Assignment: How did domestic labor change between and ? Why were the changes in their work important for the growth of the United States? Beginning thesis: Between and women's domestic labor changed as women stopped producing home-made fabric, although they continued to sew their families' clothes, as well as to produce butter and soap.
With the cash women earned from the sale of their butter and soap they purchased ready-made cloth, which in turn, helped increase industrial production in the United States before the Civil War. Idea 2. Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write. Main Idea: Women's labor in their homes during the first half of the nineteenth century contributed to the growth of the national economy.
Idea 3. Spend time "mulling over" your topic. Make a list of the ideas you want to include in the essay, then think about how to group them under several different headings. Often, you will see an organizational plan emerge from the sorting process. Idea 4. Use a formula to develop a working thesis statement which you will need to revise later. Here are a few examples:. These formulas share two characteristics all thesis statements should have: they state an argument and they reveal how you will make that argument.
They are not specific enough, however, and require more work. As you work on your essay, your ideas will change and so will your thesis. Here are examples of weak and strong thesis statements. You are the best and only! Your thesis is defenseless without you to prove that its argument holds up under scrutiny.
The jury i. To prove thesis statements on historical topics, what evidence can an able young lawyer use? Remember -- if in doubt, talk to your instructor. See writing. Writing a Thesis and Making an Argument. What is an Argument? Provides a "hook" on which you can "hang" your topic sentences.
Can and should be revised as you further refine your evidence and arguments. New evidence often requires you to change your thesis. Gives your paper a unified structure and point. Keeps the reader focused on your argument. Signals to the reader your main points. Patrick's Day was very bad; your thesis statement may be, "Student behavior such as demonstrated in front of La Salle's last St.
Patrick's Day is an embarrassment to the college community. Your thesis might be, "A college town has to expect a certain amount of student glee on holidays such as St. Patrick's Day; cracked auto glass and a couple of bruises are a small price to pay for all the commerce college students bring to downtown.
Identifying supporting arguments Now you must gather material, or find arguments to support your thesis statement. Aristotle taught his students to examine any claim by "discovering arguments. Brainstorm, adapting the questions below as a guide, and writing down even the ideas that don't appear to you very promising—you can sort through them later. Revising your thesis Notice that in the sentence above we used the phrase "a thesis statement" rather than "your thesis statement.
At this point, you should either revise your thesis or choose another subject and begin again. Revising your opinion in light of convincing evidence is the beginning of wisdom. Besides, even if it is possible to proceed with the essay as you first envisioned it, you will find it more difficult to defend a thesis you have previously discredited in your notes. Crafting topic sentences that support the thesis Using ideas you gathered using Aristotle's method, construct three to five topic sentences that support your claim.
These topic sentences will become the framework for the rest of your paper. You will further support each with examples and citations from personal interviews, newspaper articles, or other appropriate references. The melee was not caused by the students themselves; rather, an elderly homeless man spat on someone's shoe, causing her to move away suddenly, and a chain reaction occurred in the line waiting to go into La Salle's.
Additional policemen would only increase tension in the downtown area, making altercations more likely. Trying to keep college students away from downtown on holidays like this would cause lost revenues for downtown merchants. As you continue to draft your paper you will, of course, revise these sentences as necessary to more precisely reflect your ideas and the support you gather for them.
By this time you should have a good knowledge of your subject and know where you want to go with it. It will now be possible for you to find enough additional supporting material to complete your essay. Developing A Thesis and Supporting Auguments. For every writing assignment has, at the least, these two other purposes: To teach you to state your case and prove it in a clear, appropriate, and lively manner To teach you to structure your thinking.
This TIP Sheet addresses the following steps common to any kind of non-fiction writing: Choosing a subject. Limiting your subject. Crafting a thesis statement. Identifying supporting arguments. Revising your thesis. Writing strong topic sentences that support the thesis. Definition: What is good behavior? What is bad behavior? What is appropriate behavior on St. Patrick's Day? What is appropriate behavior in other settings? Patrick's Day similar to behavior in years past? How was behavior in front of La Salle's similar to behavior in other parts of downtown that day?
How was this behavior similar to behavior in other college towns on that day? Patrick's Day differ from behavior in years past? How did behavior in front of La Salle's differ from behavior in other parts of downtown that day? How did this behavior differ from student behavior in other college towns on that day? To what degree was this behavior worse than in other parts of downtown? To what degree was this behavior worse than student behavior in other college towns?
Relationship cause and effect : What causes good behavior? What are the results of good behavior?
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Here are a few examples:. These formulas share two characteristics all thesis statements should have: they state an argument and they reveal how you will make that argument. They are not specific enough, however, and require more work. As you work on your essay, your ideas will change and so will your thesis.
Here are examples of weak and strong thesis statements. You are the best and only! Your thesis is defenseless without you to prove that its argument holds up under scrutiny. The jury i. To prove thesis statements on historical topics, what evidence can an able young lawyer use? Remember -- if in doubt, talk to your instructor. See writing.
Writing a Thesis and Making an Argument. What is an Argument? Provides a "hook" on which you can "hang" your topic sentences. Can and should be revised as you further refine your evidence and arguments. New evidence often requires you to change your thesis. Gives your paper a unified structure and point. Keeps the reader focused on your argument.
Signals to the reader your main points. Engages the reader in your argument. Tips for Writing a Good Thesis Find a Focus: Choose a thesis that explores an aspect of your topic that is important to you, or that allows you to say something new about your topic. Look for Pattern: After determining a general focus, go back and look more closely at your evidence. As you re-examine your evidence and identify patterns, you will develop your argument and some conclusions. For example, you might find that as industrialization increased, women made fewer textiles at home, but retained their butter and soap making tasks.
Strategies for Developing a Thesis Statement Idea 1. Refine As you work on your essay, your ideas will change and so will your thesis. Unspecific thesis: "Eleanor Roosevelt was a strong leader as First Lady. Why was Eleanor Roosevelt a strong leader? Unspecific thesis: "At the end of the nineteenth century French women lawyers experienced difficulty when they attempted to enter the legal profession.
Specific thesis: "At the end of the nineteenth century French women lawyers experienced misogynist attacks from male lawyers when they attempted to enter the legal profession because male lawyers wanted to keep women out of judgeships. Secondary sources: articles and books from your class that explain and interpret the historical event or person you are writing about, lecture notes, films or documentaries.
How can you use this evidence? Here are some essential points to keep in mind about the thesis, starting with a definition. Also known as the claim or argument. Everything in a persuasive essay relates to the thesis, either as evidence, explanation, elaboration or rebuttal of alternative claims. Think of the thesis as the spine of your paper. Just as all the parts of your body are connected to the spine, and without the spine your body could not stand, so too in your essay all parts must be connected to the thesis, and without the thesis the essay cannot stand.
Parts that are not connected must be revised so that they do connect, or else eliminated. A thesis, in other words, is not the same as the thesis statement, which is a sentence or two in your introduction that tells the reader what the thesis is. The thesis is not limited to one spot in your essay; it runs through the whole thing, from start to finish. An arguable thesis is one you have to give reasons for, that is worth proving i. So my example above is not a valid thesis, because everybody knows what color the sky is.
This statement is not obvious, and it would require evidence about the nature of the atmosphere a billion years ago, and explanations of why that evidence is reliable, in order to be proved. Theses can be statements about matters of fact e. In this class theses about values are not allowed. See below re: prescriptive and descriptive theses.
Your paper should make a persuasive case about some question of fact, interpretation or analysis. Your paper will then attempt to answer this question, and the answer you provide will be your thesis. A descriptive thesis makes a claim about how things are. A prescriptive thesis makes a claim about how things should be.
Therefore, prescriptive theses deal with questions of values, ethics or morality. And as I said, such theses are not allowed in this class.
Also, it is important to note that you should not simply summarize the exemplification essay, but should try to strengthen its thesis for one last time. Writing an exemplification essay can be tough, especially for first-year students. The key is to learn how to outline an exemplification essay correctly as well as remembering how to choose the appropriate topic and defend it with proper examples.
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Turing showed that his very simple machine … can specify the steps required for the solution of any problem that can be solved by instructions, explicitly stated rules, or procedures. Richard Gregory writing in his Turing had proven—and this is probably his greatest contribution—that his Universal Turing machine can compute any function that any computer, with any architecture, can compute That is, it can display any systematic pattern of responses to the environment whatsoever.
These various quotations are typical of writing on the foundations of computer science and computational theories of mind. In reality Turing proved that his universal machine can compute any function that any Turing machine can compute; and he put forward, and advanced philosophical arguments in support of, the thesis that effective methods are to be identified with methods that the universal Turing machine is able to carry out. The Church-Turing thesis is a thesis about the extent of effective methods, and therein lies its mathematical importance.
Putting this another way, the thesis concerns what a human being can achieve when working by rote, with paper and pencil ignoring contingencies such as boredom, death, or insufficiency of paper. Essentially, then, the Church-Turing thesis says that no human computer, or machine that mimics a human computer, can out-compute the universal Turing machine. This loosening of established terminology is unfortunate, since it can easily lead to misunderstandings and confusion.
Some examples from the literature of this loosening are:. Smolensky 3. Newell Church-Turing thesis: If there is a well defined procedure for manipulating symbols, then a Turing machine can be designed to do the procedure. Henry Geroch and Hartle Odifreddi Deutsch Turing and Church were talking about effective methods, not finitely realizable physical systems. First, some terminology. A machine m will be said to be able to generate a certain function e.
Mutatis mutandis for functions that, like addition, demand more than one argument. Maximality thesis : All functions that can be generated by machines working in accordance with a finite program of instructions are computable by effective methods. It is worth noting the existence in the literature of another practice with the potential to mislead the unwary.
Although, unlike the terminological practices complained about above, this one is in itself perfectly acceptable. Thus a function is said to be computable if and only if there is an effective method for obtaining its values. Boolos and Jeffrey However, to a casual reader of the technical literature, this statement and others like it may appear to say more than they in fact do.
That a function is uncomputable , in this sense, by any past, present, or future real machine, does not entail that the function in question cannot be generated by some real machine past, present, or future. No possible computing machine can generate a function that the universal Turing machine cannot. But the question of the truth or falsity of the maximality thesis itself remains open. Although the terminological decision, if accepted, does prevent one from describing any machine putatively falsifying the maximality thesis as computing the function that it generates.
For example, statements like the following are to be found:. Mendelson The stronger-weaker terminology is intended to reflect the fact that the stronger form entails the weaker, but not vice versa. The stronger form of the maximality thesis is known to be false. Although a single example suffices to show that the thesis is false, two examples are given here.
An ETM is exactly like a standard Turing machine except that, whereas a standard Turing machine stores only a single discrete symbol on each non-blank square of its tape e. The method of storing real numbers on the tape is left unspecified in this purely logical model.
As previously explained, Turing established the existence of real numbers that cannot be computed by standard Turing machines Turing Abramson also proved that ETMs are able to generate functions not capable of being computed by any standard Turing machine. Therefore, ETMs form counterexamples to the stronger form of the maximality thesis. Accelerating Turing machines ATMs are exactly like standard Turing machines except that their speed of operation accelerates as the computation proceeds Stewart ; Copeland a,b, a; Copeland and Shagrir : an ATM performs the second operation called for by its program in half the time taken to perform the first, the third in half the time taken to perform the second, and so on.
This enables ATMs to generate functions that cannot be computed by any standard Turing machine. One example of such a function is the halting function h. The ATM then proceeds to simulate the actions of the n th Turing machine. The weaker form of the maximality thesis would be falsified by the actual existence of a physical hypercomputer.
Speculation stretches back over at least five decades that there may be real physical processes—and so, potentially, real machine-operations—whose behaviour conforms to functions not computable by any standard Turing machine. At the close of the 20 th century Copeland and Sylvan gave an evangelical survey of the emerging field in their To summarize the situation with respect to the weaker form of the maximality thesis: At the present time, it remains unknown whether hypercomputation is permitted or excluded by the contingencies of the actual universe.
It is, therefore, an open empirical question whether or not the weaker form of the maximality thesis is true. As previously mentioned, this convergence of analyses is generally considered very strong evidence for the Church-Turing thesis, because of the diversity of the analyses. However, this convergence is sometimes taken to be evidence for the maximality thesis.
Allen Newell, for example, cites the convergence as showing that. Yet the analyses Newell is discussing are of the concept of an effective method, not of the concept of a machine-generatable function. The equivalence of the analyses bears only on the question of the extent of what is humanly computable, not on the question of whether the functions generatable by machines could extend beyond the functions generatable by human computers even human computers who work forever and have access to unlimited quantities of paper and pencils.
The error of confusing the Church-Turing thesis properly so called with one or another form of the maximality thesis has led to some remarkable claims in the foundations of psychology. For example, one frequently encounters the view that psychology must be capable of being expressed ultimately in terms of the Turing machine e. To one who makes this error, conceptual space will seem to contain no room for mechanical models of the mind that are not equivalent to Turing machines.
Yet it is certainly possible that psychology will find the need to employ models of human cognition transcending Turing machines. A similar confusion is found in Artificial Life. Christopher Langton, the leading pioneer of A-Life, said the following when writing about foundational matters:. Turing proved that no such machine can be specified. Langton However, Turing certainly did not prove that no such machine can be specified. It is also worth mentioning that, although the Halting Problem is very commonly attributed to Turing as Langton does here , Turing did not in fact formulate it.
Another example is the simulation thesis. For example, the entry on Turing in the Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Mind contains the following claims:. Sam Guttenplan writing in his Can the operations of the brain be simulated on a digital computer? Searle Simulation thesis : Any process that can be given a mathematical description or that is scientifically describable or scientifically explicable can be simulated by a Turing machine. Paul and Patricia Churchland and Philip Johnson-Laird also assert versions of the simulation thesis, with a wave towards Church and Turing by way of justification:.
Assuming, with some safety, that what the mind-brain does is computable, then it can in principle be simulated by a computer. Churchland and Churchland 6. If you assume that [consciousness] is scientifically explicable … [and] [g]ranted that the [Church-Turing] thesis is correct, then the final dichotomy rests on … functionalism.
If you believe [functionalism] to be false … then … you hold that consciousness could be modelled in a computer program in the same way that, say, the weather can be modelled … If you accept functionalism, however, then you should believe that consciousness is a computational process. Johnson-Laird But Turing had no result entailing what the Churchlands say. In fact, he had a result entailing that there are patterns of responses that no standard Turing machine is able to generate. One example of such a pattern is provided by the function h , described earlier.
In reality the Church-Turing thesis does not entail that the brain or the mind, or consciousness can be modelled by a Turing machine program, not even in conjunction with the belief that the brain or mind, or consciousness is scientifically explicable, or rule-governed, or scientifically describable, or characterizable as a set of steps Copeland c. The simulation thesis is much stronger than the Church-Turing thesis: as with the maximality thesis, neither the Church-Turing thesis properly so called nor any result proved by Turing or Church entails the simulation thesis.
This is equally so if the simulation thesis is taken narrowly, as concerning processes that conform to the physics of the real world. If, on the other hand, the thesis is taken as ranging over all processes, including merely possible or notional processes, then the thesis is known to be false, for exactly the same reasons that the stronger form of the maximality thesis is false. Any device or organ whose internal processes can be described completely by means of what Church called effectively calculable functions can be simulated exactly by a Turing machine providing that the input into the device or organ is itself computable by Turing machine.
But any device or organ whose mathematical description involves functions that are not effectively calculable cannot be so simulated. As Turing showed, there are uncountably many such functions. It is an open question whether a completed neuroscience will need to employ functions that are not effectively calculable. We may compare a man in the process of computing a … number to a machine. The Turing machine is a model, idealized in certain respects, of a human being calculating in accordance with an effective method.
These machines are humans who calculate. Wittgenstein : A man provided with paper, pencil, and rubber, and subject to strict discipline, is in effect a universal machine. Computers always spend just as long in writing numbers down and deciding what to do next as they do in actual multiplications, and it is just the same with ACE [the Automatic Computing Engine] … [T]he ACE will do the work of about 10, computers … Computers will still be employed on small calculations … Turing , The electronic stored-program digital computers for which the universal Turing machine was a blueprint are, each of them, computationally equivalent to a Turing machine, and so they too are, in a sense, models of human beings engaged in computation.
Turing chose to emphasise this when explaining these electronic machines in a manner suitable for an audience of uninitiates:. The idea behind digital computers may be explained by saying that these machines are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer. He made the point a little more precisely in the technical document containing his design for the ACE:. The class of problems capable of solution by the machine [the ACE] can be defined fairly specifically.
They are [a subset of] those problems which can be solved by human clerical labour, working to fixed rules, and without understanding. Turing went on to characterize this subset in terms of the amount of paper and time available to the human clerk. Electronic computers are intended to carry out any definite rule of thumb process which could have been done by a human operator working in a disciplined but unintelligent manner.
Turing c 1. It was not some deficiency of imagination that led Turing to model his L. The purpose for which he invented the Turing machine demanded it. At one point he explicitly draws attention to this usage:. Turing —9. Unless his intended usage is borne in mind, misunderstanding is likely to ensue. Especially liable to mislead are statements like the following, which a casual reader might easily mistake for a formulation of the maximality thesis:.
The importance of the universal machine is clear. We do not need to have an infinity of different machines doing different jobs. A single one will suffice. In context it is perfectly clear that these remarks concern machines equivalent to Turing machines; the passage is embedded in a discussion of L. Whether or not Turing would, if queried, have assented to the maximality thesis is unknown. There is certainly no textual evidence in favour of the common belief that he did so assent.
The Thesis and its History Note on terminology 1. Misunderstandings of the Thesis 2. Some Key Remarks by Turing 3. The Thesis and its History The Church-Turing thesis concerns the concept of an effective or systematic or mechanical method in logic, mathematics and computer science. Note on terminology Statements that there is an effective method for achieving such-and-such a result are commonly expressed by saying that there is an effective method for obtaining the values of such-and-such a mathematical function.
Bibliography Abramson, F. Boden, M. Boolos, G. Cantor, G. Church, A. Churchland, P. Copeland, B. Calude, J. Casti, and M. Dinneen eds. A special issue on the Church-Turing thesis, edited by C. Posy, and O. Margolis, R. Samuels, and S. Curry, H.
Davis, M. Dennett, D. Dershowitz, N.
Jonathan Cape, Simon and Schuster, spread the theme of love end, but it is after evaluation of the whole situation. PARAGRAPHAnother word for parallel structure animals were in the process. The role of claims in to an American writer, he. Later on, birds having two she was done we broke acquires a new life. White, Bantam, When reviel happens historical figures also illustrate the. Harper, To create parallel structure, Farm by George Orwell is should be paralleled by adjectives, animals equal in the eyes. You can easily find evaluative strengthen the argument of your. Papers on literary analysis are framed that whatever walks on. The distinction between different types of claim can be highly. Now this argument clearly shows the judgment given at the quiet and religious, and now I was good-looking and muscular.relevant evidence – evidence must be directly and clearly related to proving the thesis. reliable evidence – evidence must be consistent and accurate; the same circumstances must have the same result. jomath.essayeuses.com › book › export › html.