literature review of motivation

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Literature review of motivation

Bruce and Pepitone propose an interesting viewpoint according to which managers cannot motivate employees; managers can only influence what employees are motivated to do. The role of facilitating quality subordinate-superior communication at various levels effectively employing a wide range of communication channels has been praised by Shields in terms of its positive contribution in boosting employee morale.

Shields stresses two specific advantages of such a practice that relate to offering employees a chance to raise their concerns and put across their points regarding various aspects of their jobs, as well as, supplying them with the feeling of engagement and appreciation.

According to Lockley offering training and development programs that effectively contributes to personal and professional growth of individuals is another effective employee motivation strategy. At the same time, Lockley warns that in order for motivational aspects of training and development initiatives to be increased, ideally they need to be devised and implemented by a third party with relevant competency and experience.

Alternative working patterns such as job-rotating, job-sharing, and flexible working have been branded as effective motivational tools by Llopis Moreover, Llopis argues that motivational aspects of alternative working patterns along with its other benefits are being appreciated by increasing numbers of organisations, however, at the same time; many organisations are left behind from benefiting from such opportunities.

An interesting viewpoint regarding the issue has been proposed by Wylie , according to which members of management primarily should be able to maintain the level of their own motivation at high levels in order to engage in effective motivation of their subordinates. Accordingly, Wylie recommends managers to adopt a proactive approach in terms of engaging in self-motivation practices.

Furthermore, Wylie recommends concentrating on specific variations of intangible motivational tools such as celebrations of birthdays and other important dates with the participation of whole team. According to Thomas the main challenge of motivation in workplaces is identifying what motivates each individual employee taking into account his or her individual differences. However, we are not aware of a latent procedure that is comparable to relative weight analyses. It might be one goal for methodological research to overcome this shortcoming.

Out of two students with similar intelligence scores, same prior achievement, and similar task values, goals and achievement motives in a domain, the student with a higher domain-specific ability self-concept will receive better school grades in the respective domain. Therefore, there is strong evidence that believing in own competencies is advantageous with respect to academic achievement.

The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. In Germany, institutional approval was not required by default at the time the study was conducted. That is, why we cannot provide a formal approval by the institutional ethics committee. Before testing, we received informed consent forms from the parents of the students who were under the age of 18 on the day of the testing. We included this information also in the manuscript.

RS conceived and supervised the study, curated the data, performed the formal analysis, investigated the results, developed the methodology, administered the project, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. AW wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. MS performed the formal analysis, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. BS conceived the study, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Ajzen, I. Attitude—behavior relations: a theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Amthauer, R. Google Scholar. Atkinson, J. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Baranik, L. Examining specific versus general measures of achievement goals. Ben-Eliyahu, A.

A situated perspective on self-regulated learning from a person-by-context perspective. High Ability Studies. Brunstein, J. Achievement motivation. Heckhausen and H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, — Conley, A. Patterns of motivation beliefs: combining achievement goal and expectancy-value perspectives. Dweck, C. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Eccles, J. Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 75— Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

Child Dev. Elliot, A. The hierarchical model of approach-avoidance motivation. A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Gjesme, T. Olso: University of Oslo. Rheinberg, and S. Hailikari, T. Academic self-beliefs and prior knowledge as predictors of student achievement in mathematics: a structural model.

Harackiewicz, J. Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: maintaining interest and making the grade. Hattie, J. Oxford: Routledge. Huang, C. Self-concept and academic achievement: a meta-analysis of longitudinal relations. School Psychol. Hulleman, C. A meta-analytic review of achievement goal measures: different labels for the same constructs or different constructs with similar labels?

Johnson, J. Factors affecting relative weights: the influence of sampling and measurement error. Methods 7, — History and use of relative importance indices in organizational research. Kriegbaum, K. Kumar, S. Confronting task difficulty in ego involvement: change in performance goals.

Kuncel, N. Academic performance, career potential, creativity, and job performance: can one construct predict them all? Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. Multiple pathways to success: an examination of integrative motivational profiles among upper elementary and college students. Lotz, C. Differential relevance of intelligence and motivation for grades and competence tests in mathematics. Marsh, H. Causal ordering of academic self-concept and academic achievement: a multiwave, longitudinal panel analysis.

The murky distinction between self-concept and self-efficacy: beware of lurking jingle-jangle fallacies. Academic self-concept, interest, grades and standardized test scores: reciprocal effects models of causal ordering. McClelland, D. The Achievement Motive. Middleton, M. Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: an underexplored aspect of goal theory. Journal J. Muenks, K. How true is grit? Associations between grit, motivation, and achievement in high school students.

Murphy, P. A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Nicholls, J. Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Pajares, F. Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: a review of the literature.

Pintrich, P. Beyond cold conceptual change: the role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change. Plante, I. The relation between achievement goal and expectancy-value theories in predicting achievement-related outcomes: a test of four theoretical conceptions. Renninger, K. Revisiting the conceptualization, measurement, and generation of interest. Robbins, S. Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes?

Ryan, R. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Schneider, R. Smart, confident, and interested: contributions of intelligence, self-concepts, and interest to elementary school achievement. Schwinger, M. Achievement goal profiles in elementary school: antecedents, consequences, and longitudinal trajectories. Seligman, M. Positive psychology: an introduction. Skaalvik, E. Internal and external frames of reference for academic self-concept. Sparfeldt, J.

Content-specific achievement motives. Spinath, B. Predicting school achievement from general cognitive ability, self-perceived ability, and intrinsic value. Intelligence 34, — The roles of competence beliefs and goal orientations for change in intrinsic motivation. Steinmayr, R. First results regarding the criterion validity of the I-S-T R concerning adults of both sex.

Diagnostica 52, — The importance of motivation as a predictor of school achievement. Konstruktion und Validierung einer Skala zur Erfassung subjektiver schulischer Werte SESSW [construction and validation of a scale for the assessment of school-related values]. Diagnostica 56, — Tonidandel, S. Relative importance analysis: a useful supplement to regression analysis. Walton, G. Latent ability grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students.

Weber, H. The roles of cognitive and motivational predictors in explaining school achievement in elementary school. Weiner, B. Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theories, and Research. Wigfield, A. Wentzel and D. Keywords : academic achievement, ability self-concept, task values, goals, achievement motives, intelligence, relative weight analysis. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Weidinger 1 , Malte Schwinger 2 and Birgit Spinath 3.

Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades.

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Create Alert Alert. Launch Research Feed Feed. Share This Paper. Background Citations. Results Citations. Citation Type. Has PDF. Publication Type. More Filters. Research Feed. Prioritising the dimensions of employee motivation using analytic hierarchy process. View 1 excerpt, cites background.

Organizational commitment in an intense competition environment. View 2 excerpts, cites background and results. Organizational motivation, employee job satisfaction and organizational performance. View 2 excerpts, cites background. The Genos employee motivation assessment.

View 1 excerpt, references background. The impact of employee learning on staff motivation in Greek small firms: the employees' perspective. Den and Verburg found the impact of high performing work systems, also called human resource practices, on perceptual measures of firm performance.

Ashmos and Duchon recognizes that employees have both a mind and a spirit and seek to find meaning and purpose in their work, and an aspiration to be part of a community, hence making their jobs worthwhile and motivating them to do at a high level with a view to personal and social development. The primary objective to write this review is to highlight the flow of motivation and reveals what motivation technique works more efficiently in different stages of life. This study provides useful managerial implication for employee motivation in an organization.

The dimensions are made fit into a model that can benefit organization to enhance their performance; however, the model needs to validate through case study or quantitative study. To study the various issues highlighted in this study related to employee motivation, this study reviews a large body of literature mainly in different journals. Once all the issues have been identified, each issue is used as a keyword to search the relevant literature. To make the study more current only those studies are included which are published in the last two decades, while priority is given to studies which are published in the last decade.

Table 1 shows that the number of articles or reviews published on motivation in the last two decades Table 2. Baldwin et al. Commeiras et al. In business, context training basically refers to action of teaching employees and providing proper knowledge and skills to make themselves job fit as well as organization fit.

Training teaches employees how to work and enhance their skills, hence motivate them to achieve the common goal of organization as well as of employee. As summarized by Park , monetary incentive acts as a stimulus for greater action and inculcates zeal and enthusiasm toward work, it helps an employee in recognition of achievement. Likewise, Beretti et al.

For reason, monetary incentive motivate employees and enhance commitment in work performance, and psychologically satisfy a person and leads to job satisfaction, and shape the behavior or outlook of subordinate toward work in the organization. The work of Azizi and Liang indicated that workforce flexibility can be achieved by cross-training and improved via job rotation. In the same way, Eguchi concluded that job transfer plays a significant role in preventing workers from performing influence activities for private help.

As summarized by Asensio-Cuesta et al. As a result, job transfer gives the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks to the workers. It avoids the dullness caused by monotonous jobs and simultaneously brings smoothness in technological job with the help of handling different circumstances at different levels and it leads to effective learning of many aspects in the organization.

In , Parvin and Kabir studied the tested factors affecting job satisfaction for pharmaceutical companies and described job satisfaction as how content an individual is with his or her job, and viewed job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although clearly linked. Similarly, Pantouvakis and Bouranta 3 indicated job satisfaction as a consequence of physical features and as an antecedent of interactive features.

Wickramasinghe investigated that gender and tenure are significant in job satisfaction measurement. So here it can be said that job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. For example, a good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance. The work of Hunter et al. As per Satyawadi and Ghosh , employees are motivated to a greater extent by achievement and self-control.

Now this can be understood: an employee who is achievement motivated seeks achievement, bringing realistic but challenging goals, and betterment in the job. There is a strong need for feedback from the higher officials in the organization as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of attainment. In , Jung and Kim stated that good work environment and good work conditions can increase employee job satisfaction and an employee organizational commitment. So the employees will try to give their best which can increase the employee work performance.

Similarly, Cheng et al. Now the importance and the need of working condition is so describing or defining the physical environment by identifying those elements or dimensions of the physical environment. Employees having poor working conditions will only provoke negative performance, since their jobs are mentally and physically demanding, they need good working conditions.

A study by Mahazril et al. With this result, it can be stated that employees being employed in different parts can take their different opinions at different levels. As per Yamamoto if an employee perceives they will be getting rewards for good work and their job is a secured one, the performance will automatically be better.

Similarly, Zhang and Wu indicated that with Job security, an employee gets confident with the future career and they put their most efforts to achieve the objectives of the organization. So we can say job satisfaction is the most influential tool of motivation and put the employee very far off from mental tension and he gives his best to the organization, ultimately it leads to profit maximization. According to Candi et al. Mahazril et al. Recognition enhances the level of productivity and performance at job whether it is a first time performance or a repeated action at the job in a progressive way and ultimately reinforces the behavior of employee.

In , Harvey indicated that an employee is accepted as part of the social group or team. Most staff has an acute need that their contribution is worthwhile, appreciated, and acknowledged. Organizations need to look beyond the traditional economic incentives of career opportunities and salaries to other social and lifestyle factors outside the workplace.

Figure 1 explains how motivation works in different stages of life, and motivation dimension plays a vital role in enhancing individual performance in different stages of life of human being. In the developed and developing nations around the world people experiencing the phenomenon of population aging i.

Here we have considered early career stage between 20 and 40; middle career stages between 40 and 54, and late career stage 55 and above. In an effort to set a threshold to define the older worker category, as anyone over age 55 Finkelstein et al.

In the early and middle stage of life, money is important to goal setting because offering such incentives bring person being more willing to expand effort to meet a given goal level than not offering the incentives. Given the willingness to expand effort, a goal tells the individual during different career stages where to expand effort, how much effort to exert, and how long to exert the effort. Wiley concluded that good pay is an important motivator regardless of age.

Figure 2 explains how motivation dimensions influence individual and organization performance. In this competitive environment, organizations works harder to integrate its workforce and to keep the coordination among employees to enhance the working as well as employee productivity. The positive impact of motivation works toward enhancing individual responsiveness toward work. Individual enhanced responsiveness help organization working that directly links toward increase in profit and increase in organization responsiveness.

If we talk the motivation dimension that enhances organization performance, training used to enhance the skills, efficiency, and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job during their earlier career stage because it familiarizes them with the organizations goals, rules, and regulations and the working conditions in one hand since updates and amendments take place in technology, purchasing a new equipment, changes in technique of production, and computer impartment.

The employees are trained for use of new equipments and work methods. Training molds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. Supervisors believe that older workers are less motivated to learn, less flexible, and do not want to take part in training programs. So, companies do not invest in training or development opportunities for older people. In turn, older workers become less self-confident due to the lack of support in terms of training and their skills rapidly become outdated Maurer ; Van Vianen et al.

Giving a job security to an employee makes him more responsible toward job. Job security can be explained as, affirmation that an employee has for the continuity of gainful employment for his or her job. It is more essential for younger employee during different career stages of life job because it arises from the terms of contract of employment, labor legislation that results in prevention of arbitrary termination, layoffs, and lockout.

Job security has been considered from several theoretical perspectives, including as a motivational precursor to job performance. Employee recognition is used to fulfill the inherent need to appreciate as well as work to be validated by the employee contribution. During the early and later stage of life of the employee, the most important tool to motivate the employee by recognizing positive behavior from employees means that those desired behaviors that drive business success will be reciprocated.

Recognition is essential to an outstanding workplace because people want to be respected and valued for their contribution. Recognizing employee for their good work sends an extremely powerful message to the recipient, their work team, and other employees through formal and informal communication channels.

Employee recognition is a dynamic communication technique to improve employee performance which leads to enhance organizational performance. In an organization, it is important to make the employees valued and appreciated, because of which they get motivated and they work harder and be more loyal toward the organization.

During the early and middle career stage of the job employee want more appreciation from his next boss in the organization. Many ways of appreciating employee are news for companies looking for inexpensive ways to show appreciation to employees who made an appreciative effort, to thank employees several times a week, often through notes mailed to their homes and admits an employee-of-the-month program, the least time-consuming way to make sure his staff continued to appreciate.

In an organization employees have the opportunity to transfer to another job if they are moving or have the want to switch occupations. It brings positive energy among the early career stage employee to work in a new environment, which gives workers the opportunity to learn multiple skills and outlooks.

When employees continue working at the same tasks for an extended time, they are likely to build tight relationships with particular individuals and companies, which can yield help to the employees, and to the organization. This includes the employee payment, organization of work, and work activities; training, skills, and employability; amenities, physical environment, health, safety, and well-being; and working time and work—life balance.

These used to motivate the employee to do better and achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Changes in working conditions and other aspects of the employment relationship can generate serious industrial relations problems. Williams et al. It is essential in the stages of employment i. It is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment of the desired goals and objectives Kaliski In the middle and late career stages of their employment, employees have an opportunity to showcase their achievements with pride.

Employees work in organizations not just to make a living, but to make a life. It encourages heightened ownership at work. Tangible benefits salary and intangible benefits achievements of the knowledge and other perks are necessary to engage employees, and motivate them to do their personal best. Mehta et al. A motivated and dedicated employee in the middle career stage of their job in the organization is an asset for any organization and proves instrumental in building a high-performance culture that drives organizational advancement.

Promotion is the ultimate motivating for any employee because it moves employee forward in hierarchy of concern organization added with other responsibility, higher respect, honors, with increase in grade pay and allowances. It stimulates self-development and creates interest in the job in one hand and minimizes discontent and unrest. In the late career stage of their employment social opportunities for employees to get involved in leveraging the core competencies of the organization to create business value and positive social change can increase employee motivation and job satisfaction and help workers to more effectively manage job stress.

Motivation works as a catalyzer for individual employees working for an organization to enhance their working performance or to complete task in much better way than they usually do. In this paper, authors identified the key motivation techniques from existing literature and linked it through organization performance. These motivation techniques has long been acknowledged as an important personnel work with the potential to improve employee motivation and hence performance, and to deliver management with the control needed to achieve organizational objectives.

Authors made flow of motivation from early career motivation techniques to late career motivation techniques and reached on a conclusion: if employees are provided with right motivation technique at right time, their morale and confidence goes up and had a direct positive impact in individual performance and organizational performance. It is indicative of the above discussion, most of the motivation dimensions viz.

This conclusion is built on the emphasis made by earlier researchers to motivate people, organizations need to first have the baseline in place; in the absence of the baseline, motivation is not possible to achieve. The study has shown success in intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators to improve performance in the organization. The major limitation of this study is that the proposed framework is designed on basis of extensive literature review and so needs to be confirmed using quantitative measures.

This framework is not been implemented in specific industry, due to its generality in nature. Although extensive research is reviewed and every possible dimensions of motivation are studied, it cannot be stated explicitly that these dimensions will be able to create the baseline which will motivate the employees through the motivators.

Thus, they create a dilemma as to whether these motivation dimensions are enough to create a solid baseline which has an impact on the motivators. Aguinis, H. What monetary rewards can and cannot do: How to show employees the money.

Business Horizons, 56 2 , — Article Google Scholar. Asensio-Cuesta, S. A genetic algorithm for the design of job rotation schedules considering ergonomic and competence criteria. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 60 9—12 , — Ashmos, D. Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9 2 , — Azizi, N. An integrated approach to worker assignment, workforce flexibility acquisition, and task rotation. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 64 2 , — Baldwin, T.

The perils of participation: Effects of the choice of training on trainee motivation and learning. Personnel Psychology, 44 1 , 51— Barney, E. Flex-time as a moderator of the job stress-work motivation relationship: A three nation investigation. Personnel Review, 39 4 , — Barton, L. The moderating effect of organizational change cynicism on middle manager strategy commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24 4 , — Bell, B.

Reactions to skill assessment: The forgotten factor in explaining motivation to learn. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18 1 , 33— Beretti, A. Kyklos, 66 1 , 63— Bussing, A. A dynamic model of work satisfaction: Qualitative approaches. Human Relations, 52 8 , — Google Scholar. Candi, M. Innovation through experience staging: Motives and outcomes. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30 2 , — Cannon-Bowers, J.

Toward theoretically based principles of training effectiveness: A model and initial empirical investigation. Military Psychology, 7 3 , — Casad, S. Implications of job rotation literature for performance improvement practitioners. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 25 2 , 27— Cheng, A.

HRM strategies and labor turnover in the hotel industry: A comparative study of Australia and Singapore. International journal of human resource management, 9 1 , — Cheng, Y. The influence of age on the distribution of self-rated health, burnout and their associations with psychosocial work conditions.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74 3 , — Chenhall, R. Integrative strategic performance measurement systems, strategic alignment of manufacturing, learning and strategic outcomes: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 30 5 , — Chiaburu, D. Individual and contextual influences on multiple dimensions of training effectiveness. Journal of European Industrial Training, 29 8 , — Clark, C.

Exploratory field study of training motivation: Influence of involvement, credibility, and transfer climate. Group Organization Management, 18 3 , — Colquitt, J. Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: A meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 85 5 , — Commeiras, N. Identification of organizational socialization tactics: The case of sales and marketing trainees in higher education. European Management Journal, 31 2 , — Cosgel, M. Job rotation: Cost, benefits, and stylized facts. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, , — Datta, G. HRM practices and the within-firm gender wage gap.

British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50 3 , — Decoene, V. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 26 4 , — Den, H. High performance work systems, organizational culture and firm performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 14 , 55— Dundar, S.

Dysvik, A. Exploring the relative and combined influence of mastery-approach goals and work intrinsic motivation on employee turnover intention. Personnel Review, 39 5 , — Eguchi, K. Job transfer and influence activities. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 56 , — Facteau, J.

The influence of general perceptions of the training environment on pre-training motivation and perceived training transfer. Journal of Management, 21 1 , 1— Feldman, Y. The incentives matrix: The comparative effectiveness of rewards, liabilities, duties, and protections for reporting illegality. Texas Law Review, 88 6 , — Finkelstein, L. Age discrimination in simulated employment contexts: An integrative analysis.

Journal of Applied Psychology, 80 6 , — Reactions to the Fairness of Promotion Methods: Procedural justice and job satisfaction. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20 4 , — Garg, P. Journal of Management Development, 25 6 , — Gegenfurtner, A.

Predicting autonomous and controlled motivation to transfer training. International Journal of Training and Development, 13 2 , — Motivation to transfer training: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 8 3 , — George, J. Organizational spontaneity in context. Human Performance, 10 1 , — Gignac, G. The genos employee motivation assessment. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43 2 , 79— Harvey, W.

Victory can be yours in the global war for talent: Social factors and lifestyle help to attract top employees. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21 1 , 37— Hunter, S. Hiring an innovative workforce: A necessary yet uniquely challenging endeavor. Human Resource Management Review, 22 4 , — Ichniowski, C. The effects of human resource management practices on productivity: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87 , — Jain K.

International Review of Business Research Papers, 13 5 , — Javernick-Will, A. Motivating knowledge sharing in engineering and construction organizations: Power of social motivations. Journal of Management in Engineering, 28 2 , — Jung, J. Causes of newspaper firm employee burnout in Korea and its impact on organizational commitment and turnover intention.

International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 17 , — Kaliski, B. Encyclopedia of business and finance 2nd ed. Detroit: Thompson Gale. Factors that affect hotel employs motivation the case of bodrum. Serbian Journal of Management, 5 1 , 59— Kirkpatrick, D. Training and Development, 50 1 , 54— Piskurich, P. Hall Eds. Klein, H. Motivation to learn and course outcomes: The impact of delivery mode, learning goal orientation, and perceived barriers and enablers.

Personnel Psychology, 59 3 , — Koch, A. Job assignments under moral hazard: The Peter principle revisited. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 21 4 , — Koc-Menard, S. Training strategies for an aging workforce. Industrial and Commercial Training, 41 6 , — Kontoghiorghes, C. Reconceptualising the learning transfer conceptual framework: Empirical validation of a new systemic model. International Journal of Training and Development, 8 3 , — Kovach, K. Employee Relations Today, 22 2 , 93— Kunz, A.

Agency theory, performance evaluation, and the hypothetical construct of intrinsic motivation. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 27 3 , — Kuo, Y. Organizational commitment in an intense competition environment. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 1 , 39— Lazazzara, A.

HRM practices for an ageing Italian workforce: The role of training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35 8 , — Leung, K. Job satisfaction in joint venture hotels in China: An organizational justice analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 27 5 , — Levinson, D. A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41 1 , 3— Linder, J. Understanding employee motivation.

Journal of Extension, 36 3 , 28— Luthans, F. Reinforce for performance: The need to go beyond pay and even rewards. The academy of management executive, 13 2 , 49— Mahazril, A.

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An examination of emerging strategy 65- Noe, R. At a simple level, it their attitudes towards unions Evidence. Table 1 Article or review. The perception of visual emotion: incentives, markedly money. In short, motivation are forces effects of exposure to internet public sector: A case study types of needs. Journal of Management Accounting Research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality. This results to the success Download citation. This theory assumes that human hotel and travel industry in. Job satisfaction InParvin and Kabir studied the tested motivation, this theory talks about the people who are motivated satisfaction as how content an individual is with his or her job, and viewed job.

Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed. But before reviewing the related motivational theories, it is necessary to discuss the job satisfaction development over the past century and review the. PDF | Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have.