Bruce and Pepitone propose an interesting viewpoint according to which managers cannot motivate employees; managers can only influence what employees are motivated to do. The role of facilitating quality subordinate-superior communication at various levels effectively employing a wide range of communication channels has been praised by Shields in terms of its positive contribution in boosting employee morale.
Shields stresses two specific advantages of such a practice that relate to offering employees a chance to raise their concerns and put across their points regarding various aspects of their jobs, as well as, supplying them with the feeling of engagement and appreciation.
According to Lockley offering training and development programs that effectively contributes to personal and professional growth of individuals is another effective employee motivation strategy. At the same time, Lockley warns that in order for motivational aspects of training and development initiatives to be increased, ideally they need to be devised and implemented by a third party with relevant competency and experience.
Alternative working patterns such as job-rotating, job-sharing, and flexible working have been branded as effective motivational tools by Llopis Moreover, Llopis argues that motivational aspects of alternative working patterns along with its other benefits are being appreciated by increasing numbers of organisations, however, at the same time; many organisations are left behind from benefiting from such opportunities.
An interesting viewpoint regarding the issue has been proposed by Wylie , according to which members of management primarily should be able to maintain the level of their own motivation at high levels in order to engage in effective motivation of their subordinates. Accordingly, Wylie recommends managers to adopt a proactive approach in terms of engaging in self-motivation practices.
Furthermore, Wylie recommends concentrating on specific variations of intangible motivational tools such as celebrations of birthdays and other important dates with the participation of whole team. According to Thomas the main challenge of motivation in workplaces is identifying what motivates each individual employee taking into account his or her individual differences. However, we are not aware of a latent procedure that is comparable to relative weight analyses. It might be one goal for methodological research to overcome this shortcoming.
Out of two students with similar intelligence scores, same prior achievement, and similar task values, goals and achievement motives in a domain, the student with a higher domain-specific ability self-concept will receive better school grades in the respective domain. Therefore, there is strong evidence that believing in own competencies is advantageous with respect to academic achievement.
The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. In Germany, institutional approval was not required by default at the time the study was conducted. That is, why we cannot provide a formal approval by the institutional ethics committee. Before testing, we received informed consent forms from the parents of the students who were under the age of 18 on the day of the testing. We included this information also in the manuscript.
RS conceived and supervised the study, curated the data, performed the formal analysis, investigated the results, developed the methodology, administered the project, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. AW wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. MS performed the formal analysis, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. BS conceived the study, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Ajzen, I. Attitude—behavior relations: a theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Amthauer, R. Google Scholar. Atkinson, J. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Baranik, L. Examining specific versus general measures of achievement goals. Ben-Eliyahu, A.
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No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Weidinger 1 , Malte Schwinger 2 and Birgit Spinath 3.
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Create Alert Alert. Launch Research Feed Feed. Share This Paper. Background Citations. Results Citations. Citation Type. Has PDF. Publication Type. More Filters. Research Feed. Prioritising the dimensions of employee motivation using analytic hierarchy process. View 1 excerpt, cites background.
Organizational commitment in an intense competition environment. View 2 excerpts, cites background and results. Organizational motivation, employee job satisfaction and organizational performance. View 2 excerpts, cites background. The Genos employee motivation assessment.
View 1 excerpt, references background. The impact of employee learning on staff motivation in Greek small firms: the employees' perspective. Den and Verburg found the impact of high performing work systems, also called human resource practices, on perceptual measures of firm performance.
Ashmos and Duchon recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to find meaning and purpose in their work, and an aspiration to be part of a community, hence making their jobs worthwhile and motivating them to do at a high level with a view to personal and social development. The primary objective to write this review is to highlight the flow of motivation and reveals what motivation technique works more efficiently in different stages of life. This study provides useful managerial implication for employee motivation in an organization.
The dimensions are made fit into a model that can benefit organization to enhance their performance; however, the model needs to validate through case study or quantitative study. To study the various issues highlighted in this study related to employee motivation, this study reviews a large body of literature mainly in different journals. Once all the issues have been identified, each issue is used as a keyword to search the relevant literature. To make the study more current only those studies are included which are published in the last two decades, while priority is given to studies which are published in the last decade.
Table 1 shows that the number of articles or reviews published on motivation in the last two decades Table 2. Baldwin et al. Commeiras et al. In business, context training basically refers to action of teaching employees and providing proper knowledge and skills to make themselves job fit as well as organization fit.
Training teaches employees how to work and enhance their skills, hence motivate them to achieve the common goal of organization as well as of employee. As summarized by Park , monetary incentive acts as a stimulus for greater action and inculcates zeal and enthusiasm toward work, it helps an employee in recognition of achievement. Likewise, Beretti et al.
For reason, monetary incentive motivate employees and enhance commitment in work performance, and psychologically satisfy a person and leads to job satisfaction, and shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate toward work in the organization. The work of Azizi and Liang indicated that workforce flexibility can be achieved by cross-training and improved via job rotation. In the same way, Eguchi concluded that job transfer plays a significant role in preventing workers from performing influence activities for private help.
As summarized by Asensio-Cuesta et al. As a result, job transfer gives the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks to the workers. It avoids the dullness caused by monotonous jobs and simultaneously brings smoothness in technological job with the help of handling different circumstances at different levels and it leads to effective learning of many aspects in the organization.
In , Parvin and Kabir studied the tested factors affecting job satisfaction for pharmaceutical companies and described job satisfaction as how content an individual is with his or her job, and viewed job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although clearly linked. Similarly, Pantouvakis and Bouranta 3 indicated job satisfaction as a consequence of physical features and as an antecedent of interactive features.
Wickramasinghe investigated that gender and tenure are significant in job satisfaction measurement. So here it can be said that job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. For example, a good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance. The work of Hunter et al. As per Satyawadi and Ghosh , employees are motivated to a greater extent by achievement and self-control.
Now this can be understood: an employee who is achievement motivated seeks achievement, bringing realistic but challenging goals, and betterment in the job. There is a strong need for feedback from the higher officials in the organization as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of attainment. In , Jung and Kim stated that good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and an employee organizational commitment. So the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance.
Similarly, Cheng et al. Now the importance and the need of working condition is so describing or defining the physical environment by identifying those elements or dimensions of the physical environment. Employees having poor working conditions will only provoke negative performance, since their jobs are mentally and physically demanding, they need good working conditions.
A study by Mahazril et al. With this result, it can be stated that employees being employed in different parts can take their different opinions at different levels. As per Yamamoto if an employee perceives they will be getting rewards for good work and their job is a secured one, the performance will automatically be better.
Similarly, Zhang and Wu indicated that with Job security, an employee gets confident with the future career and they put their most efforts to achieve the objectives of the organization. So we can say job satisfaction is the most influential tool of motivation and put the employee very far off from mental tension and he gives his best to the organization, ultimately it leads to profit maximization. According to Candi et al. Mahazril et al. Recognition enhances the level of productivity and performance at job whether it is a first time performance or a repeated action at the job in a progressive way and ultimately reinforces the behavior of employee.
In , Harvey indicated that an employee is accepted as part of the social group or team. Most staff has an acute need that their contribution is worthwhile, appreciated, and acknowledged. Organizations need to look beyond the traditional economic incentives of career opportunities and salaries to other social and lifestyle factors outside the workplace.
Figure 1 explains how motivation works in different stages of life, and motivation dimension plays a vital role in enhancing individual performance in different stages of life of human being. In the developed and developing nations around the world people experiencing the phenomenon of population aging i.
Here we have considered early career stage between 20 and 40; middle career stages between 40 and 54, and late career stage 55 and above. In an effort to set a threshold to define the older worker category, as anyone over age 55 Finkelstein et al.
In the early and middle stage of life, money is important to goal setting because offering such incentives bring person being more willing to expand effort to meet a given goal level than not offering the incentives. Given the willingness to expand effort, a goal tells the individual during different career stages where to expand effort, how much effort to exert, and how long to exert the effort. Wiley concluded that good pay is an important motivator regardless of age.
Figure 2 explains how motivation dimensions influence individual and organization performance. In this competitive environment, organizations works harder to integrate its workforce and to keep the coordination among employees to enhance the working as well as employee productivity. The positive impact of motivation works toward enhancing individual responsiveness toward work. Individual enhanced responsiveness help organization working that directly links toward increase in profit and increase in organization responsiveness.
If we talk the motivation dimension that enhances organization performance, training used to enhance the skills, efficiency, and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job during their earlier career stage because it familiarizes them with the organizations goals, rules, and regulations and the working conditions in one hand since updates and amendments take place in technology, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, and computer impartment.
The employees are trained for use of new equipments and work methods. Training molds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. Supervisors believe that older workers are less motivated to learn, less flexible, and do not want to take part in training programs. So, companies do not invest in training or development opportunities for older people. In turn, older workers become less self-confident due to the lack of support in terms of training and their skills rapidly become outdated Maurer ; Van Vianen et al.
Giving a job security to an employee makes him more responsible toward job. Job security can be explained as, affirmation that an employee has for the continuity of gainful employment for his or her job. It is more essential for younger employee during different career stages of life job because it arises from the terms of contract of employment, labor legislation that results in prevention of arbitrary termination, layoffs, and lockout.
Job security has been considered from several theoretical perspectives, including as a motivational precursor to job performance. Employee recognition is used to fulfill the inherent need to appreciate as well as work to be validated by the employee contribution. During the early and later stage of life of the employee, the most important tool to motivate the employee by recognizing positive behavior from employees means that those desired behaviors that drive business success will be reciprocated.
Recognition is essential to an outstanding workplace because people want to be respected and valued for their contribution. Recognizing employee for their good work sends an extremely powerful message to the recipient, their work team, and other employees through formal and informal communication channels.
Employee recognition is a dynamic communication technique to improve employee performance which leads to enhance organizational performance. In an organization, it is important to make the employees valued and appreciated, because of which they get motivated and they work harder and be more loyal toward the organization.
During the early and middle career stage of the job employee want more appreciation from his next boss in the organization. Many ways of appreciating employee are news for companies looking for inexpensive ways to show appreciation to employees who made an appreciative effort, to thank employees several times a week, often through notes mailed to their homes and admits an employee-of-the-month program, the least time-consuming way to make sure his staff continued to appreciate.
In an organization employees have the opportunity to transfer to another job if they are moving or have the want to switch occupations. It brings positive energy among the early career stage employee to work in a new environment, which gives workers the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks.
When employees continue working at the same tasks for an extended time, they are likely to build tight relationships with particular individuals and companies, which can yield help to the employees, and to the organization. This includes the employee payment, organization of work, and work activities; training, skills, and employability; amenities, physical environment, health, safety, and well-being; and working time and work—life balance.
These used to motivate the employee to do better and achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Changes in working conditions and other aspects of the employment relationship can generate serious industrial relations problems. Williams et al. It is essential in the stages of employment i. It is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment of the desired goals and objectives Kaliski In the middle and late career stages of their employment, employees have an opportunity to showcase their achievements with pride.
Employees work in organizations not just to make a living, but to make a life. It encourages heightened ownership at work. Tangible benefits salary and intangible benefits achievements of the knowledge and other perks are necessary to engage employees, and motivate them to do their personal best. Mehta et al. A motivated and dedicated employee in the middle career stage of their job in the organization is an asset for any organization and proves instrumental in building a high-performance culture that drives organizational advancement.
Promotion is the ultimate motivating for any employee because it moves employee forward in hierarchy of concern organization added with other responsibility, higher respect, honors, with increase in grade pay and allowances. It stimulates self-development and creates interest in the job in one hand and minimizes discontent and unrest. In the late career stage of their employment social opportunities for employees to get involved in leveraging the core competencies of the organization to create business value and positive social change can increase employee motivation and job satisfaction and help workers to more effectively manage job stress.
Motivation works as a catalyzer for individual employees working for an organization to enhance their working performance or to complete task in much better way than they usually do. In this paper, authors identified the key motivation techniques from existing literature and linked it through organization performance. These motivation techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel work with the potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance, and to deliver management with the control needed to achieve organizational objectives.
Authors made flow of motivation from early career motivation techniques to late career motivation techniques and reached on a conclusion: if employees are provided with right motivation technique at right time, their morale and confidence goes up and had a direct positive impact in individual performance and organizational performance. It is indicative of the above discussion, most of the motivation dimensions viz.
This conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to motivate people, organizations need to first have the baseline in place; in the absence of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve. The study has shown success in intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators to improve performance in the organization. The major limitation of this study is that the proposed framework is designed on basis of extensive literature review and so needs to be confirmed using quantitative measures.
This framework is not been implemented in specific industry, due to its generality in nature. Although extensive research is reviewed and every possible dimensions of motivation are studied, it cannot be stated explicitly that these dimensions will be able to create the baseline which will motivate the employees through the motivators.
Thus, they create a dilemma as to whether these motivation dimensions are enough to create a solid baseline which has an impact on the motivators. Aguinis, H. What monetary rewards can and cannot do: How to show employees the money.
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An examination of emerging strategy 65- Noe, R. At a simple level, it their attitudes towards unions Evidence. Table 1 Article or review. The perception of visual emotion: incentives, markedly money. In short, motivation are forces effects of exposure to internet public sector: A case study types of needs. Journal of Management Accounting Research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality. This results to the success Download citation. This theory assumes that human hotel and travel industry in. Job satisfaction InParvin and Kabir studied the tested motivation, this theory talks about the people who are motivated satisfaction as how content an individual is with his or her job, and viewed job.Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed. But before reviewing the related motivational theories, it is necessary to discuss the job satisfaction development over the past century and review the. PDF | Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have.