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It really is quite possible for making some appendices tables or footage , which support readers obtain the basic description of your decided on matter. Your catalase coursework may want to present your deep investigate in addition to the outcomes of your respective job. In your catalase coursework you may current the knowledge about chains of the ferment. Really good luck! You needs to make your catalase courseworks according to the a number of construction: The introductory part of your respective catalase courseworks could be educational and give some basic strategy with regards to the job.
The fundamental physique of the catalase coursework offers your principal tips and discloses the subject, which you could have chosen. The gas syringe, however, has a small volume of air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure. I will subtract this volume of air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. My preliminary experiments also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed i.
In my first preliminary experiment, the reaction went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. In the second preliminary experiment, I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds but found that the reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to obtain enough data to make a valid conclusion.
Therefore I did a further experiment based on timing only and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into account that I will be using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of oxygen produced in the slower reactions, and I may need to change this.
The independent variable the factor that I manipulate will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed in a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make the concentrations.
This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask. The dependent variable the one I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result of the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
One such variable will be the mass of yeast for each experiment 0. I will make sure that I measure 0. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level perfectly balanced regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this in my method below. I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance and indeed all the equipment I use so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion.
I am also controlling the temperature. I believe this will make my experiments more accurate because any fluctuations in temperature will be eliminated. It will also rule out the fact that if I have to do my procedures in different rooms and on different days, the temperature in the room might change. Figure 2. Composition of hydrogen peroxide concentrations.
Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. For this reason, I will take the following safety precautions:. This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off, representing the point where most of the enzymes' active sites are saturated.
The curve will eventually plateau when the enzyme molecules have become fully saturated. This is called the maximum velocity of the reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the rate of reaction because it is the enzyme which is in low concentration. This is because there will be fewer substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases.
I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against the rate of reaction on the y-axis.
I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, the time taken for a set volume of gas would decrease. In other words, the rate is proportional to the concentration. I expect this graph to look similar to the ones I have described above.
I will work out the rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of gas evolves. When I repeated the procedure with 4cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the gas syringe because at first the reaction did not occur because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation.
Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to collect more results. I have explained this later on. Below is a table of the results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat. The raw results can be seen in the appendix. This enabled me to work out an average by adding up three repeat values and dividing by 3. Figure 5. Average volumes of oxygen produced for each concentration of hydrogen peroxide.
From these results, I can instantly see that less gas was evolved after the first 5 seconds as the concentration decreased and that the overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in the higher concentrations, meaning more collisions took place and there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in each decreased concentration.
This supports the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I referenced earlier. I have drawn a graph based on these average results with a curve of best fit for each concentration that will allow me to identify any anomalies. Draw a curve of best fit on your graph. From the graph, I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result.
This is because as the concentration decreased, the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of particles that could react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased.
This meant that there were also less successful collisions, and so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased. This is because fewer overall collisions took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. In other words, since there were fewer molecules initially, this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This meant that there were less successful collisions overall see Fig.
This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time it takes for a reaction to occur—and a set volume of gas to be evolved—is shorter for higher concentrations of substrate. This is because at higher concentrations, there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules per second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly.
From the curves of best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each individual concentration. To find out if the concentrations were accurate as a whole, I worked out the rate of reaction.
I did this by working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x-axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen below. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations.
Overall, I believe my experiment went well and that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration three times and investigated eight concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as the concentration decreased the volume of oxygen produced also decreased. Also, most of the points were on or close to the curve of best fit for each concentration.
However, there are some factors that I must take into consideration. Firstly, there were limitations on the apparatus that I used. Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error with an upper and lower limit. This obviously affects the amount of catalase present, which means that there could be more or fewer collisions and resulting successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast.
For example, if there were more molecules of yeast, the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. This would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.
The same idea applies to the substrate concentration in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This means the amount of substrate could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration. So in cm 3 , the actual volume could have been either If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made.
However, I do not believe the substrate concentrations were significantly different because my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of substrate molecules in each concentration. I tried to select the method I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my section on preliminary work, it measured the volume of gas directly and minimised the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water.
However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small amount from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas.
To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker.
I solved this by swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the reactions, which seemed to solve the problem, although this meant that the amount of swirling had to be the same in order to ensure a fair test. I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly.
The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of substrate molecules were present in each reaction. Another factor which was hard to measure was the volume of gas produced, because some of the higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read the correct values every time.
I tried to make this as accurate as possible by keeping my eyes level with the gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube.
I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there are more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction.
This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of molecules exposed to collisions must be the same. Temperature is a major factor which affects the rate of reaction. This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and collide more often. This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a kinetic energy greater than that of the activation energy.
More collisions are therefore successful, so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, meaning heat is produced in the reaction. The higher the concentration, the more heat will be produced. This is because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, therefore they collide more often and produce more heat energy. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Although I tried to control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect a constant external temperature was produced and the heat energy was dissipated , I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction.
This could have affected my results for several reasons. Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in water at low temperatures than at high temperatures, meaning that for the reactions involving low concentrations, more oxygen would have dissolved than in the higher concentrations because of the decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is not constant for all reactions, and less oxygen is dissolved in water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results.
This may have been why the difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of 3. The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps, which it did not. As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of 3. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and poured the water into the volumetric flask to make up the rest of the cm 3.
I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection, using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than volumetric flasks. I also had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and dried them sufficiently.
This would have affected the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide present, which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules.