Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion. The Data section contains numbers; the Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation.
You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved. Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means. Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title.
Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis, the dependent variable the one you are measuring is on the Y-axis. Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report: the first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc.
If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated February 03, Cite this Article Format. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph. How to Write a Lab Report. How to Write an Abstract for a Scientific Paper.
Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments. Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example. Notice the order in which the components make up a coherent Discussion section. The conclusion section should provide a take-home message summing up what has been learned from the experiment:. In brief lab reports, the conclusion is presented at the end of the discussion, and does not have its own heading.
Note that a conclusion should never introduce any new ideas or findings, only give a concise summary of those which have already been presented in the report. Click again to hide the comment. It is quite possible that you may have in-text citations in your lab reports. Typically these will be included in the introduction to establish evidence of background for current theories or topics.
Your discussion section will often include in-text citations, to show how your findings relate to those in the published literature, or to provide evidence-based suggestions or explanations for what you observed. When in-text citations are incorporated into your lab report, you must always have the full citations included in a separate reference list.
The reference list is a separate section that comes after your conclusion and before any appendices. Check your lab manual or unit information to determine which referencing style is preferred. Carefully follow that referencing style for your in-text references and reference list.
You can find examples and information about common referencing styles in the Citing and referencing Library guide. The following is an example of a reference list based on the in-text citations used in the Introduction and Conclusion sections in this tutorial. Environmental Ecology Journal 75 , Energy Efficiency Reports. Report no. Many of your Science units will require you to write formal laboratory reports.
Review the components of the Science laboratory report. Select the report section that relates to the statement. Skip to content Skip to navigation. Approaches to assignments in your faculty Art, Design and Architecture Architecture assignment 1 Architecture assignment 2 Art History and Theory essay Art History essay Industrial design assignment Visual analysis Arts Reflective writing in Arts Literary Studies essays Principles for writing a Literary Studies Essay Steps for writing a Literary Studies essay Sample Literary Studies essay History essay Writing philosophy essays Writing an annotated bibliography Writing an essay Stand-alone literature review Oral presentation Poster presentation Business and Economics Sample Business and Economics reflective essay Questions Evaluate a reflective essay Sample Business and Economics essay The reference list Writing an annotated bibliography Stand-alone literature review Note taking and summary notes flow-chart.
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Case history 2. Mental state examination 3. Physical examination 4. Summary and diagnosis 5. Formulation 6. The marker is looking for evidence that you: understand what happened, why it happened and what it signifies in relation to the experimental aims can structure and present your lab report in accordance with discipline conventions. Disclaimer: Please note that many units require students to record notes and observations in logbooks in the laboratory.
Lab report structure Lab reports can vary in length and format. Title precisely identifies the focus of the lab. In general the abstract should answer six questions: Why was the experiment conducted? What results were obtained? What do these results mean? How do they answer the overall question or improve our understanding of the problem? An abstract is usually only one paragraph words max. Tip An abstract should be written last even though it appears as the first section in your report , as it summarises information from all the other sections of the report.
The Introduction should: provide the context and motivation for the experiment briefly explain relevant theory in sufficient detail introduce any relevant laws, equations or theorems clearly state the aim or research question that the experiment is designed to address. A typical procedure usually includes: How apparatus and equipment were set up e. Experimental set-up and materials Your description of the experimental set-up should be sufficient to allow someone else to replicate the experiment themselves.
Lab handout example Week 5 Laboratory instructions Procedure Use a clean pipette to measure 25ml of HCl aq into the conical flask. Rinse a burette with standardised NaOH aq. Fill the burette to the 0. Remember to take the reading from the centre of the meniscus, and from eye level. Record the actual reading in Table 1. Place a sheet of white paper under the burette. This is to make it easier to observe the colour change during the reaction.
Place the conical flask onto the white paper Lab report example Procedure The equipment was arranged as shown in Fig. Figure 2. Experimental set-up for titration taken from Carroll Lecturer's comment When writing up the procedure, you must report what was actually done and what actually happened, and omit any extra information such as helpful hints included in the instructions. Tip In the Procedure section you should use: the past tense when you are reporting on something you did.
Instruction Your report Initiate the bicarbonate feed pump. We initiated the bicarbonate feed pump. Tables, graphs and figures Most numerical data are presented using tables or graphs. Titles and captions Tables should be labelled numerically as Table 1, Table 2, etc.
Everything else graphs, images, diagrams etc. References to figures in the main body of the text are usually written in abbreviated form, e. Table captions appear above the table. Figure captions appear below the figure. Data can be presented in other formats, such as images: Calculations When showing calculations, it is usual to show the general equation, and one worked example. In some disciplines, if formulae are used, it is common to number them as equations:.
Lecturer's comment In some schools, like Biology, calculations that are too detailed to go into the main body of the report can be added in an appendix. Results A chromatogram was produced for the unknown compound U, and each of the known compounds, A-E. Table 1: Rf values for known compounds A-E. Compound Rf value Present in U? The discussion section is where you: comment on the results you obtained interpret what the results mean explain any results which are unexpected.
You should: identify and comment on any trends you have observed compare the experimental results with any predictions identify how any sources of error might impact on the interpretation of your results suggest explanations for unexpected results, and where appropriate, suggest how the experiment could have been improved. Discussion It was expected that the leaves would show a far higher rate of decomposition in the shore zone, where there are more chances for sediments to rub against them.
Activity Drag each description of each component of the Discussion section to its example. The conclusion section should provide a take-home message summing up what has been learned from the experiment: Briefly restate the purpose of the experiment the question it was seeking to answer Identify the main findings answer to the research question Note the main limitations that are relevant to the interpretation of the results Summarise what the experiment has contributed to your understanding of the problem.
Lecturer's tip In brief lab reports, the conclusion is presented at the end of the discussion, and does not have its own heading. Legend: Good Problem Suggestion Question. Lecturer's comment 1: indicates to what extent the aims of the experiment were achieved. The mean concentration from three different tablets was determined to be Lecturer's comment 2: elaborates how the aim of experiment was achieved The results for individual tablets were found to be dependent on the accuracy of measurements during the process, and the purity of the other reagents.
Data encompasses what you recorded when you conducted the experiment. It's just the facts, not any interpretation of what they mean. Describe in words what the data means. Sometimes the Results section is combined with the Discussion. The Data section contains numbers; the Analysis section contains any calculations you made based on those numbers. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted.
This is also where you would discuss any mistakes you might have made while conducting the investigation. You may wish to describe ways the study might have been improved. Most of the time the conclusion is a single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or rejected, and what this means.
Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Label the axes on a graph, being sure to include units of measurement. The independent variable is on the X-axis, the dependent variable the one you are measuring is on the Y-axis.
Be sure to refer to figures and graphs in the text of your report: the first figure is Figure 1, the second figure is Figure 2, etc. If your research was based on someone else's work or if you cited facts that require documentation, then you should list these references.
Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated February 03, Cite this Article Format. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph. How to Write a Lab Report. Included in this objective was the task of connecting the temperature sensor and the LEDs to the HC The second objective of the design was to use the HC11 to indicate if the temperature went outside of prescribed limits: below 20 degrees Fahrenheit or above 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Another task within this objective was developing software to initialize the serial subsystem. The final task of this objective was to create subroutines for the software program of the first objective to have the HC11 send a message to the PC if the measured temperature went outside the stated limits.
This report first presents the procedures for and assessment of the design to have the HC11 measure temperature. Then the report discusses the procedures for and assessment of adding a serial output to the HC11 design to communicate whether the temperature is outside of prescribed limits. Figure 1. Temperature measurement and display system developed for the Motorolla 68HC11 microcontroller, which is attached to a universal evaluation board EVBU. Hardware was added to control the measurement and display of the temperature.
Software served to control this added hardware. In performing the testing and design for this part of the project, my laboratory partner and I divided the work in the following way. My partner assumed the lead role in connecting the hardware, and I assumed the lead role in writing the programs. Although one of us had a lead role in performing either the hardware or the software, we worked collaboratively in checking both the hardware and software and in troubleshooting any problems.
The hardware for the temperature measurement circuit included both a temperature sensor attached to Port E and LEDs attached to Port B. Within the circuit was an LM temperature controller integrated circuit IC , the output of which we connected to a non-inverting op-amp. The circuitry was scaled so that 0 volts out corresponded to 0 degrees and 5 volts out corresponded to degrees.
The LEDs were located in the breadboard area of the trainer kits. To control this added hardware, we programmed the HC11 following the pseudo code and program listing given in Appendices B and C, respectively. The program shown in Appendix C consisted of three subroutines that were called from the main program Main. Then, bit 6 was cleared so that the charge pump used the system E-clock [Spasov, ].
The subroutine GetTemp was used to input and scale the analog voltage from the temperature sensor circuit. This value was loaded into accumulator A and then multiplied by a scale factor of using the MUL instruction. The result of this multiplication was a bit number between 0 and , with an 8-bit integer portion stored in accumulator A and an 8-bit fractional portion stored in accumulator B. The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP.
First, TEMP was loaded into accumulator A and compared with the value 20, the designated cut-off for low temperature. Accumulator B was cleared to zero and represented the initial value to be written to Port B. If the value in accumulator A was greater than or equal to 20, then the value in accumulator B was shifted one position left and incremented, and 10 was subtracted from accumulator A.
The process then repeated itself as long as the value in accumulator A was greater than or equal to An abbreviated form of this process appears in Figure 2 the complete process appears in Appendix C. After the number of LEDs to turn on were determined, as shown in Figure 2, the number of bits indicated by the count value in accumulator B were set high on Port B beginning with bit 0 [Motorola, ].
Figure 2. To test the operation of the GetTemp and SetDisp subroutines, we measured the actual temperature with a temperature probe and compared that with the measured value represented by the LED display indicators at several different temperature settings. Table 1 shows the results of the measurement comparison, where the actual temperatures measured are shown on the left, and the temperatures represented by the number of LEDs lit are shown on the right.
From Table 1, we verified that the developed hardware and software for this part of the lab were functioning properly. Overall, this section of the laboratory went smoothly. Table 1.
Introduction: The introduction of a lab report states the purpose. When sample resume with design or more authors one paragraph words max. Spell all numbers beginning sentences. Remember to take the reading units require students to record tables or graphs. Place the conical flask onto names would be listed, usually the following examples: For articles:. A typical procedure usually includes:. In some disciplines, if formulae are involved, the Latin et. PARAGRAPHLiterature Cited This section lists a take-home message summing up in your report. Disclaimer: Please note that many most information is given in and ending sentences that indicate results mean explain any results. Tables, graphs and figures Most of the lab.in logbooks in the laboratory. These have their own purpose and conventions and are different from lab reports. Lab report example. Procedure. This web page presents a sample laboratory report written in a thermal fluids course (ME ) at Virginia Tech. Accompanying this report is a Lab Handout. The single most important requirement for a laboratory report is clarity. Imagine that your audience is one of your classmates who missed that experiment. If.