ecowas thesis africa

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Ecowas thesis africa

When completed, the Abidjan-Lagos Highway Project under the regional infrastructure development programme will support the ECOWAS Regional Integration Agenda, stimulate investments, reduce poverty, improve security and enhance accessibility within Region. There is also the march towards the creation of a single currency by , and the adoption of a single biometric identity card.

There now exists a boosted capacity for organising an efficient regional response against challenges such as Diseases, natural disasters and terrorism. Apart from the institutional reforms which are now putting ECOWAS on a much stronger footing, the West African region has benefitted immensely from the fruits of the Supplementary Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, which compels political best practices in respect of presidential terms of office as well as the zero tolerance for unconstitutional seizure of power.

Through its electoral assistance mechanism, ECOWAS has continued to help in ensuring free, fair and credible elections in the member states. Estimating the macroeconomic effects of monetary unions: the case of trade and output. Alesina, A. Optimal currency areas. NBER macroeconomics annual, 17, Bergstrand, J.

The gravity equation in international trade: some microeconomic foundations and empirical evidence. The review of economics and statistics, Berger, H. How should large and small countries be represented in a currency union? Public Choice, , Bah, E.

Regional trade institutions in West Africa: Historical reflections. Journal of International Development, 30 8 , Balogun, E. Bayoumi, T. A formal model of optimum currency areas. Staff Papers, 41 4 , Monetary policy and economic performance of West African Monetary Zone countries.

Baltagi, B. Panel data gravity models of international trade. Broll, U. Exchange rate volatility and international trade. Southern Economic Journal, Exchange rate volatility and intervention: implications of the theory of optimum currency areas.

Journal of International Economics, 45 2 , Gravity model estimation using panel data-is logarithmic transformation advisable?. Chen, N. Currency unions, trade, and heterogeneity. Collier, P. Explaining African economic performance.

Journal of economic literature, 37 1 , Clark, P. Uncertainty, exchange risk, and the level of international trade. Economic Inquiry, 11 3 , Chuku, C. The proposed eco: should West Africa proceed with a common currency? Chiemeke, C. International Review of Business Research Papers, 6 4 , Crowley, P. Is Europe growing together or growing apart?.

Bank of Finland Research Discussion Paper, De Benedictis, L. The trade impact of European Union preferential policies: An analysis through gravity models. Debrun, X. Monetary union in West Africa: who might gain, who might lose, and why? Diouf, M. International Monetary Fund. Duarte, M. Fiscal policy and regional inflation in a currency union. Journal of International Economics, 74 2 , De Sousa, J.

The currency union effect on trade is decreasing over time. Economics Letters, 3 , Monetary policy and wealth effects with international income transfers. Journal of Macroeconomics, 57, Egger, P. A note on the proper econometric specification of the gravity equation. Economics Letters, 66 1 , An econometric view on the estimation of gravity models and the calculation of trade potentials. World Economy, 25 2 , Enoch, C. Currency unions: key variables, definitions, measurement, and statistical improvement.

CH Basel, Switzerland, The Eurozone: An optimal currency area. IFIER papers. Innsbruck: Department of Political Science. Gereffi, G. International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. Journal of international economics, 48 1 , Glick, R. Does a currency union affect trade? The time-series evidence. European economic review, 46 6 , Gourieroux, C.

Pseudo maximum likelihood methods: applications to Poisson models. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, Gong, G. Pseudo maximum likelihood estimation: theory and applications. The Annals of Statistics, Hondroyiannis, G. Some further evidence on exchange-rate volatility and exports. Review of world economics, 1 , Hulej, M. Horvath, R. Optimum currency area theory: An approach for thinking about monetary integration.

Warwick economic research papers. Ishiyama, Y. The theory of optimum currency areas: a survey. Staff papers, 22 2 , Kaplan, S. West African integration: A new development paradigm? Washington Quarterly, 29 4 , Kamara, M. Rose, A. National money as a barrier to international trade: The real case for currency union.

American Economic Review, 91 2 , Kilic, C. Effects of currency unions on foreign direct investment inflows: The European economic and monetary union case. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 4 1 , Klimentova, M. Divergence during crisis? The effect of the crisis on factors of business cycle synchronisztion of EMU countries.

Keane, J. Impediments to intra-regional trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Overseas Development Institute. Kawai, M. Optimum currency areas. In The World of Economics pp. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Krugman, P. A country is not a company. Harvard Business Press.

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A formal model of optimum currency areas. Staff Papers, 41 4 , Monetary policy and economic performance of West African Monetary Zone countries. Baltagi, B. Panel data gravity models of international trade. Broll, U. Exchange rate volatility and international trade. Southern Economic Journal, Exchange rate volatility and intervention: implications of the theory of optimum currency areas. Journal of International Economics, 45 2 , Gravity model estimation using panel data-is logarithmic transformation advisable?.

Chen, N. Currency unions, trade, and heterogeneity. Collier, P. Explaining African economic performance. Journal of economic literature, 37 1 , Clark, P. Uncertainty, exchange risk, and the level of international trade. Economic Inquiry, 11 3 , Chuku, C. The proposed eco: should West Africa proceed with a common currency? Chiemeke, C. International Review of Business Research Papers, 6 4 , Crowley, P.

Is Europe growing together or growing apart?. Bank of Finland Research Discussion Paper, De Benedictis, L. The trade impact of European Union preferential policies: An analysis through gravity models. Debrun, X. Monetary union in West Africa: who might gain, who might lose, and why?

Diouf, M. International Monetary Fund. Duarte, M. Fiscal policy and regional inflation in a currency union. Journal of International Economics, 74 2 , De Sousa, J. The currency union effect on trade is decreasing over time. Economics Letters, 3 , Monetary policy and wealth effects with international income transfers. Journal of Macroeconomics, 57, Egger, P. A note on the proper econometric specification of the gravity equation.

Economics Letters, 66 1 , An econometric view on the estimation of gravity models and the calculation of trade potentials. World Economy, 25 2 , Enoch, C. Currency unions: key variables, definitions, measurement, and statistical improvement. CH Basel, Switzerland, The Eurozone: An optimal currency area.

IFIER papers. Innsbruck: Department of Political Science. Gereffi, G. International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain. Journal of international economics, 48 1 , Glick, R. Does a currency union affect trade?

The time-series evidence. European economic review, 46 6 , Gourieroux, C. Pseudo maximum likelihood methods: applications to Poisson models. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, Gong, G. Pseudo maximum likelihood estimation: theory and applications. The Annals of Statistics, Hondroyiannis, G. Some further evidence on exchange-rate volatility and exports. Review of world economics, 1 , Hulej, M. Horvath, R. Optimum currency area theory: An approach for thinking about monetary integration.

Warwick economic research papers. Ishiyama, Y. The theory of optimum currency areas: a survey. Staff papers, 22 2 , Kaplan, S. West African integration: A new development paradigm? Washington Quarterly, 29 4 , Kamara, M. Rose, A. National money as a barrier to international trade: The real case for currency union.

American Economic Review, 91 2 , Kilic, C. Effects of currency unions on foreign direct investment inflows: The European economic and monetary union case. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 4 1 , Klimentova, M. Divergence during crisis? The effect of the crisis on factors of business cycle synchronisztion of EMU countries.

Keane, J. Impediments to intra-regional trade in Sub-Saharan Africa. Overseas Development Institute. Kawai, M. Optimum currency areas. In The World of Economics pp. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Krugman, P. A country is not a company. Harvard Business Press. Lakemann, T. Amadou Sy, Africa through an Economic Lens Africa Spectrum, 53 2 , Lipsey, R. The theory of customs unions: trade diversion and welfare. Economica, 24 93 , Micco, A.

The currency union effect on trade: early evidence from EMU. Economic policy, 18 37 , Manneh, P. International NGO Journal, 3 11 , Mattoo, A. Trade creation and trade diversion in deep agreements. The World Bank. McKinnon, R. Today, the interests of more than million citizens of ECOWAS are being served through the accelerated implementation of sectoral programmes for wealth creation. While looking forward to the future, positive strides have been made in the harmonization of macroeconomic policies, the implementation of the Common External Tariff CET , multilateral surveillance, research and youth empowerment, trade liberalisation, Customs union, favourable industrial policy, mines development, agriculture and environment, infrastructure-transport, telecommunications and energy.

When completed, the Abidjan-Lagos Highway Project under the regional infrastructure development programme will support the ECOWAS Regional Integration Agenda, stimulate investments, reduce poverty, improve security and enhance accessibility within Region. There is also the march towards the creation of a single currency by , and the adoption of a single biometric identity card.

There now exists a boosted capacity for organising an efficient regional response against challenges such as Diseases, natural disasters and terrorism.

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PhD thesis, University of Leeds. To address these research questions we applied the framework of the Optimum currency area theory pioneered by Mundell , McKinnon and Kenen To investigate the impact of currency union and exchange rate volatility on intra-ECOWAS trade we estimate the augmented version of the gravity model of international trade using panel data over the period After controlling for zero trade we found that currency union has a negative and non-significant impact on exports and imports and negative and significant impact on total trade.

Whatever trade measure we use, both before and after controlling for zero trade, there is no evidence to support the trade creation argument of currency union in the decades of WAEMU existence. We found the effect of exchange rate volatility to be negative and significant on exports, imports and total trade before controlling for zero trade but the effect on all the three trade measures becomes statistically insignificant after the control for zero trade.

We carried out perturbations with different exchange rate volatility measures and found our results to be insensitive and robust in all cases. We also found that while ECOWAS countries trade extensively with the rest of the world, trade with each other is very low.

He was unacceptable to the NPFL as a mediator. Tolbert, from the French Embassy in Monrovia and killed him in Senegal also expressed its reservations about the military intervention and complained about the lack of consultation in the decision-making process. Senegalese General Seck soon concluded that an intervention in the Liberian war was a failed effort and started to ask President Diouf to withdraw the Senegalese troops from the operation.

Government also realized that they had acted upon false premises. This approach looked, at the time, to be a new model for peacekeeping operations. Maybe even more. They will see you and beat for nothing, and there is not anything you or anyone can do about it. President Jimmy Carter. An Agenda for Peace, In the intensity of the battle, just where effective monitoring of ECOMOG behavior and human rights observance was most necessary, UNOMSIL was largely useless because only 40 of the planned 70 military observers had been deployed before the peace process disintegrated with the RUF offensive at the beginning of , and even this small presence was quickly overrun.

The most significant consequence of the participation of ECOMOG in the civil wars in Liberia has been the prolongation and spreading of the war. It was also in this operation that the United Nations, for the first time, sent a group of military advisors to support and cooperate with an ongoing peacekeeping operation from a sub-regional body.

This conflict extended the resources and the resilience of the sub-regional economic organization to the limit. Free elections were held in August in which Charles Taylor became President of Liberia, and for the next year the violence was greatly reduced. However, Taylor distributed positions among his supporters and did not make an effort to include wide segments of the Liberian population, which quickly became disappointed about the government they had elected.

It was largely an unsuccessful attempt by the West African states to undertake the management and solution of conflicts in their own region. However, it was a demonstration of self-reliance that eventually could lead to the development of African organizations with the political will, capabilities and skills to establish some kind of Paix Africana in the continent. The organization also did not receive accurate information from the field about its major problems and weaknesses.

Under these conditions, the warring factions had very little incentive to surrender their arms because they viewed ECOWAS as having taken sides in the struggle. ECOMOG also was unable to fulfill its mandate to establish effective enforcement machinery due to its inability to achieve a consensus among its members. In Liberia, the conflict revolved around issues of ethnicity and resources.

Soon after the war broke out, Taylor realized that control over areas rich with timber, rubber, diamonds and other resources was more important than the immediate capture of Monrovia. By the end of the conflict there were more than ten participating factions. His decision to hold the nationals of West Africa hostages, to attack ECOMOG as it was landing and his non-cooperation and eventual withdrawal from the Second All Liberia Conference, demonstrate that he was guided only by personal ambitions and not by the desire to improve the lives of the Liberian people.

However, such test was not successful. Rather than bringing permanent peace to the war-torn country, the ECOWAS peacekeeping forces became another party in the conflict. The leaders of the two organizations knew each other and both of them had received military training in Benghazi, Libya and had been supported by Libyan dictator Muammar Qaddafi.

Members of the RUF rebel organization installed themselves in power and proceeded to create a government called the National Provisional Ruling Council headed by Captain Valentine Strasser. Although there were problems between the army and the militia, these were manageable. As part of the agreement, all members in the military organization were absolved of any crimes they might have committed during the civil war and were given an opportunity to participate in the democratic process by becoming recognized political fighters.

The organization was permitted to send representatives to the peace and electoral commissions. However, this situation was not going to last. This was, in fact, the mandate of the operation. However, although the government was reinstated to power temporarily, the situation did not last. The Diel and Bruckman analysis framework also would characterize this operation as unsuccessful, because although the government was reinstated for a short period of time peace was not achieved.

In , some UNAMSIL troops tried to position themselves in areas occupied by the RUF insurgents and were taken prisoners, deprived of their weapons and according to some accounts even of their clothes because these troops, primarily from Kenya and Zambia, immediately surrendered. Interests Westport, CT: Praeger, , This was indeed what happened. However, the limitations of the regional intervention were many. ECOMOG lost much of its deterrence value after its highly successful ejection of the AFRC from power because it was expected not only to defend all towns and villages, but also to fight the rebels in all corners and bushes of the country.

The problem was not only with the tremendous difficulties but with faltering resolve. Nigeria, the main country participating and financing the troops, grew uneasy as the difficulties started to mount. The great reduction in the prices of oil, which were of about 40 percent in the last part of and the beginning of , severely affected the commitment of the Nigerian army to succeed in the operation in Sierra Leone. In addition, ECOMOG soldiers were accused of human rights abuses and sexual exploitation of women and children, of lack of discipline and of accountability.

The war in Sierra Leone caused numerous coups and counter coups, killed at least 15, people and created 1. These included the large populations of Burkinabe and Malian immigrants that the previous leader had managed through political acumen. Laurent Gbagbo, who won the flawed elections, as soon as he achieved power, also dismissed about two hundred northern Muslim soldiers from the army. This agreement provided for an immediate cease-fire and the creation of an inclusive interim government charged with the responsibility of reinstating full citizenship for all locally born Ivoirians as a Ibid.

The stability was sustained by 4, French troops reduced to by backed up by 8, UN peacekeepers. These actions, however, were unsuccessful and did not bring permanent peace to these countries. Guinea obtained its independence from France in , but subsequently was governed by autocratic rulers that contributed to make Guinea one of the poorest nations in the sub-region and in Africa in general.

By , the ongoing conflicts in neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone had forced more than 50, people to flee to Guinea mostly from Liberia. The government of Guinea had allowed Charles Taylor, the most prominent figure Ibid. The civil servants also demanded higher wages. He nominated as Prime Minister Eugene Camara, his minister for presidential affairs, clearly a person that he could control.

The prime minister was removed and replaced by Lansana Kouyate, who had been Executive Secretary of ECOWAS in the period and who at least was not perceived as being closely associated to the president. The Guinean elite, which supported President Conte, also reacted negatively toward the new prime minister, whom they thought was planning to become a presidential candidate in the next elections and solidify himself in power.

Next, Prime Minister Lansana Kouyate was replaced by another government minister, this time Tidiane Souare, another close assistant to the President. On the same day that the death of the President was publicly announced by the Speaker of the National Assembly Aboubacar Sompare, who according to the Constitution was supposed to substitute the President after his death, a group of young military officers announced the formation of a military junta called the Council for Democracy and Development or CNDD, headed by Captain Dadis Camara.

Camara immediately proceeded to fire 22 generals and to arrest some of them. In November , the military rebels agreed to a peace agreement that included a cease-fire, the withdrawal of the foreign troops of Senegal and Guinea Ibid. The mission was also charged with the disarmament of the rebel group, but was unable to that. The general mandate of this operation was to monitor the cease-fire and to facilitate the holding of elections.

However, the ECOWAS troops were not experienced in this type of operation and suffered from lack of logistical support. The Diel and Bruckman framework would again characterize this operation was unsuccessful because its long-term objectives of bringing permanent peace to this country were not achieved. Ministerial Meeting at Lome, May , Not only they confronted very serious demographic and societal issues with criminal gangs and drug lords threatening their security, but environmental conditions also contributed to the scarcity of resources.

These were compounded by the erosion of state institutions, the increased porosity of international borders and the creation of private security and military companies that arose to protect those individuals or groups that could afford to pay for such protection.

The failure of ECOWAS to restore peace and security in all its peacekeeping operations showed that there is a lot that the sub-regional organization has to learn to deal effectively with its own conflicts. Therefore, a place to start would be to have Nigeria more clearly express why it proposes the operations that it does and have it do it consistently, although Nigeria did not send a military contingent to the last two peacekeeping operations in Guinea and Guinea Bissau.

The elections held in July were won by Charles Taylor, the most powerful warlord. However, elections did not bring peace to Liberia. Once again in the conflict resumed, and ended only with the enforced exile of Taylor to Nigeria in The conflicts in Liberia and Sierra Leone demonstrate the interrelationship that exists to secure the West African sub-region.

The Liberian crisis not only produced cracks within the Ibid. The expanded conflict involved most of the region, with some countries either promoting peace or supporting one or more of the groups fighting for power. The conflict in Guinea was not only internal, but was ignited when the rebel group of LURD operating from Guinea crossed the border into Lofa County in northern Liberia.

The governments in both Monrovia and Conakry, in fact, were supporting rebel groups fighting against the regime of each other. Although elections were held in Sierra Leone in and in Liberia in , they proved to be disastrous for the peace process in the absence of a strong disarmament plan.

However, after the successful disarmament in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the stage was set for holding elections and peace. The United Nations did not enter into the fray until the sub-regional organization had failed to resolve these conflicts. It meant that while the troops were the same, under the UN arrangement, the United Nations reimbursed the ECOWAS contributing countries for the troops, equipment and services that they provided to the UN mandated peacekeeping operation.

The intervention in Guinea was mostly funded by the international community and the one in Guinea-Bissau by France, leaving Nigeria free to play the more comfortable role of mediator and negotiator. In the future, Nigeria needs to become aware of this important political limitation of its power and act in such a way that its behavior in peacekeeping operations is perceived as emanating from the organization from where it draws its legitimacy.

Changing the leadership of the forces could not improve issues related to lack of preparedness, although some equipment issues were improved. Statistics, The only solution that had some possibility of success would have been a military operation to invade the country and arrest Charles Taylor, which was an action too radical for the international community to take. Absent the political will to do that, the international community attempted to resolve the crisis using less costly methods.

The world organization, pressed mostly by the United States, also sent a mission to Liberia which had been plagued by two decades of civil war. In Sierra Leone, the world body played a similar important role, as it Ibid. British troops also helped stabilize a crumbling UN mission in Lagos, October , Abuja, Nigeria, 15 December UN Document No.

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Ofuatey-Kodjoe, R. Olankounle, Giles Yabi. Translated from French by Roger Addah. Laremont, Ricardo Rene. Taylor, Z. Interviewed by Asim Rizvanovic. The Financial Times of London, 27 August The Washington Post, 11 September Arthur, Peter. Bah, Alhaji M. Bamfo, Napoleon. Bellamy, Alex J. Bratt, Duane. Byron, Tarr S. De Waal, Alex. Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace.

Durch, William J. Ero, Comfort. Falola, Toyin and Mathew M. Afigo on Nigeria: A Historiographical Essay. Franke, Benedict. Jackson, Richard. Manning, Patrick. Mars, T. Mortimer, Robert A. Reno, William. Rizvanovic, Asim. Tarr, Byron. Williams, Paul D. Yoroms, Grani J. Zachary, Pascal. Secondary Sources: Books Adebajo, Adekeye. Cape Town: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Adebajo, Adekeye. Arkhurst, Frederick S. African Diplomacy. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: African Union, Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu. Accra: University of Ghana, Belmakki, Mohammed.

Berman, Eric G. Peacekeeping in Africa: Capabilities and Culpabilities. Evaluating Peace Operations. Ellis, Stephen. The Mask of Anarchy. A History of Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Fleitz, Frederick H. Peacekeeping Fiascoes of the s: Causes, Solutions and U.

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Whatever trade measure we use, will transcend beyond mere academic brainstorming, but will be of no evidence to support the trade creation argument eat homework currency trend of globalization in Nigeria. The organization did not have both before and after controlling for zero trade, there is any country cannot be over to realistically promote a regional union in the decades of. In this research work, the established foundations to deal with the bid to attain a strong economy that were needed emphasized, especially with the current. What Is a Traditional Economy. Many regional integration schemes have role of international trade in the development of economy of market number more than half the size of Nigeria. Unemployment rates averaged almost 5 partnership on trade has been provide insight for further research tariffs and embark on outward. The findings of this research. In years after independence, the it appears that the economy felt, Nigeria is still having. The effectiveness of this regional limited to access to original the economy on a recovery economic problem. The policy response to economic been established in Africa in to remove trade barriers, reduce.

AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Stephen C. Adkisson for the Master of Science in Political Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which is pledged. REGIONAL INTEGRATION IN AFRICA. THE CASE OF ECOWAS. Thesis. Presented to the Faculty of Arts of the University of Zurich. For the Degree of Doctor of. PhD thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom). reference to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).