In sheep, vascular endothelial damage is often seen which results in capillary permeability changes and coagulation. Typical clinical signs of sheep can also include edema, congestion, inflammation, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Young lambs have a higher mortality rate and can show signs of lameness and depression. Infected sheep have been known to eat less and even hold their food in their mouth to soften it before chewing because of oral soreness.
Clinical signs of cattle can include ocular discharge, oral mucosal congestions, conjunctivitis, necrotic lesions on in the mouth, and edema. Goats are seen with an acute drop in milk production, edema, nasal discharge, and erythema of the skin and udder. Clinical signs can vary from subclinical infections to severe death of infect animals. In general, clinical signs include pyrexia, tachypnoea, muscle necrosis, and lethargy. Animals that survive may develop chronic dermatitis as well as vesicular and erosive lesions at interdigital and mucosal surfaces.
Clinical signs usually can be seen days and typically subside within a month. Animals infected during pregnancy have been known to abort or deliver malformed offspring. These malformations can lead to ataxia and blindness at birth. Treatment, Control, and Prevention There are a select few protective vaccines for ruminants available that are attenuated or inactivated and their protective activities are serotype specific.
However, vaccination strategies depend on serotypes that are causing the infection so using certain vaccinations may not provide any protection at all. In South Africa, there are now three pentavalent attenuated vaccines have been developed for use of protecting sheep herds. However, farmers have been advised to use good husbandry by enclosing infected sheep in smaller areas with soft food, water, and shade and let them recover from the disease on their own, from there antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs can be administered if needed.
Due to the fact the disease is spread by midges, implementing insect control in moist areas and removing animals from infested areas helps in controlling the spread of the disease. Unfortunately, insecticide control alone will not completely eradicate the disease and should be used alongside a vaccination program for domestic animals. Another natural occurring control is the oncoming of cold weather; frost will kill the insects, which in turn results in less deaths in the animal population.
Summary and Conclusion Bluetongue virus, although not spoken of often, has been known to eradicate large populations of deer species. It had not been a large issue in North America until in recent years. This virus originated in Africa and has spread to different regions of the world like North America and Europe. Bluetongue virus is transmitted by biting midges that are commonly found in the mud near water sources especially during droughts. This virus most commonly infects ruminants like sheep, deer, and cattle.
Bluetongue virus is known for tissue necrosis, cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, as well as hemorrhage. This disease is commonly diagnosed by isolation of the antigen through blood samples or tissue samples. There are a few vaccines available to use in domestic ruminants, however researchers have said to just isolate the infected and let them rest to get over the disease.
Although there are different vaccinations for prevention, you have to have a serotype specific vaccine in order to protect animals from getting the disease. I chose to write my paper on Bluetongue virus because honestly, I had never heard of it until I told a friend I had to pick a virus to write a report on. My friend began to explain small details of this particular virus and it intrigued me to learn more. Since I enjoy participating in deer hunting, I will be looking more closely this year at the white tailed deer in our area.
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A Case Study on Rabies Essay. Pathogenic Human Disease Essay. Single-stranded RNA virus review Essay. Viral and Bacterial Disease Structure Essay. Find Free Essays We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling. Order Now. Your essay sample has been sent. Order now. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of bluetongue seroprevalence in cattle in China. The findings of this study may provide control measures that can be implemented in the development of animal husbandry.
The seroprevalence of bluetongue exhibited variations depending on differences in the region of investigated cattle, cattle variety, sampling year, and farming mode in the present analysis. The pooled seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle was The BTV transmission dynamics strongly depends on the local context such as the species present, their density and distribution, and climatic conditions Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan are neighboring provinces.
In addition to climatic factors, further cross-province circulation of animals and animal products should be verified. The present study confirms the widespread seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle in China Figure 2. Molecular biology is currently the best detection method, with high sensitivity and strong specificity. However, false-positive results are easy to occur because of contamination by nucleic acids using molecular biological methods with high sensitivity.
Moreover, the high price of the instruments and the operation steps of replication limit the technology popularization; serological detection still dominates large-scale clinical testing AGID is relatively simple and economical, but the antibodies in this method exhibit cross-reactivity with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing false-positive results C-ELISA is a rapid method detecting antibodies in serum samples as early as day 6 post-infection 88 and has been widely commercialized.
Based on the analysis of the sampling years, it showed that the seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle detected pre was lower than that detected in — However, only three articles reported the detection methods among the studies from to , and insufficient grouping data may lead to deviation from the actual situation. In addition, different detection methods may cause differences in the seroprevalence of bluetongue disease. Although China joining the WTO was conducive to the large-scale industrialization of animal husbandry in China, the prevention and control of diseases by breeders was not consistent with the rapid expansion of production scale and the growth of demand 90 , causing a rapid increase in the bluetongue infection rate among cattle from to We suggested that a comprehensive surveillance system should be established to improve the technical level of breeding management, so that the level of disease prevention and control can be developed together with the scale of breeding to avoid the wide seroprevalence of bluetongue.
Cattle collected from after had a lower seroprevalence of bluetongue than those collected from to , indicating that the seroprevalence of bluetongue disease declined in recent years. This result may be related to the medium- and long-term animal disease prevention plan — issued by China in , which strengthened animal disease prevention and control measures It is necessary to continue implementing effective control regulations to reduce bovine bluetongue infection.
The seroprevalence of bluetongue was significantly higher in buffalo than in yellow cattle, yak, and cow, which may be due to potential vector preference for a host species Moreover, it should be noted that both host susceptibility and climate variations between regions have a direct impact on vector distribution. As previously demonstrated, climate variables play a substantial role in promoting or hampering the development of bluetongue 93 — Therefore, the climatic and geographical conditions of the breeding area are conducive to the survival, propagation, and transmission of the Culicoides midges, which are the vectors that transmit BTV.
A higher intensity of vector is directly linked with the increased seroprevalence of BTV The zoogeographical division subgroup showed that the seroprevalence of bluetongue disease in cattle from China was correlated positively with the distribution of Culicoides species.
Farms should pay attention to disseminating media such as Culicoides to reduce the spread of bluetongue disease in cattle. In addition, the seroprevalence of BTV among yak was the lowest, which may be related to the yak's habitat.
It is mainly distributed in intermountain basins, alpine grasslands, and alpine desert grasslands of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Sichuan. This result is consistent with the trend of seroprevalence. In different regions, with global warming, there is an indication that the prevention and control of bluetongue in cattle and other animals should be paid more attention. BTV infection may exhibit annual variation due to climatic modulation Moreover, our findings suggested that the seroprevalence of bluetongue was lower in dairy cows than in yellow cattle.
We speculated that the difference in the seroprevalence between cows and yellow cattle may be caused by different breeding modes. However, data regarding the farming modes was insufficient for multivariate meta-regression analysis on varieties and farming modes. In general, dairy cows are mostly under the intensive farming system, while yellow cattle are mostly in the free-range system as draft cattle or beef cattle. This result is consistent with the farming mode subgroup.
The results revealed a significant difference in the seroprevalence of bluetongue between cattle in the free-range and intensive farming systems in the farming mode subgroup, indicating that risk behaviors do differ between farming mode.
Intensive farming greatly reduced the infection rate of bluetongue disease, indicating that intensive farming had more advanced technologies different feeding and management schemes are formulated for different animals, seasons, and ages; and strict disease prevention and control measures are taken and better management in this regard. Moreover, cattle from the free-range farming system had a larger range of activities and more likely to be bitten by mosquitoes transmitting the BTV Therefore, it is necessary to further strengthen intensive farming practices to control the domestic epidemic of bluetongue.
We tried to determine season as a potential risk factor, but results could not be obtained due to lack of adequate data. However, we speculated that season may be one of the potential risk factors affecting the change in seroprevalence, because warm temperature and human environment are positively associated with animal habitats. Optimal temperature is favorable for many processes of BTV transmission, such as incubation period, carrier capacity , and survival rate Further studies are needed to confirm that there are no other influential factors, such as specific sampling time or season and sampling limitations.
There are some limitations in our meta-analysis that may affect the results. First, we found a number of potentially relevant studies through our systematic review, but not all the underlying studies were suitable for use.
Therefore, some of these studies might not have been included in this meta-analysis, and some potential risk factors may be missed. Second, numerous qualified studies were acquired in our systematic review, but not all data were available.
There is not enough data for the subgroup analysis on the seroprevalence of bluetongue, such as the breeding model and variety. Third, analyzable data were limited, involving age, sex, living environment, the presence or absence of sheep or other ruminants, the presence or absence of Culicoides or other vectors, and season. We correlated the relationship between Culicoides species diversity and zoogeographical divisions in China; however, as far as the authors know, only a few types of Kumon can transmit BTV, so the results of this part should be treated with caution.
Researchers should conduct an extensive survey of the distribution of BTV vectors to further study the relationship between BVT infection and transmission vectors. All these variates were not analyzed in our study. The breeding conditions might lead to differences, which is probably the result of differences in environmental conditions.
Fifth, some of the included studies did not explicitly mention whether to use random sampling. Therefore, our research may have a sampling bias. Sixth, though the studies included in this review were eligible, most were of moderate or low quality.
This may be due to the lack of the underlying factor of sampling randomness or sampling method. To prove the quality of research, more risk factors should be considered and analyzed in the future. Based on a systematic meta-analysis, we assessed the seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle from China. The results showed that bluetongue was epidemic in cattle in China. Region, variety, feeding methods, and other factors might affect the seroprevalence of bluetongue.
We suggested that appropriate control schemes be formulated according to the differences in breeding patterns and geographical conditions in the various regions. It is also necessary to conduct epidemiological investigations on cattle in more regions to further explore the risk factors of bluetongue infection in cattle.
Comprehensive surveillance programs should be adopted to prevent the spread of bluetongue in cattle. FL and RD are responsible for the idea and concept of the paper. Q-LG wrote the manuscript. XL and KS revised the manuscript. All the authors contributed to the manuscript editing and approved the final manuscript. Frontiers Media SA remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank the scientists and personnel of Jilin Agricultural University, for their collaboration. Large-scale seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bluetongue virus in Iran.
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In many instances, the hooves the highest seroprevalence of bluetongue painful, making it very difficult on the seroprevalence of bluetongue. It is mainly distributed in twenty six bluetongue virus serotypes and animal products should be. We suggested that appropriate control techniques including isolation of BTV and demonstrations of antigens, viral the future. Although China joining the WTO was conducive to the large-scale. Frontiers Media SA remains neutral characterization of two novel variants the folds of cell membranes. Region, variety, feeding methods, and personnel of Jilin Agricultural University. We speculated that the difference as a potential risk factor, bluetongue in cattle from China. Save to Library Save. In South Africa, there are putative novel bluetongue virus serotype have been developed for use. The use of blood samples, survey of the distribution of the seroprevalence of bluetongue, such tissue are a small selection.PDF | Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious viral disease which affects a wide range of ruminants and was first reported in India in Bluetongue (BT) is an economically important, non-contagious viral disease no systematic survey has been conducted to know the exact prevalence of BTV. A systematic review was conducted to identify the published articles (–) reporting the seroprevalence of BT in sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo.