It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once. After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment.
An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship. Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches.
There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management. The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:. Umm—well it was pretty much they could do what they wanted with you because I was put into the er, the er kind of system er, I was just on.
He had a book this thick [gestures] and on each page it was like three questions and he went through. The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists. The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise.
Bond CM. The research jigsaw: how to get started. Can J Hosp Pharm. Tully MP. Research: articulating questions, generating hypotheses, and choosing study designs. Loewen P. Ethical issues in pharmacy practice research: an introductory guide. Tsuyuki RT. Designing pharmacy practice research trials. Bresee LC. An introduction to developing surveys for pharmacy practice research.
Gamble JM. An introduction to the fundamentals of cohort and case—control studies. Austin Z, Sutton J. Qualitative research: getting started. C an J Hosp Pharm. Houle S. An introduction to the fundamentals of randomized controlled trials in pharmacy research. Charrois TL. Systematic reviews: What do you need to know to get started? Competing interests: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. In submitting their manuscripts, the authors transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership to CSHP. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Interpretation of Data Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. Transcribing and Checking For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded.
Coding Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding. Theming Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Planning and Writing the Report As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
Appendix 1. Excerpt from a sample transcript The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked: What was treatment like 30 years ago? Umm—well it was pretty much they could do what they wanted with you because I was put into the er, the er kind of system er, I was just on endless section threes.
He had a book this thick [gestures] and on each page it was like three questions and he went through all these questions and I answered all these questions. Oh how awful. Previous articles in this series: Bond CM. Footnotes Competing interests: None declared. References 1. Austin ZA, Sutton J. Hammersley M, Atkinson P. Ethnography: principles in practice. London UK : Taylor and Francis; What is grounded theory?
Available from: www. Brewer J. The A—Z of social research. London UK : Sage Publications; Strauss AL, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Murray M, Chamberlain K, editors. Qualitative health psychology: theories and methods. Discordant indigenous and provider frames explain challenges in improving access to arthritis care: a qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory.
Int J Equity Health. Rosenfelder R. A short introduction to transcribing with ELAN. Smith JA. Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology. Psychol Health. Giving voice and making sense in interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qual Res Psychol. Naturalistic inquiry.
A qualitative study exploring the impact and consequence of the medicines use review service on pharmacy support-staff. Pharm Pract. Further Reading. J Interprof Care. Postgraduation employment experiences of new pharmacists in Ontario in — Can Pharm J. Can J Univ Contin Educ. Initial perceptions of key stakeholders in Ontario regarding independent prescriptive authority for pharmacists. Res Soc Adm Pharm. Research methods in psychology. Qualitative data analysis. Qualitative research and evaluation methods.
Introducing qualitative research in psychology. Analysing group dynamics within the focus group. Qual Res. Social Constructivism Social constructivism. Mixed Methods Creswell J. Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. The objective of the qualitative metaethnography was to systematically identify experiences of, and perceptions of, interventions or specific activities aimed at supporting or promoting self-management of LTCs among men of differing age, ethnicity and socioeconomic background.
A summary of the methods used in the metaethnography is provided in Appendix 3 , using the enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research ENTREQ reporting standards for qualitative evidence synthesis, developed by Tong et al. The evidence synthesis was conducted using a metaethnography approach originally described by Noblit and Hare.
Metaethnography involves seven stages: getting started, deciding what is relevant, reading the studies, determining how studies are related to each other, translating studies into each other, synthesising translations and expressing the synthesis; 94 these seven, often overlapping, stages are depicted in Figure 7.
A comprehensive electronic search strategy Appendix 4 was developed in liaison with information specialists. It sought to identify all available studies, rather than using purposive sampling to identify all available concepts. Terms relating to gender were combined with other terms to narrow the search and increase the precision of the strategy e. Records were initially screened by one reviewer ZD on the basis of the title and abstract.
Decisions were recorded in EndNote X7. All articles identified as potentially eligible for inclusion were obtained in full. Attempts were made to identify and obtain published findings for unpublished literature that was otherwise eligible, for example doctoral theses or conference proceedings. The full-text literature was screened independently by two reviewers ZD and PG using the inclusion criteria listed in Table 5. Studies that explored the experiences of men alone, or included a clear and explicit comparison between men and women, were included.
Studies which focused on self-management experiences of people with LTCs more generally i. The approach to screening was inclusive; for example, studies where the qualitative findings were limited e. Iredale et al. Barlow et al. The original study protocol sought to code self-management interventions and support activities using the most up-to-date version of the taxonomy of BCT.
Issues around application of the BCT taxonomy are returned to in the discussion chapter see Chapter 6. The lack of detail reported in the qualitative literature also made it unfeasible to classify interventions using the system developed for the quantitative review. Whereas the quantitative review concerned trials of specific interventions, approximately half of the studies in the qualitative review 99 , , — included more than one intervention or activity e.
We therefore developed a broad system for classifying interventions and support activities that offered a pragmatic way to group studies and make the analysis process more manageable. The categories are shown in Table 6.
Categories and descriptions of self-management interventions and support activities in the qualitative evidence synthesis. The purpose of quality appraisal in the review was to provide descriptive information on the quality of the included studies rather than as a basis for inclusion. We considered that studies of weaker quality either would not contribute or would contribute only minimally to the final synthesis.
The CASP tool comprises 10 checklist-style questions see Appendix 6 for assessing the quality of various domains including aims, design, methods, data analysis, interpretation, findings and value of the research.
Because of the checklist nature of the CASP tool, we developed some additional questions informed by other metaethnography studies 96 , that enabled us to extract and record more detailed narrative summaries of the main strengths, limitations and concerns of each study see Appendix 7. Its focus is on procedural aspects of the conduct of the research rather than the insights offered.
The electronic search strategy identified unique references. Screening based on title and abstract identified papers for full-text screening. Dual screening of these full-text articles identified 34 studies reported in 38 papers to be included in the review. Reasons for excluding the remaining articles are shown in Table 7.
Inter-rater agreement on the decision to include was Having discussed the 17 disagreements, we agreed that five studies on which there was disagreement would be included. An additional four studies were identified through reference checks and efforts to locate published literature linked to unpublished work identified through the electronic search.
The lead reviewer ZD extracted all papers using data extraction forms previously tested and refined through a pilot study of four papers. The metaethnography process involved three levels of constructs, as described by Schutz and operationalised by Atkins et al. Third-order constructs were developed by building second-order constructs into broader categories and themes in a framework which was revised iteratively using the hierarchical functions of the NVivo software i.
Rather than simply being a synthesis of the second-order constructs, third-order-constructs were derived inductively from the extracted data; this was an interpretive process that was not limited to interpretations offered by the original authors of included studies. Coding by coreviewers i. Each coreviewer was allocated one or more category of studies to analyse. All included papers were analysed, rather than reading until saturation of concepts. The lead reviewer and coreviewer independently completed matrices to report the second-order constructs and emerging third-order constructs for each paper which for the lead reviewer were based on a more comprehensive line-by-line coding using NVivo.
Facilitated by discussions using the matrices of second- and third-order constructs, we translated studies firstly within types of support activity and then, secondly, across types. The lead reviewer initially developed the constructs in relation to face-to-face support the largest category of studies and read other categories of studies with reference to this, using a constant comparison approach to identify and refine concepts.
Studies can be synthesised in three ways: Because we found similarities and contradictions, we developed a line-of-argument synthesis rather than reciprocal or refutational translation that encompassed four key concepts, each of which was based around a set of third-order constructs.