literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

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Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries custom dissertation proposal writing for hire gb

Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries


Leaf, W. Corporate Creators:. Preusser Research Group, Inc. Corporate Contributors:. United States. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Resource Type:. Research Paper. Contracting Officer:. Levy, Marvin; Ellison-Potter, Patricia.

Corporate Publisher:. NTL Classification:. The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian crash occurrence and more serious resulting pedestrian injury.

Reductions in vehicle travel speeds can be achieved through lowered speed limits, police enforcement of speed limits, and associated public information. More long-lasting speed reductions in neighborhoods where vehicles and pedestrians commonly share the roadway can be achieved through engineering approaches generally known as traffic calming. Countermeasures include road humps, roundabouts, other horizontal traffic deflections e. Comprehensive community-based speed reduction programs, combining public information and education, enforcement, and roadway engineering, are recommended.

Alternate URL:. Collection s :. Main Document Checksum:. File Type:. Supporting Files:. Related Documents:. You May Also Like:. Development, implementation and evaluation of a countermeasure program for alcohol-involved pedestrian crashes. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pedestrian alcohol problem in a community and to develop and apply procedures to counter the problem System analysis of automated speed enforcement implementation.

Speeding is a major factor in a large proportion of traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities in the United States. Investigation of the use and feasibility of speed warning systems. Turning at Intersections and Pedestrian Injuries. View 2 excerpts, cites results. The fatality and injury risk of light truck impacts with pedestrians in the United States. View 3 excerpts, cites results and background. The risk of pedestrian injury and fatality in collisions with motor vehicles, a social ecological study of state routes and city streets in King County, Washington.

Highly Influenced. View 11 excerpts, cites background. A multivariate analysis of the severity of injury sustained by pedestrians involved in collisions on state routes in King County, Washington, and a discussion of effective safety intervention and injury prevention policies. Accidents between pedestrians, bicyclists and motorized vehicles: accident risk and injury severity. View 2 excerpts, cites background and results. Motor vehicle crash injury rates by mode of travel, United States: using exposure-based methods to quantify differences.

Speed, road injury, and public health. Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes. Highly Influential. View 5 excerpts, references background. The severity of pedestrian injuries in children: an analysis of the Pedestrian Injury Causation Study. View 2 excerpts, references methods and background. Environmental factors and the risk for childhood pedestrian-motor vehicle collision occurrence. View 1 excerpt, references background. View 1 excerpt, references methods.

Analysis of circumstances and injuries in pedestrian traffic fatalities. Effect of environmental factors on risk of injury of child pedestrians by motor vehicles: a case-control study. View 2 excerpts, references background. The effects of mobile roadside speedometers on traffic speeds. Automatic Speed Management in the Netherlands.

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Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries Jensen summarized several studies showing that actual travel speeds came down with each speed limit reduction, and each time pedestrian injuries were reduced in frequency and severity. The name field is required. Elvik examined crash reductions along 64 road sections with photo radar, finding an overall reduction of 20 percent in injury crashes and 12 percent in property damage only crashes the former was statistically significant. Comprehensive community-based speed reduction programs, combining public information and education, enforcement, and roadway engineering, are recommended. It should be emphasized that this does not refer to common American speed bumps, which are short, relatively high, and produce a jarring sensation if traversed at faster than walking speed.
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Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries Reflective ghostwriter services
Listing high school education on resume examples This project had three objectives. They were going somewhat faster initially than drivers who did not react, i. Pedestrian injury severity as a function of speed limit, for vehicles going straight GES, ; all crashes with known injury severity 8. Engineering approaches are often given the general title of "traffic calming. Please enter your name. The history of roadway engineering to control vehicle speeds is most extensive with the development of traffic calming in Europe and a few other countries.
Top problem solving editor service for school These incidents were analyzed for the relationship between vehicle speed and pedestrian injury. Although the type my mathematics resume of pedestrians and bicyclists overlap extensively, very little about bicycle safety and convenience will be covered, except where pedestrian solutions may have significant negative consequences for bicyclists. At the same speed limits, older pedestrians were much more likely to be killed, or killed or seriously injured, than younger pedestrians. GES and Florida data were analyzed to relate posted speed limits and vehicle travel speeds to injury severities. The pattern of differences varies by vehicle travel speeds.
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Speed humps have also been found to be effective when used in combination with curb extensions Ewing , Gitelman et al. For more information on curb extensions, see the section on neckdowns, bulb-outs, curb extensions, and chokers; for more information on the study of combined treatments, see the Engineering Countermeasure Combinations section.

Speed Tables and Raised Crossings. A speed table is a longer and wider speed hump typi- cally 22 ft long with a flat top and ramps going up either side see Figure Similar to speed humps and speed lumps, speed tables have proven effective at reducing vehicle speeds. Speed tables are often used in conjunction with marked crosswalks to provide raised crossings for pedestrians and, when used at intersections, to reduce turning speeds for vehicles.

Speed tables have been shown to reduce 85th percentile speeds and mean speeds by 3 to 11 mph FHWA Huang and Cynecki measured the impacts of raised crosswalks in North Carolina and observed reductions in 50th percentile speeds ranging from 2.

In Spain, Gonzalo-Orden et al. The researchers found that two raised crosswalks, which were approximately 1, ft m apart, performed. Literature Review 19 similarly and were associated with 50th and 85th percentile speeds 12 mph lower than the road- way with regular marked crosswalks. To date, there is little research on the impact of this treatment directly on pedestrian safety. Simi- larly, Chen et al.

The treatments typically were installed along one-lane residential streets. Speed tables have also been found to be effective when used in combination with speed humps Gitelman et al. Treatments with Horizontal Deflection In contrast to treatments with vertical deflection, which force vehicles to slow down, treat- ments with horizontal deflection encourage slower speeds by laterally shifting the line of travel.

These treatments include chicanes, neckdowns, curb extensions, chokers, raised center islands, and mini traffic circles. Although treatments that integrate horizontal deflection are less commonly studied than treatments with vertical deflection, the former have been proven effective in many situations and are widely used in many U. Importantly, treatments with horizontal deflection include options appropriate for arterial or other high-volume road- ways.

Research indicates that, in general, horizontal treatments can be more effective than ASE, but are typically less effective than treatments with vertical deflection FHWA ; Mountain et al. Chicanes are small, raised islands used to narrow the roadway and laterally shift traffic. Typically, chicanes alternate between sides of the road, but occasionally are placed on only one side of the road see Figure The FHWA reported reductions in 85th percentile speeds ranging from 3 to 9 mph after the installation of chicanes.

The Traffic Advisory Unit in London reviewed speed data for chicanes and found that chicanes reduced mean and 85th percentile speeds by 12 mph. Raised crossings in residential left and commercial right environments. The authors found that the two treatments were similarly effective at reducing mean travel speeds and 85th percentile speeds.

The chicanes were associated with a 3-mph reduction within ft of the treatment and a 4-mph reduction within about ft of the treatment. The authors noted that there was a slightly greater variation in speeds at sites with the chicanes compared to those with the speed humps, although only two sites with chicanes were included in this study. This review found no research on the impact of this treatment directly on pedestrian safety.

Mini Traffic Circles. Mini traffic circles are small, circular raised islands placed in the middle of uncontrolled intersections of residential streets see Figure Mini traffic circles are best suited for streets with speed limits less than 30 mph FHWA Chicanes on both sides of the street left and one side of the street with a mini traffic circle right. Mini traffic circles in residential areas.

A study of traffic circles along 25 mph roads in Clark County, WA, found that after installation, 85th percentile speeds decreased from 32 to 25 mph and mean speeds decreased from 28 to 22 mph Zegeer et al.

Roads However, an analysis of 4 years of crash data from Seattle found a notable decrease in crashes after the City installed over neighborhood traffic circles at nonarterial intersections. Roads , although the study does not state the degree to which the reduction in crashes was due to a reduction in conflicts versus speed.

Modern Roundabouts. Modern roundabouts are circular raised islands that move traffic in one direction, control speed on entry, and are placed in the middle of uncontrolled intersections of larger streets, typically either collectors or arterials see Figure They are designed to accom- modate more traffic than mini traffic circles and can be designed to accommodate higher speeds.

Retting et al. Brude and Larsson found that the conversion of a signalized intersection to a single-lane roundabout was associated with 3 to 4 times fewer crashes than otherwise expected, but the conversion to a two-lane roundabout showed no difference in pedestrian crash outcomes. Road reconfiguration projects commonly known as road diets or rechannelizations involve removing at least one travel lane from a roadway and repurposing that space for other uses, typically to add bicycle lanes, medians, turn lanes, or on-street parking see Figure The most common lane reconfiguration involves turning a four-lane roadway to a two-lane roadway with a two-way left turn lane center turn lane.

Evidence from academic studies and city reports indicates that road diets, particularly when coupled with other treatments, can effectively reduce vehicle speeds and improve pedestrian safety. Modern roundabout. Source: www. Gates et al. The authors also recorded reductions in 85th percentile speeds at 15 sites.

Thomas synthesis of six studies on road diets concluded that, in general, road diets effectively reduce vehicle speeds, and in many cases, reduce crashes. She also found that, in many situations, vehicle volumes are not diminished by road reconfiguration projects.

Chen et al. The authors derived a CMF of 0. This trend was similar across all types of crashes at intersections with road diets, not just those involving pedestrians. The authors did not control for changes in vehicle or pedestrian volumes, so increased volumes may have influenced these results. Studies of numerous lane reduction projects in Washington State have shown significant decreases in traffic speeds and, in some cases, increased pedestrian safety.

The decreases in 85th percentile speeds ranged from 3 to 7 mph. Before left and after right a street reconfiguration project in Seattle, WA. Some of the road reconfiguration projects included the addition of pedestrian crossing improvements. For example, Rainier Ave S was coupled with a speed-limit reduction and increased enforce- ment and is discussed further in the Engineering Countermeasure Combinations section. Neckdowns, Bulb-outs, Curb Extensions, and Chokers. Neckdowns, bulb-outs, curb extensions, and chokers physically narrow the roadway width at intersections or in the middle of the block, often by extending the sidewalk see Figure This physical narrowing of the roadway encourages slower traffic speeds.

If combined with a pedestrian crossing, this treatment also reduces pedestrian exposure by reducing the crossing distance. Similarly, if combined with a reduced curb radius, curb extensions can operate as horizontal deflection. Although these treatments are recommended in many traffic-calming guides and considered an effective tool in many cities see Chapter 3 , their effectiveness is not well established in the literature.

Research published on neckdowns has found mixed results. Brattle Street in Cambridge was reconstructed in to add curb extensions, chicanes, and crossing islands at intersections City of Cambridge Speed studies conducted before and after the instal- lation of the traffic-calming measures found that the 85th percentile speed did not change significantly, but there was a significant reduction in the percentage of drivers traveling 25 to 30 mph, and an increase in the number of drivers traveling at speeds below 25 mph.

This review found little research on the effect of these treatments directly on pedestrian safety. Neckdown left and midblock curb extension with raised center median right. However, the treatment is considered effective enough for many cities to use it as a key element of slowing driver speed.

Raised Medians and Pedestrian Crossing Islands. Raised medians and center islands can be used to narrow the roadway width and provide a refuge area for pedestrians at crossing loca- tions see Figure Medians and pedestrian crossing islands are associated with increased pedestrian safety. Gan et al. CMFs for raised medians with marked crosswalks at unsignalized intersections have been estimated at 0.

Lane Narrowing with Pavement Markings. Although more common in rural areas, the practice of using pavement markings to create the effect of a narrowed travel lane in order to reduce vehicle speeds is used in some cities see Figure Research on the effectiveness of this treatment in urban areas has yielded mixed results. A study by VHB found a 4-mph reduction in mean vehicle speeds at a four-lane intersection, whereas Lum observed no change in traffic speeds after the treatment was installed in a residential area.

Ewing observed that lane narrowing had minimal impact on 85th percentile speeds. The effectiveness of narrowing lane widths on traffic speeds and pedestrian safety likely depends on several factors, such as number of lanes, shoulder width, and the provision of additional pedestrian safety improvements Boodlal et al.

It is also possible that the material used to narrow the lane would affect its effectiveness; for example, narrowing a street by using flexposts, as opposed to paint, may have a stronger effect on a driver because of the increased risk from hitting the posts. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of various strategies to reduce vehicle speeds via narrowed lane widths.

This review found no studies on the effect of lane narrowing directly on pedestrian safety. Raised medians with pedestrian crossings. Literature Review 25 Curb Radius Reductions. Curb radius reductions require drivers to make sharper turns and, ideally, drive slower when turning a corner see Figure This review found no studies on the impact of curb radius reductions on pedestrian safety or vehicle speeds in the United States.

However, this treatment is still considered promising given the principles of geometry and its impact on driver behavior. ITE suggests that reducing curb radii can improve pedestrian safety by reducing turning vehicle speeds, improving visibility between drivers and pedestrians, and reducing the distance pedestrians must travel to cross the street. In Toronto, Zangenehpour et al.

Their analysis showed no significant changes in vehicle speeds, however, the authors observed notable decreases in the rates of low-, medium-, and high-risk conflicts between turning vehicles and pedestrians. Conflicts were categorized based on the post-encroachment time PET , which is the amount of time between when the first user left a common spatial zone and the second road user arrived in the common spatial Figure Lane narrowing using white paint.

Corner retrofitted to have a reduced curb radius. High-risk conflicts included those with a PET of less than 1 sec, medium-risk conflicts had a PET between 1 and 3 sec, and low-risk conflicts had a PET between 3 and 5 sec Zangenehpour et al. Signs and Signals Speed feedback signs and speed-activated speed limit signs. A speed feedback sign displays the travel speed of drivers as they pass by the sign see Figure , whereas a speed-activated speed limit sign displays the speed limit for vehicles exceeding a specific speed.

A study of two speed-activated speed limit signs and two speed feedback signs along main roads through small communities in Iowa found both treatments to be effective Hallmark et al. Speed feed- back signs were associated with an 8-mph decrease in mean speeds and a 9-mph decrease in 85th percentile speeds. Speed-activated speed limit signs were associ- ated with a 6-mph decrease in mean speeds and 7-mph decrease in 85th percentile speeds.

Speed reductions persisted 12 months after installation, although the reductions were not as dramatic. A study of three speed-activated speed limit signs on collector streets in Colorado reported 4-mph reductions in 85th percentile speeds FHWA A separate study of three speed feedback signs in Texas reported decreases in mean speeds 7 mph and 85th percentile speeds 3 mph 4 months after installation Ullman and Rose This study found no research of the impact of speed feedback signs or speed-activated speed limit signs directly on pedestrian safety.

In-Street Pedestrian Crossing Signs. For example, Kamyab et al. After installing one in-street sign at six locations in North Dakota, Gedafa et al. A study of the impacts of installing one in-street sign in Iowa revealed that the in-street sign was effective at reduc- ing vehicle speeds at only one of the three sites. The site that was associated with speed reductions had an ADT of 5,, whereas the other two sites had ADTs of 7, and 25, Speed feedback sign. Literature Review 27 More recently, a gateway strategy using these in-street signs three R signs placed in the street perpendicular to the direction of travel has been tested.

Van Houten and Hochmuth examined the impact of the gateway treatment on vehicle speeds and found that they declined post installation at all 10 study sites. The reduced speeds persisted throughout the study period nearly one year. The average speed reduction was 4 mph; however, some study sites were associated with reductions of nearly 10 mph. Speed measurements and results associated with this study were not dependent on the presence of a pedestrian.

To date, there are no studies on the impact of in-street pedestrian crossing R signs directly on pedestrian safety. Signal Timing. Some cities are adjusting signal timing to promote slower traffic speeds. For example, when the City of Seattle reduces the speed limit along a corridor with signal- ized intersections, signal timing is adjusted to the new design speed to encourage vehicles to travel at the new posted speed Le New York City also uses signal timing as a low-cost strategy to encourage slower vehicle travel speeds City of New York , and the National Association of City Transportation Officials recommends adjusting signal timing in downtown areas as a means of encouraging slower driving speeds.

Engineering Countermeasure Combinations In some situations, jurisdictions have chosen to implement multiple treatments as part of one traffic-calming project. The literature on this topic indicates that, in general, implement- ing multiple types of engineering treatments at once is an effective strategy for reducing vehicle speeds and improving pedestrian safety. In Alexandria, VA, curb extensions, neck downs, speed cushions, and crosswalks were installed on Russell Road, a two-lane arterial see Figure Along Brattle Street in Cambridge, MA, curb extensions, chicanes, and pedestrian crossing islands were installed as part of a City-led traffic-calming project City of Cambridge After installation, 85th percentile speeds decreased from 31 to 30 mph, the percentage of drivers traveling 25 to 30 mph decreased, and the percentage of drivers traveling 21 to 25 mph increased.

Traditional in-street pedestrian crossing sign treatment left and gateway deployment right. Montgomery County installed five raised traffic islands and six curb extensions and reduced the curb radius at one intersection along an arterial street. Speed studies conducted before and after the treatments were installed indicated that the mean speed decreased from 30 to 24 mph, the highest speed decreased from 44 to 38 mph, and the 85th percentile speed reduced from 32 to 27 mph Zegeer et al.

In , Seattle launched a project to improve safety along Rainier Avenue South by reduc- ing excessive speeding, improving conditions for pedestrians, and enhancing intersection safety SDOT a. The City reconfigured the street from four to three lanes, including two travel lanes and a center two-way left turn lane; provided one leading pedestrian interval and left-turn signals; adjusted signal timing; and reduced the speed limit from 30 to 25 mph see Figure For a few weeks after the design and operation changes were installed, the City also increased enforcement along the corridor.

A few studies have specifically examined the effectiveness of treatments on their own versus in combination with other treatments, finding, not surprisingly, that the combinations were generally more effective. For example, neck downs and medians were found to be more effective when implemented together Corkle et al. The program included the installation of traffic-calming measures in a two-by-two block radius around the Figure Speed cushions left and chicanes and speed humps right in Seattle.

Literature Review 29 school. The treatments included speed humps, edgelines, two raised crosswalks, curb extensions, and a road diet for one street. On average, motor vehicle speeds decreased to below 20 mph throughout the project area. The prevailing speeds on Minna and Natoma alleys, previously over 20 mph, decreased to below the mph speed limit. Capp Street speeds reduced by 9 mph from 26 to 17 mph , and speeds reduced from 25 to 21 mph on 15th Street.

Enforcement Countermeasures. Enforcement frequently is used by cities to encourage compliance with posted speed limits and deter dangerous driving behaviors like speeding. Although enforcement efforts can be effective, they are often only effective while the enforce- ment is being conducted or when the presence of enforcement is anticipated. ASE is considered the most effective form of enforcement for reducing vehicle speeds Goodwin et al. High- visibility enforcement campaigns may also be effective, but documentation of their effectiveness on improving pedestrian safety in particular is lacking, and existing documentation indicates that the safety benefits are not guaranteed Goodwin et al.

Automated Speed Enforcement ASE involves the use of a fixed or mobile camera to measure vehicle speeds and photograph vehicles that exceed the speed limit by a certain amount. The effectiveness of ASE is well docu- mented Goodwin et al. ASE cameras have been successfully used in various environments, including residential and arterial streets and school zones.

ASE cameras can be fixed remain at a single location or mobile attached to vehicles for use in various parts of a community. For example, an analysis of 14 urban arterials in Charlotte, NC, revealed that ASE cameras significantly reduced the percentage of top-end speeders Cunningham et al. Freedman et al. Speed measurements at comparison sites indicated that the decreased speeds were limited to the areas with the cameras. More recently, the City of Portland deployed speed cameras at four locations as part of its Vision Zero efforts Vision Zero Network A review of speed safety camera data from three Figure Rainier Ave S before left and after right the street reconfiguration.

Source: Seattle Department of Transportation. The 85th percentile speeds decreased by 4 to 9 mph at all locations. Beginning in , SDOT installed cameras in school zones where speeding had been identi- fied as an issue despite a mph posted speed limit SDOT b; see Figure The speed cameras operate only when the school zone flashing beacons are active, and by the end of , the program had expanded to a total of 14 speed photo enforcement cameras.

New York City has also found success with this strategy. Seattle and New York City have also documented that drivers who receive a citation from the ASE cameras are unlikely to repeat the offense. About 7. Speed enforcement camera in school zone. Literature Review 31 sites, respectively. The study findings indicate that the program was associated with spillover benefits, although additional research is needed to confirm the magnitude of the poten- tial spillover benefits due to lack of baseline speed data in those areas.

Tang reviewed more than 10 studies of speed enforcement cameras conducted between and in the United States, Europe, and Australia and found that speed enforcement cameras effectively reduced vehicle speeds. Three European studies found that speed cameras were associated with reductions in average vehicle speeds ranging from 4 to 6 mph Mountain et al.

Looking at data from more than 3, sites with cameras, Tang and Li et al. Specifically, these authors found that the effects of the speed cameras were strongest close to the cameras and were limited to distances of up to 1, ft m from the cameras. Beyond 2, ft m , the speed cameras had no effect. Li et al. The study also compared the effects of continuous and discontinu- ous enforcement strategies on different arterials and found that continuous enforcement was associated with a greater reduction in crashes of all types than discontinuous enforcement.

The findings also suggest a spillover effect of enforcement on other approaches that are not experiencing enforcement. The study included all crashes that occurred within ft of a camera. In Europe and Australia, average speed enforcement as opposed to single-point enforcement is increasing in popularity. Most ASE programs in the United States measure vehicle speeds at a single location, whereas average speed enforcement also called point-to-point enforcement efforts use cameras placed at two ends of a specified road section to measure vehicle travel time between the two cameras.

Soole et al. This treatment often is used along higher- speed roads and highways and may therefore be applicable only in suburban or rural areas of the United States. This treatment may also be cost prohibitive to some jurisdictions in the United States where ASE is legal. Increasing numbers of cities are interested in the use of ASE because of its effectiveness, unbiased nature, and ability to mitigate disproportionate policing in certain neighborhoods.

Additionally, partnership with his- torically disadvantaged communities is important to avoid exacerbating community conflicts, particularly in areas that tend to be surrounded by higher-speed roadways. High-Visibility Enforcement High-visibility enforcement campaigns are targeted enforcement efforts that are highly publicized to the general public.

This treatment has been found to be effective in detecting alcohol-impaired driving and seatbelt use; however, existing evidence is mixed regarding its effectiveness with speeding, and some studies have found the impacts to be minimal Walter et al. In addition, the benefits of high-visibility enforcement programs are typically short-term and may not persist beyond the length of the campaign. A study of a high-visibility enforcement campaign along a 6-mi corridor in London reported decreases in 85th percentile speeds of less than 2 mph during the campaign and less than 1.

The inconsistent and infrequent use of high-visibility enforcement programs by local municipalities further hinders the success and knowledge of the effectiveness of these types of programs NTSB Successful enforcement campaigns typically combine enforcement campaigns with other treatments.

See the Engineering Countermeasure Combinations section for examples of successful enforcement campaigns used in conjunction with other treatments. There were no academic studies on the topic, and most examples found were part of Vision Zero efforts to encourage drivers to slow down through marketing. Outreach efforts associated with Vision Zero and reducing traffic speed include yard signs, bumper stickers, commercials, and billboards see, e. These treatments may serve to raise awareness about the campaign; however, their effectiveness at reducing driver speeds remains difficult to detect, in large part because they are often part of a comprehensive program.

In the future, Vision Zero campaigns may serve as case studies to shed light on the impacts of educational campaigns on vehicle speed. Vision Zero public education materials from Seattle left and Portland right. Literature Review 33 2. Each of the strategies listed below will be briefly discussed in this section.

Although Vision Zero programs are often adopted via policy, the programs themselves are so necessarily multifaceted that they will be covered under Comprehensive Programs in Section 2. Speed-Limit Reduction Posting speed limit signs and reducing speed limits are common tactics to encourage safe traffic speeds. However, reducing speed limits and posting new signs alone has not been found to be very effective at reducing vehicle speeds, especially when compared to the other counter- measures discussed in this chapter.

Typically, for every 5-mph reduction in the speed limit, only a 1 to 2 mph reduction in average travel speeds is expected Leaf and Preusser Pedestrian volumes are also typically much higher along lower speed roads. As such, there is a growing movement to reduce speed limits along streets that tend to have higher volumes of pedestrians.

For example, Portland and Seattle have decreased speed limits on residential streets from 25 to 20 mph. Both Jurewicz et al. Slower Speed Zones. School zones are areas that are near schools and these zones are often created with a unique set of policies, such as lower speed limits. In some jurisdictions, school zone speed limits are as low as 15 mph; however, this is not common practice ITE n. As discussed above, the implementation of countermeasures to reduce speeds has been found effective in school zones; these areas often serve as case studies for measuring countermeasure effectiveness, in part because communities are often more willing to experiment with more aggressive treatments in limited areas and when children are involved.

In addition to school zones, cities all over the world have implemented programs to reduce speeds in designated areas to improve safety. Grundy et al. Using 20 years of crash data, Grundy et al. The neighborhood slow zones reduced the speed limit from 25 to 20 mph in a designated area and added pavement markings, signs, and speed humps to help encourage.

Note that Hagen used only 2 years of postinstallation crash data and was unable to account for differences in pedestrian or vehicle volumes. New York City uses only speed humps, whereas London uses 12 types of physical treatments, including speed humps, speed cushions, raised crosswalks, curb extensions, and pedestrian refuge islands. In addition, London installed approximately 16 traffic-calming devices per mile, whereas New York City installed three devices per mile of slow-zone street.

The residential streets in the Netherlands generally have a fatality and in-patient rate of 0. The number of lives saved by the program in is estimated to be These design strategies are radically different from most streets in the United States and create spaces that do not clearly delineate spaces for different road users, such as vehicles and pedestrians; instead, the roadway is shared.

On shared streets, vehicles are typically encouraged to travel at 10 to 15 mph. A review of 39 home zones in London found that vehicle operating speeds decreased by 10 to 15 mph at more than half of the designs surveyed Gill Wargo and Garrick reviewed the impact of six shared street intersection designs in the United States and abroad and found that vehicle speeds ranged from 5 to 10 mph. Fatalities and in-patients in the Netherlands from to Source: Wegman et al.

In addition to reducing speeds in designated areas, some jurisdictions are taking a citywide approach by setting new speed limits based on roadway function or class. Seattle and New York City lowered the default speed on arterial streets from 30 to 25 mph.

Mobility is defined as the ability to move people and goods freely and easily in a transportation system. The goal of Vision Zero is to eliminate traffic related fatalities and serious injury by integrating safety into all work of transportation professionals. A core element of Vision Zero is creating safe speeds for a specific road context. To achieve the goal of Vision Zero, transportation professionals must design roads to provide safety for all functions and users, set safe speed limits for the context, and work collectively on proper enforcement and data collection measures to ensure desired speeds are achieved once a road is constructed and a speed limit is set.

For vehicle to vehicle crashes, the likelihood of fatality increases as speed increases. The speed at which a motorist travels on a given section of road is based on many factors. The motorist must take into consideration vehicle capability, roadway features, environmental conditions, surrounding context, presence of other road users, and most importantly, the speed limit.

Speed becomes unsafe when a motorist travels too fast for conditions, but those conditions can vary based on road type, users and context. A transportation professional must design roads and set appropriate speed limits in order to create a safe environment for all users. Speed is used as a measure for two key performance characteristics of roads—mobility and safety. Mobility is a factor of travel time, which may be minimized with higher speeds. Safety is associated with the reduction, if not complete absence, of crashes and fatalities.

Safe speeds prioritize safety while balancing and taking into consideration the mobility needs of all road users, not just the movement of vehicles. For freeways and highways, desirable design features, access control, roadway alignment, roadside safety devices, etc.

For urban and retrofitted streets, design complexities, such as right-of-way limits, land use context, presence of other road users, intersections, sight distances, etc.