nurse burnout literature review

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Nurse burnout literature review

This article explores its findings and recommendations for future research. Using this theory as a basis, a literature review sought to establish the predictors and consequences of burnout in nursing. This article discusses its findings and recommendations for future research. Nursing Times [online]; 2, Several nursing studies focus on burnout as an indicator of adverse work environments but they often overlook what it is, factors that contribute to its development and its effect on nurses, healthcare organisations and patients.

This article describes a review of the research examining relationships between burnout and work-related variables. However, it is unclear whether being tired and feeling demotivated are symptoms of burnout, and whether burnout equates to stress and depression. Burnout has recently been added to the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision as an occupational phenomenon, but it has been researched for the past 45 years Schaufeli et al, Maslach was the first to propose a theory about burnout and to measure it as a concept distinct from, for example, stress.

She developed the Maslach Burnout Inventory MBI, Maslach and Jackson, to measure burnout; this scale is still one of the most widely used internationally. According to her theory, burnout is characterised by:. She stated that burnout develops when there is a prolonged mismatch between an employee and one or more of the following:.

We do not know whether existing studies can help us establish a causal pathway between work characteristics and burnout. Additionally, as burnout is often explored as an endpoint, there is little consideration of what happens to nurses who experience it. As such, we looked for studies to help us understand which factors are associated with burnout in nursing. When assessing the quality of the studies, we found most had limitations, including small sample sizes and a failure to adjust for other variables that may influence the relationship between burnout and the variable under study.

We found a strong association between high workload and burnout. Specifically, we found evidence that high workload is associated with emotional exhaustion, while nurse-staffing levels are associated with all three subscales of burnout.

We found that, when nurses have control over their job and when they experience reward for their efforts, they are less likely to experience burnout. The evidence linking fairness and community to burnout was inconclusive, with only a few studies reporting contrasting results.

Overall, our review highlighted mixed results for the effects on burnout of both working at night and the number of working hours per week. There were more conclusive results regarding the negative association between working long shifts — of at least 12 hours — and emotional exhaustion. We found some evidence that staff who were satisfied with their schedule flexibility were less likely to report emotional exhaustion.

The literature indicated that high job and psychological demands, and role conflict, were related to emotional exhaustion. High patient complexity predicted burnout, while task variety, autonomy and the ability to make important decisions appeared to be protective of burnout. There was also strong evidence that positive working relationships and having support from colleagues and managers might play a protective role against burnout.

In particular, this was confirmed to be the case for positive relationships with physicians, support from the team leader, positive leadership style and teamwork. In summary, when nurses worked in positive work environments, they were less likely to experience emotional exhaustion. However, none of the organisational characteristics at the hospital level — such as hospital type or Magnet accreditation — was consistently associated with burnout.

Studies reported associations between some subscales of burnout and low job performance, sickness absence, poor general health, missed patient care and job dissatisfaction. However, the relationship with job dissatisfaction and missed care was observed in multiple directions so it is unclear whether the presumed cause burnout precedes the effect job dissatisfaction or missed care or vice versa.

Burnout was linked to reduced patient safety and adverse events, including medication errors, infections and falls. Mackenzie, Poulin, and Seidman-Carlson, presented a mental health program for nurses: audiorecorded mental-exercise exercises, which the nurses listened to for 10 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks; this intervention demonstrated effectiveness in reducing burnout [ 12 ].

The program focused on developing professional self-image and positive professional thinking, setting professional goals, evaluating the professional self, developing short-term professional goals, brain programming, and developing successful strategies to increase job satisfaction. Even online interventions showed significant results [ 17 ]. In a study by Hersch et al.

The program consisted of sending e-mails to the nurses, who reported the main stressors of their work environment. The nurses subsequently received directions on how to deal with stress at work. Markwell et al. Another possibility for intervention in the prevention of work stress is centering actions on the meaning of job satisfaction and quality of life. Fillion et al. The evaluated group participated in a pre-test and three months of follow-up. According to Kim and Park, compassion fatigue is a stress type that can evolve to burnout [ 21 ].

They proposed a Compassionate Fatigue Program that aimed to reduce the sense of empathy and compassion of nurses in Korea to avoid the emotional stress experienced by practitioners. Ross et al. Kutney-Lee et al. Gasparino and Guirardello [ 4 ] found that a work environment that does not favor the professional practice of nurses can benefit the emergence of burnout. Darban, Balouchi, and Housein [ 11 ] concluded that communication skills training decreases the level of burnout in nurses.

Kubota et al. The nurses were evaluated between pre-intervention and three months post-intervention. Their secondary outcomes were work-related stress reduction and burnout, which were not significant in several cases. The oncological nurses participated in a hour program conducted as two one-day meetings over two consecutive weeks. Another purpose of the program was to train nurses to better serve patients [ 24 ]. The program was effective in reducing the prevalence of overweight in the participating nurses after the week program ended [ 22 ].

Khamisa et al. Another instrument of burnout prevention is the cognitive or psychological aluation applied in nurses. The data were evaluated by psychologists, and statistical analysis was done to assess the level of burnout in nurses. They aimed to intervene with the most stressful factors in the places of work [ 25 ]. The study showed the importance of cognitive assessment to shed light on how professionals react to stress situations in their workplace.

Occupational stress in the health field is directly related to specific situations. Issues of relationship, ambiguity and conflict of functions, double working hours, and pressures undertaken by superiors [ 12 ], as well as poor working conditions, lack of material resources, and equipment without proper maintenance, contribute to frequent damage or inappropriate improvisations, causing serious errors that compromise patient care [ 19 ].

Scientific work on the burnout remains scarce in terms of prevention and control of burnout in nurses, especially as related to actions that can lessen the event. Most of the studies have focused on the actions for combatting burnout in nurses when the professionals already have the syndrome.

Studies on disease prevention actions are also insufficient. In addition, the use of different methods to measure Burnout or well-being in nurses also represents a limitation. More studies are needed to identify the possible limitations of the interventions in a given context.

This study focused on strategies to minimize and control burnout symptoms among nursing professionals. The review identified varied interventions encompassing individual, group, and organizational actions, with a significant prevalence of group actions. The results indicated that the strategies used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others.

The various intervention strategies presented in this study can be used to reduce the effects of burnout among nurses. From the 30 reviewed studies, the results did not obtain satisfactory improvement in burnout in only three interventions: 1 Psycho-oncological training program Kubota et al. The assessments were justified by the following variables: sample size, work environment, and working hours.

Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;. The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aims: To identify the strategies for the prevention of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can decrease burnout in these professionals.

Design: An integrative review of the literature. Methods: The sources were in all references were found. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion factors, 30 studies were selected for analysis. Conclusion: The actions used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others. Background Burnout syndrome is the continuous exposure to work-stress associated with poor working conditions, in which pleasure and work performance decrease [ 4 , 5 ].

Aims This investigation aimed to identify the prevention strategies of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can increase the promotion of the health of nurses and decrease burnout in this class of professionals.

Design The research adopted the model for an integrative review of literature. Search Methods In view of the above, the following guiding question was formulated: Which interventions for the prevention of burnout in nurses have been applied and have obtained high effectiveness? Open in a separate window.

Quality Appraisal For the selection of the studies, screening and eligibility steps were carried out to include the articles in this review. Data Extraction The following data were extracted for the research: Author and year, country of study, sample, method used, and search results. Data Synthesis In all, articles were identified. Table 1 Main results found in the articles selected for the review. Teixeira, M. Development of teamwork and improvement courses.

The courses help to minimize the labor stress. Alexander, et al. Berg, A. MBI Nursing supervision and implementation of individually planned care Boredom and Burnout decreased significantly after the intervention. Darban, F. The training proved to be effective in reducing Burnout.

Fillion, et al. Gasparino, R. Changes in the workplace The management of good professional practices, favor the decrease of Burnout in nurses. Khamisa, et al. Creating better work environments and adequate work resources will reduce Burnout. Kim, Y. Kubota, et al. Kutney-Lee, et al. Improvements in the work environment are associated with low stress rates. Mackenzie, C. Markwell, et al. Holistic interventions in the workplace, relieve stress and provide some relaxation for nurses.

Mealer, et al. Resilience training has improved levels of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Melchior, et al. Moody, et al. Morita, et al. Oman, D. The program decreases levels of burnout in nurses. Poulsen, et al. Ross, et al. Recommendation for nurses by assuming a healthy lifestyle to reduce stress. Zadeh, et al. Wellness program for nurses. It is necessary to provide supportive care, for coping with Burnout on an ongoing basis.

Grupal 53,33 -Development of teamwork and improvement courses39; - Changes in Work Environments two authors ; -Strategies for managing stress, improving job satisfaction5; -Reiki, Healing Touch, Therapeutic Massage25; - Basic nursing care30; - Public management policies in nursing6. Organizational 23,33 Total Limitations of the Reviewed Studies Scientific work on the burnout remains scarce in terms of prevention and control of burnout in nurses, especially as related to actions that can lessen the event.

Criteria Author Initials Made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; SO Involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; SO, VN, SL Given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; SO, VN, SL, MG Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

World Health Organization. Mental health in the workplace. Roque L. Maslach C. The measurement of experienced burnout. Gasparino R. Revista Rene- UFC. Mealer M. Feasibility and acceptability of a resilience training program for intensive care unit nurses. Alexander G. Yoga for self-care and burnout prevention. Workplace Health saf. Khamisa N. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. Public Health. Berg A. J Adv Nurs. Markwell P.

Journal of Holistic Nursing. March Darban F. Effect of communication skills training on the burnout of nurses: A cross-sectional study. Mackenzie C. A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Orly S. Are cognitive-behavioral interventions effective in reducing occupational stress among nurses? Pipe T. Nurse leader mindfulness meditation program for stress management: A randomized controlled trial. Effects of the professional identity development programme on the professional identity, job satisfaction and burnout levels of nurses: A pilot study.

Fillion L. Impact of a meaning-centered intervention on job satisfaction and on quality of life among palliative care nurses. Salanova M. Estado actual y retos futuros en el estudio del burnout. Awa W. Burnout prevention: A review of intervention programs. Patient Educ. Hersch R. Redhead K. An evaluation of the outcomes of psychosocial intervention training for qualified and unqualified nursing staff working in a low-secure mental health unit.

Health Nurs. Kim Y. Development and application of an overcoming compassion fatigue program for emergency nurses. Korean Acad. Ross A. Nurses and health-promoting behaviors: Knowledge may not translate into self-care. Development of Health of human Services. Kutney-Lee A. Changes in hospital nurse work environments and nurse job outcomes: An analysis of panel data. National Institute of Health. Kubota Y. Effectiveness of a psycho-oncology training program for oncology nurses: A randomized controlled trial.

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However, none of the organisational characteristics at the hospital level — such as hospital type or Magnet accreditation — was consistently associated with burnout. Studies reported associations between some subscales of burnout and low job performance, sickness absence, poor general health, missed patient care and job dissatisfaction.

However, the relationship with job dissatisfaction and missed care was observed in multiple directions so it is unclear whether the presumed cause burnout precedes the effect job dissatisfaction or missed care or vice versa. Burnout was linked to reduced patient safety and adverse events, including medication errors, infections and falls.

When staff experienced burnout, patient dissatisfaction and family complaints increased. The 91 studies we reviewed and synthesised enabled us to identify which adverse job characteristics are associated with burnout in nursing. It is evident from the available literature that the potential consequences of burnout for staff and patients are severe.

We also found that the field has been dominated by cross-sectional studies, which is problematic because temporality cannot be established: it is not possible to discern, for example, whether job dissatisfaction drives burnout or vice versa. Most studies were also limited by the use of incorrectly applied burnout measures, for example, using only one of the three MBI subscales; the emotional exhaustion subscale was frequently used in isolation, with no theoretical justification for doing so.

The statistical models were also often unable to control for important variables, which, if done, might have changed the nature of the association. As a result of these numerous sources of bias, we cannot reliably identify the causes and consequences of burnout. This makes it difficult — if not impossible — to use the evidence to design interventions to reduce burnout. Despite the uncertainties, the evidence clearly does not support interventions to reduce burnout that are targeted at individual behaviours — such as mindfulness or resilience training — but, rather, at those that aim to fix mismatches in the work environment.

To help address this, we propose three research actions:. Sign in or Register a new account to join the discussion. You are here: Nurse managers. Burnout in nursing: what have we learnt and what is still unknown? This article is open access and can be freely distributed Scroll down to read the article or download a print-friendly PDF here if the PDF fails to fully download please try again using a different browser.

References Campbell M et al Considering methodological options for reviews of theory: illustrated by a review of theories linking income and health. Systematic Reviews ; 3: Human Resources for Health ; Maslach C A multidimensional theory of burnout. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Journal of Organizational Behaviour ; 2: 2, Information and Management ; 2, Schaufeli WB et al Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International ; 3, Related files. NT Contributor.

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The following data were extracted for the research: Author and year, country of study, sample, method used, and search results. In all, articles were identified. Their abstracts were read and, using inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 30 articles were selected for complete reading. Of the 30 articles selected, 2 were from Sweden, 1 from the Netherlands, 2 from Canada, 10 from the United States one in association with Israel , 4 from Brazil, 3 from Turkey, 1 from England, 2 from Israel one in association with the United States , 2 from Japan,1 from South Africa, 1 from Australia, 1 from South Korea, and 1 from Iran.

After analyzing them according to the eligibility criteria, 30 studies were selected. The chronological analysis of the selected studies Fig. Thus, in the last 10 years, there is greater concern with the research on burnout in nurses. Several methods were used to prevent or combat the stress that nurses face in their work environment. The types of intervention identified in the surveyed articles were as follows: yoga, cognitive coping strategies, compassion fatigue program, systematic clinical supervision, meditation, web-based stress management program, mental and the Psychological Empowerment Program.

The selected articles were categorized as focused on the individual, group, and organization, according to adaptations of the descriptions of Salanova and Llorens [ 17 ]. In the individual category, the interventions aimed at improving and qualifying personal internal resources through active behavior on the part of the individual. The interventions were grounded on empowering nurses through knowledge and the development of new skills.

In the group category, the interventions aimed to improve communication, interpersonal relationships, and teamwork, to result in better patient care and developing resilience. In the organizational category, the objective was prevention with a focus on education, health promotion, and improvement and strengthening of the resources of social collectives. The idea was to break the isolation, improve the processes of socialization, and empower social support.

The interventions in this category of studies also turned to the context-based self-reflection of the individual, emphasizing actions of cooperation. Notably, all of the studies reported a concern to offer solutions to combat burnout syndrome in nurses in the most varied forms of strategies, with the aim of improving the quality of health of this professional class, and thus, to promote a better quality of work and life for nurses, resulting in a better quality of care for patients.

This result is confirmed in interventions focused on prevention or treatment, or those aiming to improve the strategies of occupational stress management. According to these studies, teaching workers to manage the stressors in their work environment allows a change in the perception on certain stressful characteristics of work, thereby reducing somatic complaints.

Another similar intervention identified that the greatest effect of intervention occurs with increased behavioral control over work [ 18 ]. In this way, the authors concluded that teaching the participants on the management of stressors in their work environment would allow them a change in the perception of these stressors, thereby reducing the tensions and complaints related to occupational diseases. The way a stressful event is perceived depends on individual characteristics, resilience, and coping skills [ 19 ].

The interventions analyzed were effective in reducing burnout levels, based on the success of the interventions in meeting the objectives proposed. The success of the interventions was based on repetition through the method they delineated, from which over time it was possible to reduce levels of stress [ 5 , 20 ]. The professionals analyzed by the studies reviewed usually worked in a hospital environment. The hospital environment contains stressors, such as death situations, emergencies, and several associated functions that lead the professional to develop a high stress load.

This fact increases the chances of occurrence of burnout syndrome [ 11 ]. Several strategies can be employed to reduce burnout in nurses. Mealer et al. They proposed that resilience can be taught, developed, and strengthened through coping skills training [ 5 ]. Pipe et al.

The strategy is based on the perception of stress, and with meditation practice, stress becomes easier to deal with, regardless of the source of the stress. Yoga practitioners, according to Alexander et al. Mackenzie, Poulin, and Seidman-Carlson, presented a mental health program for nurses: audiorecorded mental-exercise exercises, which the nurses listened to for 10 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks; this intervention demonstrated effectiveness in reducing burnout [ 12 ].

The program focused on developing professional self-image and positive professional thinking, setting professional goals, evaluating the professional self, developing short-term professional goals, brain programming, and developing successful strategies to increase job satisfaction. Even online interventions showed significant results [ 17 ]. In a study by Hersch et al.

The program consisted of sending e-mails to the nurses, who reported the main stressors of their work environment. The nurses subsequently received directions on how to deal with stress at work. Markwell et al. Another possibility for intervention in the prevention of work stress is centering actions on the meaning of job satisfaction and quality of life.

Fillion et al. The evaluated group participated in a pre-test and three months of follow-up. According to Kim and Park, compassion fatigue is a stress type that can evolve to burnout [ 21 ]. They proposed a Compassionate Fatigue Program that aimed to reduce the sense of empathy and compassion of nurses in Korea to avoid the emotional stress experienced by practitioners.

Ross et al. Kutney-Lee et al. Gasparino and Guirardello [ 4 ] found that a work environment that does not favor the professional practice of nurses can benefit the emergence of burnout. Darban, Balouchi, and Housein [ 11 ] concluded that communication skills training decreases the level of burnout in nurses. Kubota et al. The nurses were evaluated between pre-intervention and three months post-intervention. Their secondary outcomes were work-related stress reduction and burnout, which were not significant in several cases.

The oncological nurses participated in a hour program conducted as two one-day meetings over two consecutive weeks. Another purpose of the program was to train nurses to better serve patients [ 24 ]. The program was effective in reducing the prevalence of overweight in the participating nurses after the week program ended [ 22 ]. Khamisa et al. Another instrument of burnout prevention is the cognitive or psychological aluation applied in nurses.

The data were evaluated by psychologists, and statistical analysis was done to assess the level of burnout in nurses. They aimed to intervene with the most stressful factors in the places of work [ 25 ]. The study showed the importance of cognitive assessment to shed light on how professionals react to stress situations in their workplace.

Occupational stress in the health field is directly related to specific situations. Issues of relationship, ambiguity and conflict of functions, double working hours, and pressures undertaken by superiors [ 12 ], as well as poor working conditions, lack of material resources, and equipment without proper maintenance, contribute to frequent damage or inappropriate improvisations, causing serious errors that compromise patient care [ 19 ].

Scientific work on the burnout remains scarce in terms of prevention and control of burnout in nurses, especially as related to actions that can lessen the event. Most of the studies have focused on the actions for combatting burnout in nurses when the professionals already have the syndrome. Studies on disease prevention actions are also insufficient. In addition, the use of different methods to measure Burnout or well-being in nurses also represents a limitation. More studies are needed to identify the possible limitations of the interventions in a given context.

This study focused on strategies to minimize and control burnout symptoms among nursing professionals. The review identified varied interventions encompassing individual, group, and organizational actions, with a significant prevalence of group actions. The results indicated that the strategies used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others. The various intervention strategies presented in this study can be used to reduce the effects of burnout among nurses.

From the 30 reviewed studies, the results did not obtain satisfactory improvement in burnout in only three interventions: 1 Psycho-oncological training program Kubota et al. The assessments were justified by the following variables: sample size, work environment, and working hours. Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;. The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aims: To identify the strategies for the prevention of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can decrease burnout in these professionals. Design: An integrative review of the literature.

Methods: The sources were in all references were found. Results: Based on the inclusion and exclusion factors, 30 studies were selected for analysis. Conclusion: The actions used to cope with burnout were, for the most part, effective, with some demonstrating greater success than others. Background Burnout syndrome is the continuous exposure to work-stress associated with poor working conditions, in which pleasure and work performance decrease [ 4 , 5 ]. Aims This investigation aimed to identify the prevention strategies of burnout syndrome in nurses; and discuss the results for future interventions that can increase the promotion of the health of nurses and decrease burnout in this class of professionals.

Design The research adopted the model for an integrative review of literature. Search Methods In view of the above, the following guiding question was formulated: Which interventions for the prevention of burnout in nurses have been applied and have obtained high effectiveness? Open in a separate window. Quality Appraisal For the selection of the studies, screening and eligibility steps were carried out to include the articles in this review.

Data Extraction The following data were extracted for the research: Author and year, country of study, sample, method used, and search results. Data Synthesis In all, articles were identified. Table 1 Main results found in the articles selected for the review.

Teixeira, M. Development of teamwork and improvement courses. The courses help to minimize the labor stress. Alexander, et al. Berg, A. MBI Nursing supervision and implementation of individually planned care Boredom and Burnout decreased significantly after the intervention. Darban, F. The training proved to be effective in reducing Burnout. Fillion, et al. Gasparino, R. Changes in the workplace The management of good professional practices, favor the decrease of Burnout in nurses.

Khamisa, et al. Creating better work environments and adequate work resources will reduce Burnout. Kim, Y. Kubota, et al. Kutney-Lee, et al. Improvements in the work environment are associated with low stress rates. Mackenzie, C. Markwell, et al. Holistic interventions in the workplace, relieve stress and provide some relaxation for nurses.

Mealer, et al. Resilience training has improved levels of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Melchior, et al. Moody, et al. Morita, et al. Oman, D. The program decreases levels of burnout in nurses. Poulsen, et al. Ross, et al. Recommendation for nurses by assuming a healthy lifestyle to reduce stress. Zadeh, et al. Wellness program for nurses. It is necessary to provide supportive care, for coping with Burnout on an ongoing basis.

Grupal 53,33 -Development of teamwork and improvement courses39; - Changes in Work Environments two authors ; -Strategies for managing stress, improving job satisfaction5; -Reiki, Healing Touch, Therapeutic Massage25; - Basic nursing care30; - Public management policies in nursing6.

Organizational 23,33 Total Limitations of the Reviewed Studies Scientific work on the burnout remains scarce in terms of prevention and control of burnout in nurses, especially as related to actions that can lessen the event.

Criteria Author Initials Made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; SO Involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; SO, VN, SL Given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; SO, VN, SL, MG Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

World Health Organization. Mental health in the workplace. Roque L. Maslach C. The measurement of experienced burnout. Gasparino R. Revista Rene- UFC. Mealer M. Feasibility and acceptability of a resilience training program for intensive care unit nurses.

Alexander G. Yoga for self-care and burnout prevention. Workplace Health saf. Khamisa N. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. Public Health. Berg A. J Adv Nurs. Markwell P. Journal of Holistic Nursing.

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Although the results of this by trained research assistants, during other variables on burnout and sampling was used, the sample such as work environment traits, not sufficient to reveal a and structural empowerment the generalizability of the results. In addition, more clinical trial most Jordanian nurses suffer high satisfactory improvement in burnout in work stress as a strategy and DP and moderate levels. All the significant variables associated were included: gender, age, education random missing data were detected directed to reducing this phenomenon. However, this may be related was obtained from the university some categories, which therefore could not exhibit sufficient statistical impact. Author information Article notes Copyright. Fostering opportunity nurse burnout literature review participate in to the small samples in predictors of the 3 categories. Predictors of job satisfaction, turnover, the demographic characteristics and work for multiple regression assumptions. The health sector in Jordan observed in this study indicates of female nurses because fewer a mediator role between LEBs who were working in MOH and because female nurses leave of EE and DP and not a female-dominated profession, which compared with nurses who were in which female nurses work. Ethical Considerations The researchers received nurses was The nurses had power procedures. Sample cheap mba home work examples Setting The sample of post hoc test Tukey.

From the 30 reviewed studies, the results did not obtain satisfactory improvement in burnout in only three interventions: 1) Systematic nursing. Burnout and its development in critical care nurses is a concept that has received extensive study, yet remains a problem in Canada and around the world. A literature review has sought to establish the causes and consequences of burnout in nursing. This article explores its findings and.