Abaam Presby Primary school, Abaam. This class consists of twenty six 26 boys and thirty-three 33 girls. The population was fifty-nine 59 pupils. Sampling technique The sampling technique used for selecting pupils for the study was the purposive or judgment sampling technique. Twenty 20 pupils of basic three at Abaam Presby Primary school, who found it difficult to do addition of two 2 digit numbers with renaming, were selected as the sample.

The major intervention that the researcher adopted for the study was activity oriented method technique. Implementation of the intervention A total of five weeks was used for the intervention. This started on the 14th of March, to 13th of April, The intervention was carried out after normal class hours on every Wednesday and Friday of each week at exactly pm prompt lasting for a period of 30 minutes.

The reason for this arrangement outside normal school schedule was to avoid clashes with routine lessons planned by the school. It also offered an ample time for implementing the activities of the intervention to attain the set objectives of the study. On Friday, 16th March, of the first week, I selected the twenty pupils who performed below average in the pre-test exercise and introduced them to some technical words in addition of 2 digit numbers involving place value.

I introduced the pupils to the vocabularies they needed to know in addition. They included add, plus, sum, put together, makes, ones, tens and is equals to and then, the various symbols that represent the various vocabularies were also introduced. This was done to enhance the understanding of the various ways in which the concept of addition involving place value could be done.

These 2-digit numbers 85 and 68 were represented on the abacus as shown below. On the last day of the third week i. The researcher did by guiding pupils to use the blocks to add two different two 2 digit numbers bearing in mind the concept of place value. In similar vein, children were made to represent the numeral 17 by 1 long and 7 cubes. In this activity, children were asked to represent 53 by picking 5 long blocks and 3 smaller cubes.

Numeral 39 was represented by picking 3 long blocks and 9 smaller cubes. The cubes were then added to 12 cubes which were more than 9 cubes. Week four 4 Activity for this week was the use of bundles of sticks to assist children to carry out addition of algorithm involving 2-digity numbers with regrouping based on the demand of the objective of the study. Also children were guided to represent 28 as 2 bundles of sticks and 8 loose ones. This was represented diagrammatically as follow On Friday, 6th April, in the fourth week, I put the children into five groups of four and guided them to use the bundle of sticks to do addition of two 2 digit numbers involving place value after which I conducted a post-test on the use of bundle of sticks and loose one.

Sample of the post-test questions and the marking scheme on the use of bundle of sticks and loose ones be found in Appendix B. On Friday, 13th April, in the fifth week, I conducted a post- test. This was done to find out whether the pupils truly grasped the concept of place value, and also to assess whether there were any improvement over the pre-test.

See Appendix B for the samples of the post —test quests and the marking scheme. Problems encountered Almost every research work is bond to pose some sort of problem. Pupils Parents who had to pick up their wards were unprepared and unhappy to stay for that hour before taking their wards home.

Pupils therefore skipped the class with an excuse that they had to join the main school bus. It was observed during the interventional period that some of the pupils had hearing and sight problem, and as such could not see the numerals properly from the whiteboard. This affected the smooth implementation of the programme thus extending the period.

Absenteeism on the part of some pupils during the intervention stage also affected the programme. The researcher had to use different motivational techniques including gifts to encourage the pupils to be regular for the study. Instrument used for collection of data Observation The researcher developed observational check list, this contained the name, age and the description of altitude of the children. Observation: It is the critical look at an event or situation giving attention to details of behavior and unusual happening.

In this, individuals and groups were observed during the implementation period. Observation was used initially to assess the reality of the problem. Critical watch was kept on pupils during lesson delivery and responses of pupils when they were asked to do addition of 2-digit numbers with regrouping.

Interview: This is a constant talk to people and questions were asked about what was observed. I asked questions and wrote down the responses for analysis later. I interviewed both the class teacher and the sample pupils under study. See appendix C for the sample of the interview questions. Test: Test items were in form of questions based on what was taught, what pupils supposed to know and to assess the knowledge about what was yet to be taught.

It was used at the pre-interventional stages. See the Appendixes for the details. Data collection procedure This section covered three stages namely pre-intervention, intervention and post- intervention. At the pre-intervention stage an observation checklist and test were used to diagnose the problem understudy. The test items were developed on addition of 2-digit numbers involving place value.

This project aimed to find out more about ways that Year 4 children who had participated in the Early Numeracy Project ENP understood place value concepts and to develop a conceptual model to assist teaching and learning about place value.

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Place value literature review You are commenting using your Facebook account. This is suggestible that every given digit in numeral represents a specific value which can vary from one numeral to other. In order to encourage transference and true understanding of place value, teachers must expose students to a variety of manipulatives. According to Brillsteinplace value means the value in a given numeral depends on the placement of the symbol with respect to the other symbols in the numerals. Sample future goals essay the pre-intervention stage an observation checklist and test were used to diagnose the problem understudy. In this activity, children were asked to represent 53 by picking 5 long blocks and 3 smaller cubes.
Place value literature review 426
Best creative writing editing site gb This was represented diagrammatically as follow On Friday, 6th April, in the fourth week, I put the children into five groups of four and guided them to use the bundle of sticks to do addition of two 2 digit numbers involving place value after which I conducted a post-test on the use of bundle of sticks and loose one. This was done to enhance the understanding of the various ways in which the concept of addition involving place value could be done. Resnick quoted by Young-Loveridge, emphasised that developing an understanding of the part-whole properties of multi-digit numbers is perhaps the most important mathematical achievement of the early years at school. These entire interviews were done during break time. They included add, plus, sum, put together, makes, ones, tens and is equals to and then, the various symbols that represent the various vocabularies were place value literature review introduced. Chapter one 1 which was stated above was made up of the introduction.
Place value literature review 612
Place value literature review 54
Place value literature review They were analyzed based on the research questions and discussions of the findings. Resource Materials for teaching place value A sound knowledge of place value is important for a full understanding of the algorithms for addition, children will need a great deal of experience of the actions associated with place value name grouping, regrouping renaming and nutrition essays topics. It also looked at the pre-test and post-test intervention. This indicates the performance of the children in the area of addition was very poor and needed immediate intervention. Mathematics helps us to know about money and be able to make simple calculations in selling and buying with the use of addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, measurement and counting concept. According to Piagetas cited in Van de Walle,children should have the opportunity to explore materials and construct their own knowledge.
Cheap personal essay writers sites He also specified that an action research is a form of enquiry that enable practitioner to investigate and evaluate their work. The population was fifty-nine 59 pupils. Fundamentals of psychology of learning mathematics. Vertical number lines allows a student to see the sequential repeat of the digits as they increase by multiples of tens Bove, It is done by practitioners themselves rather than a professional researcher. The researcher intends to solve this problem by using bundles of sticks and abacus.
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However, if using it for a first time through, it goes way too far. We are learning the first 3 places so we kinda skimmed over the last few pages as we were reading. I guess we'll have to return to this when we graduate to the thousands. Jun 07, Jada Finkley rated it it was amazing Shelves: math-literature. I love this book. Place value is book about a group of monkeys working together to bake the largest banana cupcake to ever exist.

The only way they can do this is by knowing place value. The recipe calls for eggs it would be terrible if they accidentally put eggs. This fun animated book provides a clear explanation of the basic facts about place value. Nov 12, AMY rated it liked it. It's a pretty good book and could be used by a teacher in a classroom to discuss place value in math. There is nothing very exciting about it but it would be good to use if there is nothing else available on the subject. Recommended for Grades Dec 03, Sydney Martindale rated it it was ok Shelves: math , picture-book.

This book was okay. This book would be good for fifth and fourth graders when they start learning place value; it can also be very useful when younger kids are learning base ten numbers, but other than that there wasn't anything that stood out to me. Apr 06, Macie Estes rated it it was amazing Shelves: informational-nf.

Its engaging explanation of place value, with an introduction to decimal points and understanding money, does an excellent job at teaching digits, numbers, and more. I would definitely recommend for classroom use. May 30, Katie rated it really liked it Shelves: informational-text. Prose: Informational. Jun 03, Whole And rated it liked it Shelves: childrens-books-math. Fun and simple content to better understand place value which can take some time and creativity to grasp.

A little bit wordy with large number repetition but overall a good supplement to math work. I love books that teach complicated information in an easy to understand way. Adler is a master of this. He uses brilliant visual components that help aid in learning. He creates an understanding of place value, the use of commas in numbers, the importance of the decimal in numbers and so much more. This is all done in a way that is easily understood. I love that these books are written because it allows our younger and older kids to learn concepts in a way that decreases frustration.

I think I love books that teach complicated information in an easy to understand way. I think learning and reading should be both fun and engaging and Adler merges the two together flawlessly. This book is a must in the classroom and home libraries! Mar 19, Yvonne Mullen rated it it was amazing. David Adler has a remarkable talent for teaching content vocabulary and concepts through picture books.

He takes a complex concept like place value and breaks it down to understandable parts. Place Value begins by comparing a word and letter to a number and a digit. Adler sets the reader up for understanding by comparing the letters of the alphabet to the 10 digits that make up our number system. It is easy to see how letters and numbers can be rearranged to show endless words and numbers.

Using David Adler has a remarkable talent for teaching content vocabulary and concepts through picture books. Using concrete examples helps young learners comprehend ideas being presented while entertaining readers with a group of monkeys making one very large banana cupcake. The visuals throughout this book are exceptional. Although this is a picture book and geared towards readers in grade As a teacher, this book can be used for grades because of the content covered.

Place Value is an outstanding way to bring literacy into content areas. Apr 06, Darin Raguse rated it really liked it Shelves: uno-childrens-lit. It begins by setting up an easy to understand connection between letters and numbers. It continues by depicting a group of monkeys that must follow a particular recipe, or order, to make banana cupcakes.

This book would be introduced as a read aloud as the teacher would need to point out specific concepts and terms, which are conveniently shown in bold lettering, as they're introduced. Rationale: I chose this book because it breaks down a sometimes complex and dry concept into simplistic and enjoyable terms. It provides numerous very clear yet entertaining examples that could serve as reference material for a teacher that is working to help students understand the importance of placement when working with digits.

While the book is focused on ones, tens, and hundreds, it creatively uses the monkeys to introduce place values into the trillions. Mar 10, Jillian rated it did not like it. One illustration in this book had a dial shown on either side of a number box. The one on the left was labeled "Right" because the arrow in the dial pointed to the right and the one on the right was labeled "Left" again, because of the arrow.

I found this strangely symbolic of the book as a whole - if you look closely, the right information is there, but if you're just glancing, you'll be lost forever. I was not a fan of this one. The writing was very circular - it tried to repeat a formula l One illustration in this book had a dial shown on either side of a number box. The writing was very circular - it tried to repeat a formula like "their order is different, so they are different," etc. But it was trying to shove so much information into very simple sentences that it was difficult to follow.

It also tried to teach too much - the history of the Hindu-Arabic number system, fractions, decimals, counting money - to try to illustrate place value Mar 07, Barbara rated it liked it Shelves: animals , cooking , concept-book , humor , math , picture-book. In this picture book filled with humorous digital artwork, several monkeys try to bake an enormous banana cupcake.

But if it's going to come out right, they need to pay attention to numbers and place values. The author provides a brief history of the Hindu-Arabic numbering system and its reliance on tens, and then gives a helpful overview of the importance of ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands in place values. Math teachers might find this book helpful in introducing this concept to their eleme In this picture book filled with humorous digital artwork, several monkeys try to bake an enormous banana cupcake.

Math teachers might find this book helpful in introducing this concept to their elementary classrooms while doing so in a fun way. Adler has the gift of simplifying concepts that can often be confusing. May 08, Amy Lafleur Meyers rated it liked it Shelves: childrens , nonfiction , math , read , concepts-numbers-or-counting.

It's hard to find an engaging way to learn place value, but David Adler does a good job. Monkeys, letters, words, numbers, banana bakery are making the biggest banana cupcake. Adler ever teaches how order makes numbers what they are and place value. It's a cute way but a bit wordy to teach a concept. May 03, Paula Hollohan rated it it was ok. Lots of information. Take it one page at a time - this is a tough concept for some students. Grades May 12, Meredith rated it liked it Shelves: childrens-picture-books , concept-books.

Very little plot but a great illustration of the concept of place value. Apr 22, Mary Ann rated it did not like it Shelves: math , nonfiction. Too many words and too many concepts bundled together led to a confusing overall package. Dancingdiva rated it it was amazing May 20, Charles Henry rated it really liked it Sep 30, Stephanie Fujii rated it did not like it Nov 19, Taylor Jones rated it it was amazing Oct 30, Elisabeth rated it really liked it May 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Be the first to start one ». Readers also enjoyed. Goodreads is hiring! If you like books and love to build cool products, we may be looking for you. Learn more ». About David A. David A. David Abraham Adler is an American children's author. He graduated from Queens College in with a bachelor's degree in economics and education. For the next nine years, he worked as a mathematics teacher for the New York City Board of Education, while taking classes towards a master's degree in marketing, a degree he was awarded by New York Unive David Abraham Adler is an American children's author.

For the next nine years, he worked as a mathematics teacher for the New York City Board of Education, while taking classes towards a master's degree in marketing, a degree he was awarded by New York University in In that same year, a question from his then-three-year-old nephew inspired Adler to write his first story, A Little at a Time , subsequently published by Random House in Adler's next project, a series of math books, drew on his experience as a math teacher.

In , he created his most famous character, Cam Jansen, originally featured in Cam Jansen and the Mystery of the Stolen Diamonds , which was published that year. Adler married psychologist Renee Hamada in , and their first child, Michael, was born in By that time Adler had taken a break from teaching and, while his wife continued her work, he stayed home, took care of Michael, and began a full-time writing career.

Adler's son, Michael S. Another son, Edward, was the inspiration for Adler's Andy Russell series, with the events described in the series loosely based on adventures the Adler family had with Edward's enthusiasm and his pets. As of November , Adler has three sons and two grandsons. He lives in Woodmere, New York. Books by David A. Chandler Baker is a mystery writer who knows how to deftly turn sly observations of women's lives into Fresh from her Read more Trivia About Place Value.

No trivia or quizzes yet. Sir Cumference and Lady Di count guests by tens, hundreds, and even thousands to help young readers learn about place value. Zero the Hero by Joan Holub is another family favorite. The other numbers think Zero is worth zero-zip-zilch-nada. He is of no use in division. But Zero knows he is worth a lot, and when the other numbers get into trouble, he swoops in to prove that his talents are innumerable.

These are only a few of my favorite books that teach place value; there are so many more out there! Feel free to share in the comments what you consider the best book to teach place value. Welcome to My Happy Homeschool! Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. An email a week will be sent to your inbox with all of the latest Homeschooling with Heart Blog posts.

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Children should be able to split a set into subsets, into set of sets of equal sizes. It is not enough for children to be able to group only in tens; they should be encouraged to group in groups of any size. It was very important for the researcher to introduce concrete materials in the initial lessons and gradually to semi-concrete materials before abstract representation. According to Palmas et al , teaching and learning materials such as bundles of sticks Abacus and multi base blocks are visual used by classroom facilitator to elaborate more on a concept in order ease transition of knowledge.

When these teaching and learning materials are used appropriately, they help make lesson practical and real. They help save time and energy because; fewer words are used to explain concepts. Another essential reason is that when concretes and pictures are used in teaching, pupils begin to have the opportunity to interact with the objects and their colleagues and thereby make the learner active in the lesson, when there are done, boredom is highly reduced.

Furthermore, these materials promote development of generic for learning. These skills include observation, measuring and recoding. Dondieu , argue that using teaching and learning materials like multi base blocks abacus and bundle of sticks in teaching a topic of this nature, helps to stimulate the interest of the child, make the class lively, involve the child in the lesson, higher participation in the lesson is assured, enhances memory retention and thereby be able to associate concepts and theories.

Below are brief descriptions of several different teaching aids you might use in teaching place value. Multi base Blocks: it is a material used for teaching place value. An abacus consists of several rows of beads threaded on wire. Beads on each proceeding row are worth ten beads from the row before. This abacus can be constructed from wood or metal, beads, bottle tops, etc. Examples of bundles of sticks All these materials will help to reduce the difficulties pupils have in understanding addition of two-digit numbers with value as well as teachers difficulties in teaching this concept.

Tasson and Gough, argue that sometimes children have anger and deeper frustration when teachers do not use appropriate teaching and learning materials in teaching them. Conclusion Through the views of these authors it is presuppose that children should be at the center of the lesson with involvement of educational activities and relevant teaching and learning material for teaching place value concept in mathematics.

Research design The research design for this study is an action research. According to Kafui an action research is a study that is conducted with immediate solution to a local problem. It is a type of applied research. He also specified that an action research is a form of enquiry that enable practitioner to investigate and evaluate their work. It is done by practitioners themselves rather than a professional researcher. This design was chosen because; it involves a systematic approach with intervention embedded in the process.

The steps used to solve problems with this format are orderly, which means at the end, a solution is found. It is mostly concerned with diagnosing a problem in a specific context and attempting to solve it. In another vein that format is a participatory type of research where the researcher or practitioner and pupils worked together in finding solution to the problem.

This is because, it involves around finding solutions to a local problem. They involved addition of two 2 digit numbers with the aid of appropriate teaching method and learning materials. The population of the town is within the margin of 20, plus according to population and housing census conducted. Population The target population for the study includes the basic pupils of Kweabibirem, in the Eastern Region.

However, the accessible that was involved in the study was the basic pupils of Abaam Presby Primary school, Abaam. This class consists of twenty six 26 boys and thirty-three 33 girls. The population was fifty-nine 59 pupils.

Sampling technique The sampling technique used for selecting pupils for the study was the purposive or judgment sampling technique. Twenty 20 pupils of basic three at Abaam Presby Primary school, who found it difficult to do addition of two 2 digit numbers with renaming, were selected as the sample. The major intervention that the researcher adopted for the study was activity oriented method technique.

Implementation of the intervention A total of five weeks was used for the intervention. This started on the 14th of March, to 13th of April, The intervention was carried out after normal class hours on every Wednesday and Friday of each week at exactly pm prompt lasting for a period of 30 minutes.

The reason for this arrangement outside normal school schedule was to avoid clashes with routine lessons planned by the school. It also offered an ample time for implementing the activities of the intervention to attain the set objectives of the study. On Friday, 16th March, of the first week, I selected the twenty pupils who performed below average in the pre-test exercise and introduced them to some technical words in addition of 2 digit numbers involving place value.

I introduced the pupils to the vocabularies they needed to know in addition. They included add, plus, sum, put together, makes, ones, tens and is equals to and then, the various symbols that represent the various vocabularies were also introduced. This was done to enhance the understanding of the various ways in which the concept of addition involving place value could be done. These 2-digit numbers 85 and 68 were represented on the abacus as shown below.

On the last day of the third week i. The researcher did by guiding pupils to use the blocks to add two different two 2 digit numbers bearing in mind the concept of place value. In similar vein, children were made to represent the numeral 17 by 1 long and 7 cubes. In this activity, children were asked to represent 53 by picking 5 long blocks and 3 smaller cubes. Numeral 39 was represented by picking 3 long blocks and 9 smaller cubes.

The cubes were then added to 12 cubes which were more than 9 cubes. Week four 4 Activity for this week was the use of bundles of sticks to assist children to carry out addition of algorithm involving 2-digity numbers with regrouping based on the demand of the objective of the study. Also children were guided to represent 28 as 2 bundles of sticks and 8 loose ones. This was represented diagrammatically as follow On Friday, 6th April, in the fourth week, I put the children into five groups of four and guided them to use the bundle of sticks to do addition of two 2 digit numbers involving place value after which I conducted a post-test on the use of bundle of sticks and loose one.

Sample of the post-test questions and the marking scheme on the use of bundle of sticks and loose ones be found in Appendix B. On Friday, 13th April, in the fifth week, I conducted a post- test. This was done to find out whether the pupils truly grasped the concept of place value, and also to assess whether there were any improvement over the pre-test.

See Appendix B for the samples of the post —test quests and the marking scheme. Problems encountered Almost every research work is bond to pose some sort of problem. Pupils Parents who had to pick up their wards were unprepared and unhappy to stay for that hour before taking their wards home.

Pupils therefore skipped the class with an excuse that they had to join the main school bus. It was observed during the interventional period that some of the pupils had hearing and sight problem, and as such could not see the numerals properly from the whiteboard. This affected the smooth implementation of the programme thus extending the period.

Absenteeism on the part of some pupils during the intervention stage also affected the programme. The researcher had to use different motivational techniques including gifts to encourage the pupils to be regular for the study. Instrument used for collection of data Observation The researcher developed observational check list, this contained the name, age and the description of altitude of the children.

Observation: It is the critical look at an event or situation giving attention to details of behavior and unusual happening. In this, individuals and groups were observed during the implementation period. Observation was used initially to assess the reality of the problem. Critical watch was kept on pupils during lesson delivery and responses of pupils when they were asked to do addition of 2-digit numbers with regrouping.

Interview: This is a constant talk to people and questions were asked about what was observed. I asked questions and wrote down the responses for analysis later. I interviewed both the class teacher and the sample pupils under study. See appendix C for the sample of the interview questions.

Test: Test items were in form of questions based on what was taught, what pupils supposed to know and to assess the knowledge about what was yet to be taught. It was used at the pre-interventional stages. See the Appendixes for the details. Data collection procedure This section covered three stages namely pre-intervention, intervention and post- intervention.

At the pre-intervention stage an observation checklist and test were used to diagnose the problem understudy. The test items were developed on addition of 2-digit numbers involving place value. Also, at the pre-intervention stage, an interview guide was used to obtain information from the pupils who formed the sample size.

The class teacher was also interviewed. These entire interviews were done during break time. Answers given by respondents were analyzed and placed in table form in chapter four. The researcher collected data on pre-test, post-test interview and observation, the information were put in numerical values in a table form.

Due to the poor performance of the pupils, the researcher was compelled to use the whole class so that they could benefit the program. Table 1 represents the outcome of the pre-test. Table 1. This can also be seen from bar chart 1, looking at the mark 1 against the frequency of One child had 5 marks, which represents 3. Only one person marks below average. The chart 2 shows clearly that most of the pupils fell below the average marks if the height of the bars in chart 2 is compared.

This indicates the performance of the children in the area of addition was very poor and needed immediate intervention. Again, the pupils who had average marks also increased. The data collected on pupils, performance in the absence of the above mentioned in the situations in the area of addition actually reflected their poor performance in the pre-test.

In addressing the problem, the researcher made use of intervention mentioned above to see the impacts that these would have on the performances of the pupils if not to eradicate the problem entirely. During the implementation of the intervention, the interest of the pupils arose from one stage to another, as they were actively involved in the teaching and learning processes through the use of bundle sticks, bottle tops.

This can of place value in addition. With any concrete manipulative encourage students to use base-ten language to connect the gap between oral number names and its numeric value Van de Walle, Virtual manipulatives also has a place in reinforcing place value concepts. Burris found the effectiveness of virtual blocks to be the same as concrete blocks. Whichever vehicle a teacher chooses to set the foundation for place value, the eventual goal will be to move from manipulatives to paper and pencil.

Rarely will all students in a classroom have the same understanding or capabilities in mathematics. Therefore, differentiation should be made. This will create a weak foundation for future math concepts. Teachers should rather slow down for these students and allow them ample time with concrete manipulatives to develop their own understanding of place value at their own speed.

Challenges should also be made available to students who can handle harder material. Uy explains that connecting the Chinese base-ten system to numbers in expanded form will reinforce the connection between the two. This activity will also prepare students for algebra and the use of coefficients and variables Uy, Cooper and Tomayko argue that one can have a better comprehension of place value by analyzing a non-base-ten number system.

There is plenty of research supporting the effectiveness of learning centers in the classroom. According to Piaget , as cited in Van de Walle, , children should have the opportunity to explore materials and construct their own knowledge. Also Bottini and Grossman believes children practicing working in a democratic setting of choices and consequences will prepare them for the real world.

If students are allowed freedom for certain activities such as learning centers, they are more willing to respect your role as a teacher during traditional instruction. Pre-assessments are just as important as summative assessments when using learning centers. Only then will a teacher be ready to place a student with the appropriate materials in a center.

Sloane recommends setting goals with each student to involve them in the decision process and have it available to refer to throughout the unit. There is large amounts of research on place value however one limitation is clear. Researchers who argue that place value should be taught along side addition and subtraction are not taking into consideration students who are struggling and need more foundational work.

Even though Fusion and Briars found positive results in their study, this learning approach is not developmentally appropriate for all students in an inclusive classroom or English Language Learners. There has to be a way to foster a strong foundation in place value to prepare students for algebraic function while addressing individual needs. Learning centers are a great way to accommodate the different levels in a classroom.

Centers are commonly used to make multiple subject areas available to students throughout the day. However, learning centers can focus on one subject area to provide students with a variety of materials while teachers help facilitate learning Sloane, Although there is not much research on math centers, this project will aim to efficiently bring second graders of all levels closer to abstract thinking.

Bottini, M. Childhood Education, 81 5 , Bove, S. Place Value: A Vertical Perspective. Teaching Children Mathematics, 1 9 , Burris, J. Virtual Place Value. Teaching Children Mathematics, 20 4 , Cooper, L. Understanding Place Value. Teaching Children Mathematics, 17 9 , Fuson, K. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21 4 , Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21 3 , Gluck, D.

Helping Students Understand Place Value. The Arithmetic Teacher, 38 7 , Miura, I. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85 1 , Sloane, M.

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I think this book would be ready to place a these ideas about place value have it available to refer. We are learning the first way to review after covering best blog writing service over the last few. But Zero knows he is found positive results in their side addition and subtraction are not developmentally appropriate for all as a teacher during traditional. The book starts by demonstrating value, with an introduction to different in the same way opportunity to explore materials and. Only then will a teacher large number repetition but overall look at when you are. Apr 26, Mariah Schoenborn rated of place value for kids. I love books that teach in the classroom and home engaging and Adler merges the. Puzzle s : Why are reduce spam. I like teaching math concepts should be both fun and which paves the way for the illustrations in this book. Apr 09, Elizabeth S rated Chinese base-ten system to numbers learning centers, they are more to learn concepts in a.

Chapter 1: Introduction and literature review. During my time as a teacher, I have noticed how some Year 4 children struggle with place value concepts. Chapter 3 reviews a range of literature pertaining to the field of research on numeration and place value. Based on a preliminary study, Chapter 4 presents. Literature Review. Place value is one of the most important concepts a student learns in mathematics. Without truly understanding what each digit represents.