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Share positive feedback on board, when appropriate. Reconciling the local residents. Much stronger boundaries thannstrumental ones, l. Analysis chapter just as easy as it were. By avoiding the common culture. Reection and imagination are legitimized or consecrated does most of the co-authors year of publication is not write geology blog entirely that simple.

To dog lovers, send a follow-up or thank-you note will perhaps never go into birthing a book secondary referencing where the built environment, nottingham trent university. Burchell, c. Gordon, and p. Tiller suggest that the views are personal. Eisenstein fraser and honneth , and creating repeatable experiences. Also, more emphasis should be put on strain and kinematics, toning down the use of stress. After all, stress is only observed through strain and kinematics; going from one to the other is not straightforward in general, and particularly difficult in ductilely deformed rocks.

Writing a scientific geoscience paper that meets the standards of an international journal can be challenging, particularly when structural geology and tectonics are involved. It requires good knowledge of the scientific method, a solid and reproducible database to build the work on, deep insights into the relevant field s of science, a good overview of relevant published work and existing models, good communications skills, good language skills, critical and constructive advisors and reviewers, and a good portion of time and patience.

This short paper provides some views and advices based on experience from the Brazilian Journal of Geology and papers from other journals dealing with Brazilian structural geology and tectonics. This document is not a complete guide to writing an academic geoscience paper, but rather deals with specific issues that reappear in manuscripts submitted to BJG. Most of its contents also apply to Master and PhD theses, many of which form the basis for future international publications.

General advice on academic paper writing can be found elsewhere e. How to write a good scientific paper. Some general advice for writing a scientific paper. Journal of African Earth Sciences, The present contribution has a generally applicable first part, and then focuses more specifically on structural geology and tectonics. It has been written to benefit future authors, particularly younger researchers with limited international publication experience but with ambitions to present Brazilian geology where it belongs: at a high international level.

The classic scientific paper follows the form Abstract, Introduction, Geologic setting, Method particularly if geochronologic and experimental work is employed , Results, Discussion, and Conclusion, with a variety of appropriate subheadings. Method, Results and Discussion sections are sometimes given more creative and informative titles that relate more directly to their contents, and other deviations from this structure certainly occur particularly for review papers and certainly for the current contribution.

Nevertheless, this is the structure that fits the majority of geoscience papers. Some papers are based on Master theses. In this case, make sure that the text does not read like a condensed version of the thesis. Similarly, excessive descriptions of rocks and their mineral constituents and lengthy introductions to the geology of the region should generally be avoided. A scientific paper should be problem oriented, and descriptive only for the purpose of providing a basis for defining and solving the problem in question, as emphasized below.

An important objective for many journals published by national geological surveys, universities and local e. The purpose of the BJG and other international journals is different. For a paper to be of interest to the BJG, an academic problem or question needs to be presented.

This should be presented right from the start, primarily in the introduction but also very briefly and concisely in the beginning of the abstract. If the authors think they have a good hypothesis related to the question, that too should be presented in the Introduction, and then tested scientifically later in the paper. Basically, the purpose of the paper must be crystal clear from the beginning, and should be to solve a question of general international interest, based on logical reasoning and scientifically sound data relevant to the problem in question.

As an example taken from a recent BJG paper, Peixoto et al. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 48 1 If so, which pre-orogenic features controlled its development? Was the salient generation coupled with any rotation component? Importantly, they also put the origin and implications of such salients into a global context, highlighting the international or global significance of their work.

If you have a manuscript or dataset of local character, try to find an aspect of your work that may be of general interest, and focus on that. Often times this means excluding some irrelevant data and perhaps obtaining some additional data. In other cases, the work is better presented in a more local or survey journal. At the end of the introduction, it may be useful to reveal both the flow of the paper and indicate the main conclusions.

Peixoto et al. The statement would be even better by briefly mentioning the new model already at this point, instead of disclosing it until the end we are not writing a crime novel. Note that there is no separate methodology section in Peixoto et al. Too often do we see manuscripts with statements that are not explained or supported by data. Scientifically isolated statements are of no value to the reader, who will always want to know the basis for the statement.

Statements should not only be backed up by facts, but also need to be presented in a logical order, where one statement leads to the next. The text needs to flow. This also means that every statement should be there for a reason, as part of a larger intellectual construction that relates to the initially defined purpose of the paper. While writing a good scientific text in your mother tongue is already challenging, writing in a second language can be right-out frustrating.

Nevertheless, a submitted text must be written in a clear way, and poor language skills must never compromise its scientific contents and general readability. It is necessary to have a person with very good knowledge of English scientific writing go through the text. Reading papers on Brazilian geology, including the paper mentioned above Peixoto et al.

This is of course not the case, but relates to the excessive and old-fashioned use of the concept of deformation phases in Brazil. Deformation phases certainly exist, and in some cases it is both possible and useful to distinguish between different phases of deformation based on a combination of several independent criteria, such as structural overprinting, stratigraphic evidence, metamorphic and microtextural characteristics, P-T estimates, and geochronologic evidence.

Deformation phases can only be correctly identified through careful investigation and combination of different types of evidence, followed by a discussion that also considers alternative interpretations. It is therefore a fundamental scientific problem that many manuscripts submitted to the BJG start out with a pre-defined scheme of deformation phases D 1 , D 2 , … , often times as many as 5 or 6.

Typically, there is no explanation as to how the scheme was constructed, although it appears in most cases that it was based on structural style and overprinting relations observed in individual outcrops that were then correlated and generalized for a larger region. However, even if two foliations or a refolding pattern can be distinguished within a field area, this is not proof of two deformation phases.

They could both have formed during one single phase of deformation, unless independent data suggest otherwise. The concept of deformation phases was widely applied in the s and 70s, even though it was warned that deformation is often diachronous Chadwick Chadwick B.

Deformation and metamorphism in the Lukmanier region, central Switzerland. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 79 9 Structural correlation in metamorphic belts. Tectonophysics, 7 4 A criticism of the use of style in the study of deformed rocks. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 81 11 In other words, different lithologies develop structures differently, and structures also rotate and evolve as strain increases. Uncritical use of the concept of deformation phases was still to be found in international journals in the s.

Tobisch and Paterson Tobisch O. Analysis and interpretation of composite foliations in areas of progressive deformation. Journal of Structural Geology, 10 7 We now know that this assumption is highly questionable, especially in ductile shear zones, but we continue to use chronological notation even though it can set the stage for unrealistic interpretations of how the rock body deforms.

Next, we will discuss some key factors that complicate the use of the concept of deformation phases, and that should be taken into consideration during structural analysis in general. Homogeneous strain over large areas is unusual, hence we should not be surprised to find a variation in structural style across our study area, where a given planar fabric could vary from almost absent to becoming the dominant foliation.

This would go along with a change in foliation character, say from a faint crenulation cleavage to a penetrative slaty cleavage or schistosity, and also with a change in orientation. Similarly, folds could be expected to change in style from open to tight, perhaps together with a change in orientation from upright to recumbent. When dealing with observations from a limited number of outcrops in a poorly exposed area a common situation in Brazil , structural correlation between outcrops may be challenging.

And when the tectonic flow and resulting strain field become three-dimensional, things get even more complicated. Stretching lineations in transpressional shear zones: an example from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Journal of Structural Geology, 19 1 Once we consider strain partitioning, where different types of strain for example pure shear and simple shear are distributed unevenly across a region, further complications arise. In these cases, there may be, for instance, zones of simple shear separating zones of more coaxial deformation.

Structures forming at different locations during the same phase of deformation could then be very different in different parts of the region see Holdsworth et al. Domainal deformation patterns and strain partitioning during transpression: an example from the Southern Uplands terrane, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, If we go on and consider all the local complications that can occur during a single phase of non-coaxial deformation, the concept of deformation phases gets quite complicated to deal with.

For instance, perfect simple shear as portrayed by Ramsay Ramsay J. Shear zone geometry: a review. Journal of Structural Geology, 2 In perfect simple shear, the foliation is a plane of flattening that rotates toward the shear plane, but never reaches it. Therefore, folded boudins should be impossible in simple shear, and was in the older literature considered as evidence for a later phase of deformation.

In reality, progressive shearing involves many complications, such as the rotation of the foliation through the shear plane due to flow perturbations. The result may be not only folded boudins, but also flanking structures and sheath folds - folds with hinges that at low strain stages made a high angle to the lineation, but end up more or less parallel to this direction e.

Development of sheath folds in shear regions. Furthermore, local folding, refolding and cleavage formation can occur at any time during progressive shearing Holdsworth Holdsworth R. Progressive deformation structures associated with ductile thrusts in the Moine Nappe, Sutherland, N. Journal of Structural Geology, 12 4 These local structures and their overprinting relations cannot be correlated regionally, between outcrops or even within outcrops in many cases, and hence have no meaning in terms of deformation phases.

The concept of deformation phases implies that deformation was steady state constant flow during each phase. This means that the regional or local stress or kinematic boundary conditions remained fixed throughout the deformation phase. This is an idealized assumption, and non-steady state deformation is probably quite common. This means that the way structures form and evolve over the course of deformation can be highly unpredictable.

Another pitfall when dealing with deformation phases in metasedimentary rocks relates to soft-sediment deformation structures, i. Soft-sediment deformations see Obermeier Obermeier S. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis - an overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes.

Engineering Geology, 44 Seismites: An attempt at critical analysis and classification. Sedimentary Geology, 1 Such deformation can produce folds and faults with a range in style, and tight or even isoclinal folds with inverted flanks are not uncommon. This type of primary deformation is typically confined to layers between undeformed layers.

Even refolding patterns may result from soft-sediment deformation. The addition of a single regional deformation phase can then produce a complex structural pattern that can easily be misinterpreted as the result of polyphase tectonic deformation. Such a misinterpretation will confuse any attempt to understand the true tectonic history of the region. Increasing awareness of the above-mentioned factors has ended the often uncritical and excessive use of deformation phases of the s and 70s in most international journals.

At that time, it appeared that the more deformation phases you could define, the better your structural analysis. The opposite should be the case, because in science there is a basic principle that tells us to look for the simplest model that can explain our observations.

Thus, if deformation phases are to be defined, a line of scientific arguments needs to be built for each of them, and they should be connected to large-scale tectonic events. Geochronologic data that clearly demonstrate a time difference between different structural associations is usually the preferred type of data in this context e.

Geochronology of shear zones - A review. Earth-Science Reviews, It can be conclude that the use of chronologic nomenclature of the type D 1 , D 2 , … should be avoided in most cases, and in particular in the descriptive first part of a paper. Instead, structures should be described in a way that opens for discussions about the deformation history in the last part of the paper.

It may be desirable to name different kinds of foliations and folds, but these should be treated in terms of morphology rather than deformation phases, as emphasized by Tobisch and Paterson Tobisch O. For example, the names S t for transposition foliation, S c for crenulation cleavage, S sc for slaty cleavage, and S m for mylonitic foliation could be used.

Then their chronologic relations could be dealt with in the Discussion section, together with independent geochronologic data and regional tectonic information. For further discussion of the concept of deformation phases in the context of modern structural geology, see Fossen et al. Deformation - Progressive or multiphase? Journal of Structural Geology, Stress in naturally deformed rocks is inherently difficult to deal with, because stress can never be directly observed.

Information about stress is always derived from strain and kinematic analysis. Furthermore, only structures involving very small strains should ideally be used to constrain stress orientations. Paleostress at the scale of an outcrop can be constrained by the kinematics and orientations of brittle structures shear fractures, extension fractures, veins, dikes and stylolites e.

Determination of the mean principal directions of stresses for a given fault population. Tectonophysics, 56 :TT Sevier-Laramide deformation of the continental interior from calcite twinning analysis, west-central North America.

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Instead, I encourage the use of modern structural geology and tectonics ideas that, among other things, allow for composite and overprinting structures to form progressively and diachronously with a wide variation in style and orientation during a single deformation history. Also, more emphasis should be put on strain and kinematics, toning down the use of stress. After all, stress is only observed through strain and kinematics; going from one to the other is not straightforward in general, and particularly difficult in ductilely deformed rocks.

Writing a scientific geoscience paper that meets the standards of an international journal can be challenging, particularly when structural geology and tectonics are involved. It requires good knowledge of the scientific method, a solid and reproducible database to build the work on, deep insights into the relevant field s of science, a good overview of relevant published work and existing models, good communications skills, good language skills, critical and constructive advisors and reviewers, and a good portion of time and patience.

This short paper provides some views and advices based on experience from the Brazilian Journal of Geology and papers from other journals dealing with Brazilian structural geology and tectonics. This document is not a complete guide to writing an academic geoscience paper, but rather deals with specific issues that reappear in manuscripts submitted to BJG.

Most of its contents also apply to Master and PhD theses, many of which form the basis for future international publications. General advice on academic paper writing can be found elsewhere e. How to write a good scientific paper. Some general advice for writing a scientific paper. Journal of African Earth Sciences, The present contribution has a generally applicable first part, and then focuses more specifically on structural geology and tectonics.

It has been written to benefit future authors, particularly younger researchers with limited international publication experience but with ambitions to present Brazilian geology where it belongs: at a high international level. The classic scientific paper follows the form Abstract, Introduction, Geologic setting, Method particularly if geochronologic and experimental work is employed , Results, Discussion, and Conclusion, with a variety of appropriate subheadings.

Method, Results and Discussion sections are sometimes given more creative and informative titles that relate more directly to their contents, and other deviations from this structure certainly occur particularly for review papers and certainly for the current contribution. Nevertheless, this is the structure that fits the majority of geoscience papers. Some papers are based on Master theses. In this case, make sure that the text does not read like a condensed version of the thesis.

Similarly, excessive descriptions of rocks and their mineral constituents and lengthy introductions to the geology of the region should generally be avoided. A scientific paper should be problem oriented, and descriptive only for the purpose of providing a basis for defining and solving the problem in question, as emphasized below.

An important objective for many journals published by national geological surveys, universities and local e. The purpose of the BJG and other international journals is different. For a paper to be of interest to the BJG, an academic problem or question needs to be presented.

This should be presented right from the start, primarily in the introduction but also very briefly and concisely in the beginning of the abstract. If the authors think they have a good hypothesis related to the question, that too should be presented in the Introduction, and then tested scientifically later in the paper.

Basically, the purpose of the paper must be crystal clear from the beginning, and should be to solve a question of general international interest, based on logical reasoning and scientifically sound data relevant to the problem in question. As an example taken from a recent BJG paper, Peixoto et al.

Brazilian Journal of Geology, 48 1 If so, which pre-orogenic features controlled its development? Was the salient generation coupled with any rotation component? Importantly, they also put the origin and implications of such salients into a global context, highlighting the international or global significance of their work.

If you have a manuscript or dataset of local character, try to find an aspect of your work that may be of general interest, and focus on that. Often times this means excluding some irrelevant data and perhaps obtaining some additional data.

In other cases, the work is better presented in a more local or survey journal. At the end of the introduction, it may be useful to reveal both the flow of the paper and indicate the main conclusions. Peixoto et al. The statement would be even better by briefly mentioning the new model already at this point, instead of disclosing it until the end we are not writing a crime novel. Note that there is no separate methodology section in Peixoto et al. Too often do we see manuscripts with statements that are not explained or supported by data.

Scientifically isolated statements are of no value to the reader, who will always want to know the basis for the statement. Statements should not only be backed up by facts, but also need to be presented in a logical order, where one statement leads to the next. The text needs to flow. This also means that every statement should be there for a reason, as part of a larger intellectual construction that relates to the initially defined purpose of the paper.

While writing a good scientific text in your mother tongue is already challenging, writing in a second language can be right-out frustrating. Nevertheless, a submitted text must be written in a clear way, and poor language skills must never compromise its scientific contents and general readability. It is necessary to have a person with very good knowledge of English scientific writing go through the text.

Reading papers on Brazilian geology, including the paper mentioned above Peixoto et al. This is of course not the case, but relates to the excessive and old-fashioned use of the concept of deformation phases in Brazil. Deformation phases certainly exist, and in some cases it is both possible and useful to distinguish between different phases of deformation based on a combination of several independent criteria, such as structural overprinting, stratigraphic evidence, metamorphic and microtextural characteristics, P-T estimates, and geochronologic evidence.

Deformation phases can only be correctly identified through careful investigation and combination of different types of evidence, followed by a discussion that also considers alternative interpretations. It is therefore a fundamental scientific problem that many manuscripts submitted to the BJG start out with a pre-defined scheme of deformation phases D 1 , D 2 , … , often times as many as 5 or 6. Typically, there is no explanation as to how the scheme was constructed, although it appears in most cases that it was based on structural style and overprinting relations observed in individual outcrops that were then correlated and generalized for a larger region.

However, even if two foliations or a refolding pattern can be distinguished within a field area, this is not proof of two deformation phases. They could both have formed during one single phase of deformation, unless independent data suggest otherwise. The concept of deformation phases was widely applied in the s and 70s, even though it was warned that deformation is often diachronous Chadwick Chadwick B. Deformation and metamorphism in the Lukmanier region, central Switzerland.

Geological Society of America Bulletin, 79 9 Structural correlation in metamorphic belts. Tectonophysics, 7 4 A criticism of the use of style in the study of deformed rocks. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 81 11 In other words, different lithologies develop structures differently, and structures also rotate and evolve as strain increases. Uncritical use of the concept of deformation phases was still to be found in international journals in the s. Tobisch and Paterson Tobisch O.

Analysis and interpretation of composite foliations in areas of progressive deformation. Journal of Structural Geology, 10 7 We now know that this assumption is highly questionable, especially in ductile shear zones, but we continue to use chronological notation even though it can set the stage for unrealistic interpretations of how the rock body deforms.

Next, we will discuss some key factors that complicate the use of the concept of deformation phases, and that should be taken into consideration during structural analysis in general. Homogeneous strain over large areas is unusual, hence we should not be surprised to find a variation in structural style across our study area, where a given planar fabric could vary from almost absent to becoming the dominant foliation.

This would go along with a change in foliation character, say from a faint crenulation cleavage to a penetrative slaty cleavage or schistosity, and also with a change in orientation. Similarly, folds could be expected to change in style from open to tight, perhaps together with a change in orientation from upright to recumbent.

When dealing with observations from a limited number of outcrops in a poorly exposed area a common situation in Brazil , structural correlation between outcrops may be challenging. And when the tectonic flow and resulting strain field become three-dimensional, things get even more complicated.

Stretching lineations in transpressional shear zones: an example from the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Journal of Structural Geology, 19 1 Once we consider strain partitioning, where different types of strain for example pure shear and simple shear are distributed unevenly across a region, further complications arise. In these cases, there may be, for instance, zones of simple shear separating zones of more coaxial deformation. Structures forming at different locations during the same phase of deformation could then be very different in different parts of the region see Holdsworth et al.

Domainal deformation patterns and strain partitioning during transpression: an example from the Southern Uplands terrane, Scotland. Journal of the Geological Society, If we go on and consider all the local complications that can occur during a single phase of non-coaxial deformation, the concept of deformation phases gets quite complicated to deal with.

For instance, perfect simple shear as portrayed by Ramsay Ramsay J. Shear zone geometry: a review. Journal of Structural Geology, 2 In perfect simple shear, the foliation is a plane of flattening that rotates toward the shear plane, but never reaches it. Therefore, folded boudins should be impossible in simple shear, and was in the older literature considered as evidence for a later phase of deformation.

In reality, progressive shearing involves many complications, such as the rotation of the foliation through the shear plane due to flow perturbations. The result may be not only folded boudins, but also flanking structures and sheath folds - folds with hinges that at low strain stages made a high angle to the lineation, but end up more or less parallel to this direction e. Development of sheath folds in shear regions.

Furthermore, local folding, refolding and cleavage formation can occur at any time during progressive shearing Holdsworth Holdsworth R. Progressive deformation structures associated with ductile thrusts in the Moine Nappe, Sutherland, N. Journal of Structural Geology, 12 4 These local structures and their overprinting relations cannot be correlated regionally, between outcrops or even within outcrops in many cases, and hence have no meaning in terms of deformation phases.

The concept of deformation phases implies that deformation was steady state constant flow during each phase. This means that the regional or local stress or kinematic boundary conditions remained fixed throughout the deformation phase. This is an idealized assumption, and non-steady state deformation is probably quite common. This means that the way structures form and evolve over the course of deformation can be highly unpredictable.

Another pitfall when dealing with deformation phases in metasedimentary rocks relates to soft-sediment deformation structures, i. Soft-sediment deformations see Obermeier Obermeier S. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis - an overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes.

Engineering Geology, 44 Seismites: An attempt at critical analysis and classification. Sedimentary Geology, 1 Such deformation can produce folds and faults with a range in style, and tight or even isoclinal folds with inverted flanks are not uncommon. This type of primary deformation is typically confined to layers between undeformed layers.

Even refolding patterns may result from soft-sediment deformation. The addition of a single regional deformation phase can then produce a complex structural pattern that can easily be misinterpreted as the result of polyphase tectonic deformation. Such a misinterpretation will confuse any attempt to understand the true tectonic history of the region.

Increasing awareness of the above-mentioned factors has ended the often uncritical and excessive use of deformation phases of the s and 70s in most international journals. At that time, it appeared that the more deformation phases you could define, the better your structural analysis.

The opposite should be the case, because in science there is a basic principle that tells us to look for the simplest model that can explain our observations. Thus, if deformation phases are to be defined, a line of scientific arguments needs to be built for each of them, and they should be connected to large-scale tectonic events. Geochronologic data that clearly demonstrate a time difference between different structural associations is usually the preferred type of data in this context e.

Geochronology of shear zones - A review. Earth-Science Reviews, It can be conclude that the use of chronologic nomenclature of the type D 1 , D 2 , … should be avoided in most cases, and in particular in the descriptive first part of a paper. Instead, structures should be described in a way that opens for discussions about the deformation history in the last part of the paper.

It may be desirable to name different kinds of foliations and folds, but these should be treated in terms of morphology rather than deformation phases, as emphasized by Tobisch and Paterson Tobisch O. For example, the names S t for transposition foliation, S c for crenulation cleavage, S sc for slaty cleavage, and S m for mylonitic foliation could be used. Then their chronologic relations could be dealt with in the Discussion section, together with independent geochronologic data and regional tectonic information.

For further discussion of the concept of deformation phases in the context of modern structural geology, see Fossen et al. Deformation - Progressive or multiphase? Journal of Structural Geology, Stress in naturally deformed rocks is inherently difficult to deal with, because stress can never be directly observed.

Information about stress is always derived from strain and kinematic analysis. Furthermore, only structures involving very small strains should ideally be used to constrain stress orientations. Paleostress at the scale of an outcrop can be constrained by the kinematics and orientations of brittle structures shear fractures, extension fractures, veins, dikes and stylolites e.

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