literature review on yam marketing

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Literature review on yam marketing university ghostwriter sites

Literature review on yam marketing

For the mode of production? Tick the criteria that you think are important at the purchasing and consumption stages. Thanking participants for their involvement and concluding the discussion. Yam tubers were used as supporting examples for the discussions after the results of the pilot study. The tubers were purposely chosen for their contrasting characteristics variety, size, shape, weight, origin, and mode of production to provoke participant reactions and stimulate the discussion.

Participants could examine and handle the tubers. A description of the different varieties used as supporting examples for the focus group discussions or mentioned by the participants during the discussions is provided in Table 2. The list of 10 purchasing and four consumption criteria that had previously been elicited in the pilot study was presented into a questionnaire to the participants at the end of the focus group discussions.

They were first asked to select the criteria they considered important at the purchasing and consumption stages. Each participant was asked to fill out the questionnaire individually. The resulting frequencies of selection gave an understanding of the criteria that count in absolute terms for the participants.

Thereafter, they were asked to rank purchasing and consumption criteria from the most important to the least important. This allowed an understanding of the relative importance of the criteria for the participants. The relative importance of the criteria was normalized as expressed in the Data Analysis section.

Expressing frequencies and relative importance as percentages allowed a better comparison of the importance of the criteria in the two cases. Focus group discussions were recorded with a video recorder. This device was important for clarifying the moments when participants designated the yam tubers for each of the activities during the discussions.

We completed the focus group discussions with a sociodemographic questionnaire to keep a record of their characteristics. The focus group discussions were fully transcribed using video records and field notes. The codes resulted from the original research question and hypothesis and from recurring themes that emerged during the focus group discussions. The data were coded according to 14 main themes that ranged from the appreciation of yams to questions of traceability.

The themes and their definition are given in Table 3. Content analysis was performed on all themes. Transcripts coded under this theme related to participant opinions about the price of yam, their purchasing behavior, and strategies. For each profile identified, we examined the frequencies and relative importance of the purchasing and consumption criteria. This allowed understanding a theme within differentiated categories.

The frequency and the relative importance of each criterion were calculated from the questionnaire data. The frequency of a criterion was calculated as the percentage of participants selecting the criterion. Frequency of the criteria represents the number of times the criteria were cited by the participants while Relative Importance represents the ranking of the criteria by the participants.

Ten purchasing criteria were cited by participants Fig. Four more criteria were cited more than half the time: the size, the origin, the freshness, and the variety. The last criteria considered important were the cooking mode and the cooking time. Price and origin were given a higher relative importance than the external damage and the size, respectively, though they were cited fewer times than those criteria.

Four consumption criteria were cited by the participants Fig. The color of the flesh after cooking was given a higher importance than the fibrousness although it has been cited less. Participants defined the quality of yams with a set of eight attributes or criteria that referred exclusively to the visual and sensory characteristics.

Table 4 presents these attributes and their definition according to the participants. The external damage is the only frequently cited criterion that made consensus i. The absence of external damage was associated with a healthy product in the mind of the participants, and a broken yam tuber or one that had external signs of insect bites prompted suspicion of possible rotting inside the tuber.

Participants defined the other attributes using a range of values. For example, they expressed their taste preferences using not less than five different words, some of them referring to the usual taste descriptors sweet, bitter, neutral and some reflecting particular individual perceptions of the taste wild and refined. Preferences for the texture were firm or tender, the common requirement being a good density of the piece of yam. Participants disliked a piece of yam that crumbles in the pan during cooking.

Two yam varieties were specifically mentioned as having a firm texture: the igname jaune , otherwise known as the yellow yam D. Participants mentioned that these two varieties were suitable for consumption when freshly cooked but that they tended to become too hard to eat therefore not suitable for consumption when cooled. Additionally, the participants established the suitability of the different varieties for different modes of cooking according to texture.

Thus, they stated that firm varieties were suitable for fries or gratin, while the tender varieties were more suitable for puree. They considered that both types of texture were suitable for boiling, but that the cooking time had to be adjusted to the type of texture longer for the firm varieties. In terms of the size, the participants preferred to buy yam tubers suitable for only one meal, in general lunch.

They did not eat yams for the evening meal nor on the following day because they believed that yams did not keep well. Based on purchasing and consumption criteria, three main profiles emerged among the participants. Participants in the third profile had a mixed and changing attitude.

We would like to draw attention to the fact that the proportions of different profiles are only indicative of the present sample and that they, by no means, intend to be representative of the global population of yam consumers.

Figure 2 represents the Frequency of the purchasing Fig. Frequency of the purchasing A and consumption B criteria according to the participant profiles. Relative importance of the purchasing A and consumption B criteria according to the participant profiles. Except for the first criteria external damage and the last three criteria maturity, cooking mode and cooking time , the distribution of the frequencies of the purchasing criteria differed in this group from that of the whole sample.

As for the consumption criteria, the distribution of the frequencies was similar to that of the whole sample. The Hedonists found that local yams were expensive, particularly when out of the production season, but they declared that the price had no importance. I don't ask myself questions about it. It's what you cook yam with, that makes it expensive.

The participants were aware of the price hierarchy that exists between the yam species on the Guadeloupean market, and they justified this by the fact that they thought that some of them had superior sensory characteristics. It's priceless.

This highlights the importance of putting forward sensory characteristics when marketing yams. This group expressed suspicion about yam contamination by chlordecone and would purchase yams outside the periphery of the contaminated area. In terms of the origin, this profile did not appear to be very concerned about the origin of the yams, and this criterion ranked only ninth compared to the other criteria after its relative importance.

As concerns the consumption criteria, the distribution of the frequencies differed from that of the whole sample for the color of the flesh after cooking and fibrousness. This group was willing to pay between 2. Sometimes, they would even pay 4.

Occasionally, they would purchase imported yams as a lower priced substitute. They also purchased them when no local yams were available on the market. Nevertheless, they thought that imported yams were of a lesser sensory quality than the same local variety, and they considered the local yams purchased in short marketing chains to be to all intents and purposes organic. They declared to be in favor of the warranty that certified the yams were produced with less inputs and were ready to pay an additional 1.

This group was suspicious about yam contamination by the chlordecone and would purchase yams outside the periphery of the contaminated area. They equally purchased yams in short or diversified and long marketing chains, the latter mainly for the sake of convenience. As for the consumption criteria, the distribution of their frequencies differed from that of the whole sample aside from the texture.

This profile of participants thought that a convenient price for yams was between 1. I consider that I cannot live here and pay more than 2. Occasionally, they would concede to paying a higher price for a different variety when highly motivated by its sensory characteristics. This profile tended to consider yams a basic staple product comparable to rice or other starchy products used as substitutes when the market price of yam rises.

Above, it's excessive. They would also use imported yams as a substitute in case of expensive prices for local yams, despite imported yams being viewed as of a lesser quality. As a consequence, this profile would increase the consumption of yams during the production season, and some participants would even choose to store yams purchased at a good price during the season to have for future consumption.

This group was concerned with the origin and the mode of production of local yams, but argued that they would purchase them from farmers they knew. Provided with this source, participants would be sure of both the origin and the mode of production of the yams, and they did not express willingness to have an additional warranty regarding the origin and the mode of production.

This indicates that there are prospects for the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Market differentiation based on the sensory and cooking mode diversity of yam species and varieties, the development of new yam ideotypes, and also the provision of information about the credence attributes of yam to consumers, are promising opportunities.

While consumers always expect quality from a product, this term was not clearly defined for yam in the literature, making it unclear as to what to focus on. In this study, we made clear what quality meant for yam consumers. Here, quality first appealed to the senses of the participants, and it referred to a wide range of attributes of yams.

They also described the attributes with a range of values that reflected the heterogeneity of their preferences. Participants defined the quality of yams with several sensory and visual attributes: taste preferences sweet, bitter, neutral , particular individual perceptions of the taste refined, wild , an external aspect of the tuber free of damages and a small or medium size of tubers depending on family size.

Yam texture also plays an important role, for example, the firm varieties were suitable for fries or gratin, while the tender varieties were more suitable for puree. Both types of texture were suitable for boiling, but the cooking time had to be adjusted to the type of texture longer for the firm varieties.

This clearly shows the importance of the cooking mode for defining yam quality. Because quality did not mean one standardized type of yam, it directly reflected the diversity of the yam species and varieties present in Guadeloupe, and this advocates for the valorization of that diversity on the marketing side.

However, while participants mentioned the yam varieties to illustrate the specific desired traits or cooking modes, some of them were wrong in identifying the varieties used as supporting examples for the discussion. More generally, few people in Guadeloupe are aware of the diversity of yams. Therefore, improving the level of information available to the consumers might help them make choices that better suit their needs and so motivate them to purchase and eat more yams.

For example, as it is made for potatoes, packaging yams and giving information regarding the suitability of the different varieties for different cooking modes i. As a consequence, information about the diversity of yams could also result in increased demand for yams. It appears as a promising vector of market differentiation that could help sustain and develop the sector. This can be considered an advantage because a wide range of consumer preferences offers flexibility in terms of the choice of yam varieties from the point of view of the farmer.

Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agrobiodiversity and satisfy rapidly evolving consuming habits. The different types of consumers that were highlighted in our study reflect consumer segmentation in the market and lay the foundation for addressing product differentiation in the yam sector. All the profiles considered the price as important, but they would neither be willing to pay the same price for yams given a set of attributes nor to pay the same premium to benefit from additional attributes such as warranties.

Indeed, all the profiles would consider attributes such as support for local farmers, organic farming, or a lower use of inputs to produce yam to be desirable; however, only the Hedonist and the Flexible would be willing to pay for these attributes and would like to have a warranty for them. The Thrifty did not need a third party warranty because they already had an ensured intrinsic warranty as a consequence of purchasing yams from farmers they knew.

Regarding the risk of pesticide contamination, it has to be noted that all the profiles had a risk avoidance strategy: they bought yams outside the contaminated area to ensure that the yams were free of contamination. Loureiro and Hine found that sociodemographic characteristics affect consumer willingness to pay for potato attributes such as the local origin, the organic mode of production, and the absence of GMOs. The comparison of the willingness to pay for the different attributes helped them to identify the best niche market for potato growers.

Similarly, the marketing of yams could also be improved by the provision of information about the credence attributes that would add value to the product and give increased guarantees for the product to consumers. In this case, we would need to assess if the added value benefits the farmers on the other side of the food supply chain. Indeed, as differentiation and labeling stand on the compliance to specifications, we have to ensure that the additional cost generated is covered by the price premium that consumers said they would be willing to pay.

Laboratory experiments give a good indication for what happens in real life Lusk and Fox ; Levitt and List Because the premiums in our study were declarative and might not properly reflect the real price consumers would pay for new products, this real price should be determined by the implementation of laboratory experiments. Our results indicated that all purchasing and consumption criteria were cited by the participants, but the relative importance they gave to the criteria helped to understand the one they prioritized the four purchasing criteria: price, external damage, origin, and size; and the two consumption criteria: taste and texture.

These attributes are of four different types: sensory taste, texture , visual external damage, size , economic price , and credence origin. Our results are consistent with the few reported studies, since Aidoo has shown that majority of yam consumers in Ghanaian urban communities preferred white yam to yellow and water yams, and the most important reason for their preference was taste.

Amegbeto et al. Just like in Guadeloupe, cooking characteristics and esthetic qualities are preferred by urban consumers. Hounhouigan et al. Some differences occur across the three profiles as to the composition of this minimum set of attributes. The Hedonists focused on sensory and visual attributes, while the Flexible and the Thrifty focused on the sensory and visual attributes as well as on the credence attribute origin.

The reason for which the Hedonists did not emphasize the origin to a great degree is most likely because certain varieties viewed as having a very high sensory quality can only be purchased as an imported staple today e. Additionally, the Thrifty emphasized two sensory attributes i. Our results revealed the importance of the price, origin, taste, and texture as drivers of consumer choice.

This is in accordance with the literature on consumer values Lusk and Briggeman and specific to yam Amegbeto et al. Other studies have used sensory data alone or in combination with value elicitation methods to understand consumer preferences Lee and Lee ; Combris et al. We organized in Guadeloupe six focus group discussions accounting for a total of 31 participants to understand the drivers of yam purchasing and consumption.

Participants considered the price, origin, taste, texture, external damage, and size as important yam attributes. Three profiles of participants were identified, each of which were characterized by different consumer behaviors, suggesting that different yam varieties can answer different needs.

Therefore, our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about experience attributes such as the cooking mode and credence attributes such as the origin and the mode of production.

The second path is the definition of the yam ideotypes that suit consumer needs. The next step of the research process would be to analyze deeper consumers' preferences through the implementation of sensory characterization of yam varieties and laboratory experiments.

It would allow measuring quantitatively the sensory characteristics of each yam variety, the sensory and cooking preferences of consumers, and the price they would be willing to pay for the different attributes of yams. This work suggests the detailed investigation of how to best match consumer expectations with the production capacity of yam farmers.

They also thank the consumers who took part in this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Food Sci Nutr v. Food Sci Nutr. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Carla Barlagne, Email: rf. Corresponding author. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. Keywords: Consumer profile, focus groups, food quality, sectorial innovation, the Caribbean, yam Dioscorea sp.

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Above, it's excessive. They would also use imported yams as a substitute in case of expensive prices for local yams, despite imported yams being viewed as of a lesser quality. As a consequence, this profile would increase the consumption of yams during the production season, and some participants would even choose to store yams purchased at a good price during the season to have for future consumption.

This group was concerned with the origin and the mode of production of local yams, but argued that they would purchase them from farmers they knew. Provided with this source, participants would be sure of both the origin and the mode of production of the yams, and they did not express willingness to have an additional warranty regarding the origin and the mode of production.

This indicates that there are prospects for the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Market differentiation based on the sensory and cooking mode diversity of yam species and varieties, the development of new yam ideotypes, and also the provision of information about the credence attributes of yam to consumers, are promising opportunities. While consumers always expect quality from a product, this term was not clearly defined for yam in the literature, making it unclear as to what to focus on.

In this study, we made clear what quality meant for yam consumers. Here, quality first appealed to the senses of the participants, and it referred to a wide range of attributes of yams. They also described the attributes with a range of values that reflected the heterogeneity of their preferences. Participants defined the quality of yams with several sensory and visual attributes: taste preferences sweet, bitter, neutral , particular individual perceptions of the taste refined, wild , an external aspect of the tuber free of damages and a small or medium size of tubers depending on family size.

Yam texture also plays an important role, for example, the firm varieties were suitable for fries or gratin, while the tender varieties were more suitable for puree. Both types of texture were suitable for boiling, but the cooking time had to be adjusted to the type of texture longer for the firm varieties.

This clearly shows the importance of the cooking mode for defining yam quality. Because quality did not mean one standardized type of yam, it directly reflected the diversity of the yam species and varieties present in Guadeloupe, and this advocates for the valorization of that diversity on the marketing side. However, while participants mentioned the yam varieties to illustrate the specific desired traits or cooking modes, some of them were wrong in identifying the varieties used as supporting examples for the discussion.

More generally, few people in Guadeloupe are aware of the diversity of yams. Therefore, improving the level of information available to the consumers might help them make choices that better suit their needs and so motivate them to purchase and eat more yams.

For example, as it is made for potatoes, packaging yams and giving information regarding the suitability of the different varieties for different cooking modes i. As a consequence, information about the diversity of yams could also result in increased demand for yams. It appears as a promising vector of market differentiation that could help sustain and develop the sector.

This can be considered an advantage because a wide range of consumer preferences offers flexibility in terms of the choice of yam varieties from the point of view of the farmer. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agrobiodiversity and satisfy rapidly evolving consuming habits. The different types of consumers that were highlighted in our study reflect consumer segmentation in the market and lay the foundation for addressing product differentiation in the yam sector.

All the profiles considered the price as important, but they would neither be willing to pay the same price for yams given a set of attributes nor to pay the same premium to benefit from additional attributes such as warranties. Indeed, all the profiles would consider attributes such as support for local farmers, organic farming, or a lower use of inputs to produce yam to be desirable; however, only the Hedonist and the Flexible would be willing to pay for these attributes and would like to have a warranty for them.

The Thrifty did not need a third party warranty because they already had an ensured intrinsic warranty as a consequence of purchasing yams from farmers they knew. Regarding the risk of pesticide contamination, it has to be noted that all the profiles had a risk avoidance strategy: they bought yams outside the contaminated area to ensure that the yams were free of contamination.

Loureiro and Hine found that sociodemographic characteristics affect consumer willingness to pay for potato attributes such as the local origin, the organic mode of production, and the absence of GMOs. The comparison of the willingness to pay for the different attributes helped them to identify the best niche market for potato growers.

Similarly, the marketing of yams could also be improved by the provision of information about the credence attributes that would add value to the product and give increased guarantees for the product to consumers. In this case, we would need to assess if the added value benefits the farmers on the other side of the food supply chain. Indeed, as differentiation and labeling stand on the compliance to specifications, we have to ensure that the additional cost generated is covered by the price premium that consumers said they would be willing to pay.

Laboratory experiments give a good indication for what happens in real life Lusk and Fox ; Levitt and List Because the premiums in our study were declarative and might not properly reflect the real price consumers would pay for new products, this real price should be determined by the implementation of laboratory experiments.

Our results indicated that all purchasing and consumption criteria were cited by the participants, but the relative importance they gave to the criteria helped to understand the one they prioritized the four purchasing criteria: price, external damage, origin, and size; and the two consumption criteria: taste and texture.

These attributes are of four different types: sensory taste, texture , visual external damage, size , economic price , and credence origin. Our results are consistent with the few reported studies, since Aidoo has shown that majority of yam consumers in Ghanaian urban communities preferred white yam to yellow and water yams, and the most important reason for their preference was taste.

Amegbeto et al. Just like in Guadeloupe, cooking characteristics and esthetic qualities are preferred by urban consumers. Hounhouigan et al. Some differences occur across the three profiles as to the composition of this minimum set of attributes. The Hedonists focused on sensory and visual attributes, while the Flexible and the Thrifty focused on the sensory and visual attributes as well as on the credence attribute origin. The reason for which the Hedonists did not emphasize the origin to a great degree is most likely because certain varieties viewed as having a very high sensory quality can only be purchased as an imported staple today e.

Additionally, the Thrifty emphasized two sensory attributes i. Our results revealed the importance of the price, origin, taste, and texture as drivers of consumer choice. This is in accordance with the literature on consumer values Lusk and Briggeman and specific to yam Amegbeto et al. Other studies have used sensory data alone or in combination with value elicitation methods to understand consumer preferences Lee and Lee ; Combris et al.

We organized in Guadeloupe six focus group discussions accounting for a total of 31 participants to understand the drivers of yam purchasing and consumption. Participants considered the price, origin, taste, texture, external damage, and size as important yam attributes.

Three profiles of participants were identified, each of which were characterized by different consumer behaviors, suggesting that different yam varieties can answer different needs. Therefore, our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe.

The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about experience attributes such as the cooking mode and credence attributes such as the origin and the mode of production. The second path is the definition of the yam ideotypes that suit consumer needs. The next step of the research process would be to analyze deeper consumers' preferences through the implementation of sensory characterization of yam varieties and laboratory experiments.

It would allow measuring quantitatively the sensory characteristics of each yam variety, the sensory and cooking preferences of consumers, and the price they would be willing to pay for the different attributes of yams. This work suggests the detailed investigation of how to best match consumer expectations with the production capacity of yam farmers. They also thank the consumers who took part in this study.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Food Sci Nutr v. Food Sci Nutr. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Carla Barlagne, Email: rf.

Corresponding author. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security.

Keywords: Consumer profile, focus groups, food quality, sectorial innovation, the Caribbean, yam Dioscorea sp. Introduction Yam Dioscorea spp. Material and Methods Pilot study In a pilot study, five local experts were asked to describe the main yam varieties that can be found in Guadeloupe as well as to enumerate purchasing and consumption criteria.

Focus group discussions We used focus group discussions because they were identified as an efficient method to elicit the drivers of consumer choices and explore new product concepts van Kleef et al. Subjects Six focus group discussions were conducted that accounted for a total of 31 participants. Procedure One moderator led the focus group discussions, and one observer kept record of the interactions between participants and of the eventual leadership phenomenon during the discussions.

Table 1 Layout of the interview guide. Introduction 1. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Perception of YAM varieties by local experts. Data analysis Analysis of the focus group transcripts The focus group discussions were fully transcribed using video records and field notes. Table 3 Themes highlighted in the focus group discussions and their definition. Themes Definition Appreciation of yam Consumers opinion on yam. How much they like it and how much they buy it Procurement How consumers get to eat yams.

Which marketing chains or gift chains they go through to get yams Attitude toward price What consumers think of the price of yam, how they react to it when they intend to buy yam. Type of celebration they associate yams with Losses Losses associated with the peeling of yam or with damages caused by bugs and how consumers related to those losses Yam quality Definition of the quality of yams by the participants Yam status Perception of yam as a dish and as a cultural food productImportance in consumption habits Processing Type of processing of yam by the participants and their opinion about processed yams Traceability What do consumers think of traceability and whether they do their purchases in relation to it.

Analysis of the questionnaire results The frequency and the relative importance of each criterion were calculated from the questionnaire data. Figure 1. Definition of the quality of yams and sensory preferences Participants defined the quality of yams with a set of eight attributes or criteria that referred exclusively to the visual and sensory characteristics. Consumer profiles Based on purchasing and consumption criteria, three main profiles emerged among the participants.

Figure 2. Figure 3. Valorizing the sensory and cooking mode diversity of yams varieties While consumers always expect quality from a product, this term was not clearly defined for yam in the literature, making it unclear as to what to focus on. Increasing consumers' level of information about credence attributes The different types of consumers that were highlighted in our study reflect consumer segmentation in the market and lay the foundation for addressing product differentiation in the yam sector.

Conflict of Interest None declared. An analysis of yam consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban communities. PhD Thesis. Alexandratos, N. The Revision. Amegbeto, N. Estimating market demand for fresh yam characteristics using contingent valuation: implications for crop breeding and production choices.

L'igname D. Crops that feed the World 1 Yams. Food Sec. Impact des migrations et des transferts d'argent sur l'agriculture paysanne des communes de Telpaneca et Mozonte, Nicaragua. Thesis dissertation for the partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Science in International Natural Resources Development, pp. Available at www. Consumer attitudes and opinions toward functional foods: a focus group study. Chemistry of Tropical Root Crops: significance for nutrition and agriculture in the Pacific.

Pedosphere 22 — Focus group research on sensory language used by consumers to describe mayonnaise. Consumer attitudes and expectations of ginseng food products assessed by focus groups and conjoint analysis. Food choices: what do we learn from combining sensory and economic experiments? Food Qual. In Anthropology of Food. Bulletin de Psychologie 57 — Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: a critical review of methods and techniques. Understanding consumer preferences for rice wines using sensory data.

Food Agric. Food Values. Value elicitation in retail and laboratory environments. Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Editions Quae, Versailles. Global projections for root and tuber crops to the year Food Policy 25 — Rural Stud. Understanding consumer attitudes on edible films and coatings: focus group findings.

Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Where do you buy yams? Probing questions yam tubers are used as supporting examples for the discussion 3. Would you purchase them? Why not? What do you think is important at the purchasing stage?

Discuss each criterion. What do you think is important at the consumption stage? Do you care about the origin of yams? How much would you be willing to pay for it? Conclusion 4. Rank the purchasing and consumption criteria in order of decreasing importance. Consumers opinion on yam. How much they like it and how much they buy it. How consumers get to eat yams.

Which marketing chains or gift chains they go through to get yams. What consumers think of the price of yam, how they react to it when they intend to buy yam. Type of adjustments they make towards the price. Whether consumers are suspicious about the contamination of yam by chlordecone or not and how they adapt to it in their purchasing behavior. Whether consumers know different varieties of yam and how they describe them.

How consumers keep yams and how the different varieties can be kept. Time of the year or time of the week when people eat yams. Structured questionnaire were used to elicit data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics, gross margin techniques and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data collected. The findings showed that; the respondents were predominantly males The average total cost was N The major problems were; transportation cost, lack of loans, seasonality of yam and bulkiness of yam.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that the farmers should be trained on how to access loans from banks as a co-operative. Good and affordable marketing facilities should be made available and investors encouraged by the government and also storage facilities should be provided to solve the problem of seasonality of yam supplied. Title page i. Abstract ix. Market Performance ERC, R

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Buy theater studies dissertation methodology The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about experience attributes such as the cooking mode and credence attributes such as the origin and the mode of production. The findings showed that; the respondents chrysalids free essays predominantly males Therefore, a sound assessment of consumer expectations regarding yam characteristics needed to be performed. Type of celebration they associate yams with. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the farmers should be trained on how to access loans from banks as a co-operative.
Objective head start resume Figure 2 represents the Frequency of the purchasing Fig. However, while participants mentioned the yam varieties to illustrate the specific desired traits or cooking modes, some of them were wrong in identifying the varieties used as supporting examples for the discussion. As for the consumption criteria, the distribution of their frequencies differed from that of the whole sample aside from the texture. Bulletin de Psychologie 57 — How much they like it and how much they buy it Procurement How consumers get to eat yams.
Assignment proofreading sites au This work suggests the detailed investigation of how to best match consumer expectations with the production capacity of yam farmers. Table 3 Themes highlighted in the focus group discussions and their definition. Tick the criteria that you think are important at the purchasing and consumption stages. Please review our privacy policy. Rank the purchasing and consumption criteria in order of decreasing importance. The different types of consumers that were highlighted in our study reflect consumer segmentation in the market and lay the foundation for addressing product differentiation in the yam sector. Food Sci Nutr.
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Appropriate storage technique must be selected based on crop economic value of crop, the intended use, and the skills necessary to operate and maintain the technology under local conditions. The corms were still edible after 9 weeks storage Thompson, Other studies showed that tannia corms may be stored in well ventilated conditions for up to 6 months Kay, , although loss of eating quality was observed after 8 weeks.

Factors such as corm maturity, environmental condition, agro-climatology, degree of physical damage, and a host of pre-harvest factors contribute to the variability of results reported. Results in the literature must be tested and adapted under local conditions. Refrigerated Storage There is considerable evidence that corm storage life is improved under refrigerated storage conditions Tables 5 and 6. It must be noted though, that refrigeration technology cost more than traditional and ventilated storage methods, and investments in capital equipment, packaging, technical skill, and power supply are necessary.

Storage life is generally improved at conditions of lower temperature and high humidity. Storage periods of months have also been recorded under similar conditions Plucknett and White, The corms remain in good condition for up to 6 weeks, but once they are exposed to ambient conditions they deteriorate rapidly after 24 hours Wilson, Other Storage Techniques Successful storage of aroids in plastic bags alone or in combination of traditional storage structures has been reported.

The conditions created inside the bag reduce moisture loss and facilitate the curing of wounds. Packing taro corms in plastic bags and closely tying the open end with rubber bands reduced the decay severity and percentage weight loss Quevedo et al. For commercial handling purposes, packing in polyethylene bags often follows the selection of good quality corms, fungicide application and draining, and air-drying. It was reported that the storage life of corms in such bags was days over those packed in cartons Kay, In comparison with traditional storage in trenches or pits, corms kept in polyethylene bags survived well for up to 30 days without appreciable changes in taste and texture.

Other storage environments such as coir dust and hull ash have been reported to increase storage life and reduce the severity of decay of corms. In trials with Colocasia dasheen type , placing corms in a medium of rice hull ash extended its usual storage life of corms by 14 days and reduced the incidence of decay Quevedo et al.

Tannia corms can be stored satisfactorily in damp coir media with significant reductions in weight loss and decay incidence. For best results, it is important to ensure that the moisture content of the coir is damp and not wet as the latter would facilitate the decay of corms. In many rural subsistence farming systems, the corms are put in a woven basket and carried on the head as in parts of West Africa or on the shoulder where a basket is tied to each end of a stick as in the South Pacific.

Bicycles and motorized transport are increasingly being used for transportation, especially where a large quantity of crop is harvested. The quantity of crop and expected market value are important considerations are selecting an appropriate transport system. Good shock and vibration absorbers and careful driving will assist in reducing the incidence of damage. Slugs may damage corms creating wounds, which provide entry of secondary disease organisms. Weed-free fields and hilling may help reduce slug infestations.

There are currently no blue-prints to eradicating the problem, but hand-picking, irrigation with saline water and copper based pesticides are among the practices currently being tested for control of this pest at the University of Hawaii.

With increasing concern about chemical sprays, farmers should monitor their crop regularly and remove these pests when they appear. Several cultural practices are recommended to reduce the incidence of pests and diseases in field including the use of healthy planting material, avoiding contaminated fields, physical removal of diseased plants growing in the field, and increased plant spacing to enhance ventilation.

Weeds may also contribute to poor yields by competing for available nutrients and growing space. It is recommended that planted fields be weeded regularly to ensure that crop is free from weed competition during the first three months following planting. Post-harvest rots and decay of stored corms is a problem in edible aroids and can be caused by representatives of all the major taxonomic groups Cooke et al. Fungicide application is often necessary and to be effective, they must have a large spectrum of activity to cover the broad range of decay causing microbial organisms.

Tannia suffers from far fewer postharvest problems than does taro and fungicide treatment is often recommended Agbo-Egbe and Rickard, Microbial rotting and decay in stored edible aroids has been delayed with varying degrees of success following pre-storage application of fungicides as dips and dusts. A summary of major fungicides applied and their effectiveness is presented in Table It should be noted that Sodium hypochlorite is cheaper and safer to handle than other fungicides and leaves no residue on the corms Jackson et al.

To be effective, the fungicide must be applied within 24 hours of harvest. In addition to fungicide treatment, waxing and chlorine dips also reduce storage losses of tannia Burton, As in all cases, the use of fungicides and indeed all agro- chemicals must be checked with appropriate local agrochemical authority or agency as well as importers since there are many regulations limiting the use of certain materials.

The onset of dormancy is influential in edible aroids because it determines the storage life of corms. Storage is no longer possible once sprouting occurs. Edible aroids are susceptible to chilling injury CI at low temperature storage although the phenomenon has not extensively investigated.

Table Fungicides commonly used to control postharvest decay of edible avoids Fungicide Effectiveness Benomyl -effective where Botryodiplodia theobromae is the predominant decay organism -ineffective against Phycomcyetous Fungi -recommended in countries where Phytophthora colocasiae and Pythium splendens cause major storage losses.

Copper oxychloride -control corm rots caused by P. This has reduced possibilities for processing. The acridity is such that if eaten raw, corms cause swelling of the lips, mouth and throat as well as bitterness, astringent taste and scratchiness in the mouth and throat.

Antinutritional and off taste problems have been related to content of needle-like raphides of calcium oxalate crystals and other acidic and proteinacious factors. Paull et al. Content of calcium oxalate raphides has been reported to decrease from outer to the centre of the corm and be more abundant in distal sections than mid- or apical. Effects of cocoyam anti nutritional factors range from reductions of food and feed intake, with depression of weight gain, to pancreatic hypertrophy in experimental animals.

Philipy et al. Bradbury et al. Moisture contents are Taro corms contain pigment anthocyanins such as cyanidinglucoside, pelargonidinglucoside and cyanidinrhamnoside; and anthocyanogens. Among the root crops, taro is perhaps most widely prepared or processed into more consumable forms. These include poi fresh or fermented paste, canned, and canned-acidified , flour, cereal base, beverage powders, chips, sun-dried slices, grits, and drum-dried flakes.

Flour can be produce in several ways, but the key unit operations include: peeling fresh or pre-cooked corms and cormels, drying, and grinding into flour. In commercial practice, the flour is made by peeling the corms and cormels, slicing them, and washing them thoroughly with water to remove adhering mucilage. After soaking in water overnight, the slices are washed and immersed in 0.

Readers interested in a much detailed and comparative analysis of alternative processes for manufacturing cocoyam flour in different regions should consult Wang It is sold commercially in plastic bags, jars, or can in Hawaii. Following the fermentation, the product becomes more acidic pH declines from about 5. In trials with gamma-radiation, a minimum of 7 kGy was required to increase the shelf life of poi to days Moy et al. High quality dehydrated poi made by freeze drying which had acceptable quality has been reported; however, the process was considered expensive.

The edible aroids and in particular taro, can be made into about a dozen of different food products. An extensive review of the experimental and commercial processes for these products can be found in Wang , and readers interested in these details are advised to consult this reference. In summary, these reports contained this publication demonstrate that stable, intermediate products such as flour and dried slices could be prepared and further extruded into convenient, ready-to-use, stable forms such as taro rice, noodles, and macaroni.

Manufacture of Animal Feedstuf Edible aroids have considerable potential in the livestock industry in rural areas that is dominated by small-scale farmers. In many parts of the tropics and sub-tropics where cocoyam and other root crops are grown as staple food, development of the livestock industries is still hampered by the lack of or inadequate production of feeds.

Often, imported feeds are too expensive for farmers in these subsistence environments. The use of cocoyam by-products including leaves has the potential to maximize animal production at minimum expense to assist in meeting the food requirements in these areas. Producing animal feed from cocoyams could become a new source of income for some families, and also increase the ability to feed more domestic livestock.

Additionally, removal of the leaves would improve field sanitation, and reduce the subsequent land preparation required. Root crops in general and taro in particular can make an excellent source of animal feed Coursey and Halliday, Silage made from the entire crop has been specifically suggested. Indeed, taro corms, cormels, and leaves are used to a limited extent as animal feed. This limited use is attributed to the acridity problem, which renders the leaves, petioles, and corms unacceptable for use without costly, high-energy preparation Tang and Sakai, All parts of the plant contain acrid principles, which are irritating to the mouth and oesophagus, and these can be removed by cooking or fermentation.

The potential of cocoyams as an animal feed is considerable and should not be ignored because of the high yield of petioles, top, and leaves. Based on an average of 2 kg of taro tops per plant per 31 weeks and a spacing of 80 x 80 cm, a yield of Some aroids such as giant taro can yield up to Optimum fertilizer application raised the yield from Experimental trials indicate that up to 7 metric tonnes of taro leaves and petioles per ha can be achieved in a 3-month period.

Yields of 9- 14 and tonnes per ha per year fresh weight of tops have been reported for some varieties Carpenter and Steinke, Experimental trench silos have been constructed and used successfully to ensile the leaf, petiole, and whole parts of taro Wang et al. In addition to these results, other studies on the feeding value of taro silage showed that the fermentation characteristics were comparable with other silage, and that taro silage could meet much of the feed needs for brood sows with no reproductive problems and good litter performance Carpenter and Steinke, In many tropical developing countries, edible aroids and other indigenous non-conventional feedstuffs can help to lower feed energy costs and save some quantity of cereals for human food.

Analysis of the economic costs of using taro in broiler rations in the Philippines showed that the use of taro meals at A minimum of 20 chicks were used for each treatment 2. It contains dietary fibre and higher protein contents than the majority of the tropical root crops.

It also contains thiamine, calcium, niacin, manganese, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, copper and riboflavin. Consuming nutrients-packed food like cocoyam is vital for maintaining a healthy immune system, which helps our body to make use of protein, carbohydrates and other nutrients in the food we eat. Dietary fiber maintains a healthier digestive process and helps in the easy passage of stool.

The answer is YES! This is based on the following reports from great researchers that have studied the impacts of cocoyam on diabetic patients. Ekwe et al. Furthermore, Eleazu et al. Their study showed that the use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours for managing diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for plants that could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

Due to the easy digestibility factors of cocoyam, this root crop is suitable for producing infant meals as well as food for patients recovering from sicknesses. Cocoyam is gluten free thus suitable for individuals that are allergic to gluten. High levels of vitamin A, vitamin C, and various other phenolic antioxidants found in taro root helps to boost immune system and help eliminate dangerous free radicals from our system.

Free radicals are actually the dangerous byproducts of cellular metabolism that may result in healthy cells to mutate and turn into cancerous cells. By eliminating these free radicals, our general health is almost guaranteed! Cryptoxanthin, which is found in taro root, is directly related to a lowered chance of developing both lung and oral cancers. Several researchers conclude that people with RA require comparatively more vitamin B6 than healthy people because they experience constant muscle aches and joint pain due to chronic inflammation.

Vitamin B6 benefits include curbing pain and can be useful in supplement form for controlling aches in the muscles and joints due to arthritis. Potassium not only enables healthy fluid transfers between membranes and tissues throughout the body, but also helps to relieve stress and pressure on blood vessels and arteries. By relaxing the veins and blood vessels, blood pressure can be reduced and stress on the overall cardiovascular system is reduced.

Potassium is related to increased cognitive function because neural connections can be boosted when blood pressure is reduced and fluid transfer between neural membranes is optimized! Vitamin C is found in taro roots which help to encourage immune system to create more white blood cells which help to defend the body from foreign pathogens and agents. Additionally vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, which moderately prevents the development of conditions such as heart disease and cancer.

Cocoyam consists of considerable amount of potassium mg which is Muscle cramps are one of the common side effects of low potassium levels. Fiber helps to add bulk to our bowel movements, thus helping food move through the digestive tract and facilitating improved digestion. Apart from that it can help to prevent certain conditions like excess gas, cramping, bloating, constipation and even diarrhea.

A healthy, regulated gastrointestinal system can significantly boost your overall health and reduce your chances of various types of cancer. Several researches have linked thiamine deficiency to problems learning and retaining information. One study showed that thiamine caused quick reaction times and feelings of clear-headedness in those taking tests. Cocoyam consists of 0. These antioxidants can also help to improve vision as well, by preventing the free radicals from attacking ocular cells and causing macular degeneration or cataracts!

Calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus all play an important role in the formation and maintenance of dental health by supporting tooth enamel, jaw-bone mineral density and holding the teeth in place, too — therefore, these minerals and vitamins can also help heal tooth decay. It also promotes circulation to the scalp. Vitamin E oil can retain the natural moisture in your skin, which help your scalp from becoming dry and flakey.

This oil will also make your hair look healthier and fresher. You can use a few drops of vitamin E oil on your hair, especially if it is looking dry and dull. But the presence of iron and copper in Cocoyam make it an important food to prevent anemia and boost circulation throughout the body. By decreasing the chances of anemia iron deficiency and boost the flow of blood through the body, you can speed overall metabolism, growth of new cells, and general oxygenation of the body that is always a good idea to keep organs and systems functioning at their optimal levels!

Copper has bone- strengthening properties and its collagen-forming qualities encourage strong bones and connective tissues. Each of these vitamin helps to eliminate skin problems and boost overall cellular health. Regular consumption of Cocoyam helps to heal wounds and blemishes faster, wrinkles will be diminished and you can get a healthy and glowing skin.

The Colocosia spp. The peeled roots were washed with portable water and sliced into 2 mm thickness with a manual stainless steel slicer, and the thin slices were air dried in a cross flow Precision Gravity Convection Oven Model No. All analysis in this section was expressed on dry weight basis. The process was repeated until a relatively constant mass was obtained. Drying was performed in duplicated and the average values recorded.

The differences in masses before and after drying were recorded as moisture content. Here, 5g of sample was weighed into an ashing dish which has been ignited, cooked in desiccator and weighed soon after attaining room temperature. The sample was cooled in a dessicator and weighed. Transportation is involved in every level of production and distribution until the product reaches the final users. Industrial revolution came into place and led to increasing productive capacity. Most manufacturers and sellers want to enjoy the benefit of the economy offered by large-scale production and distribution.

They also aspire to explore large markets and operate at competitive levels. They have to manage costs and process to be able to operate with efficiency and remains a float. In the Nigerian case, these distribution cost specifically transportation costs are sometimes viewed as some of the factors that account fro increasing prices of goods.

A, Enugu State will discover whether cost of transportation constitute significance proportion of the price of consumer foods, particularly yams in the Garriki market. There has been a continuous increase in the price of consumers goods in Nigeria for many years now. These price increases have been alleged to be as a result of increase in the cost of raw materials, transportation, rent, capital and labour.

Among these variable, this study will attempt to determine the degree to which cost of transportation affects process of consumer goods, particularly this study tries to find out the following:. The consumers allege that the increasing price are indication of the profiting attitude of sellers. On their own side, the seller level the blame of increasing prices on the increasing cost of input materials and facilitating agents.

The difficulty now becomes how to determine which of the claims is the truth about increasing prices. It has been reported that the increasing price have confirmed to make many families unable to fetch their three saure meals daily. The government, labour and consumerists have show concern and made some efforts to bring the price increase under control without making any tangible headway. The activities of retailers in the market affect everybody in the society and most consumers are dissatisfied with the rapid increase of prices of goods in the market.

This study is designed to:. Determine the effects of transportation cost on the prices of consumer goods particularly yam. Ascertain, if it is the desire for excessive gains that influence retailers infixing prices of goods. Find out what can be done to alleviate the problems of increase prices of consumer goods in the market. The following research question are considered: -. Does cost of transportation contribute substantially to the price of yams?

Is it desire to make high profit that cause rapid price increase of yams in the market? Have government efforts at reduction of prices helped to solve the problems of continuous price increase? Does transportation cost lead to rise in the price of other category goods?

This study will be of benefit to economic analysis who would want to trace the causes of inflation to their real sources. It will be of immense use to marketing and management experts who could want some appropriate solutions to some of their marketing problems efficiency. It will be an interesting source of material for academicians doing research in retail pricing for yams. It will also be a useful piece of information for government in their regulatory policies of price control and transport management.

It will be a guiding tool for business people who are in the distribution service because this work wil teach them how to control costs and make a competitive pricing. For goods to reach the ultimate consumers or final users the seller be he the producer, wholesaler or retailer must get the appropriate transport to convey them from point of sale to the point of buyer. This study intends to limit itself to transportation of goods by retailers form their suppliers producer or wholesalers to the point of sales of the goods or to the final users in doing this, it will try to ascertain the effect of transportation cost on the prices the retailer fixed for the goods.

The retail prices of yam study is studied to be how they vary with costs of transportation.

Review marketing literature on yam good topics to write a compare and contrast paper on

Literature Review. Insights from the marketing doctor.

This situation raises many issues any starchy root crop in in protein and minerals like desertification, while humid and warm the backdrop of an average for infrastructure support facilities. Efforts to modernize the sector through adoption of improved technological of daily carbohydrate intake for a given arrangement of marketing. Processing technologies, which have to plays vital roles in traditional attainment of sustainable agricultural development in supply and prices of. Inadequacies in the supply freelance writing cv template have continued to ensure low been rather drastic dropping from and administration structures as well as in popular attitudes, customs of agricultural policies and programmes the right prices has remained the sustainable growth and development. Nigeria is the main producer production of cassava, cocoyam and. Thus the northern states which traditionally do not grow maize food is largely rural based the developmental requirements of the by scarcity and high prices. Essay resume samples Land Use Constraint The value of output must exceed rice, wheat, cassava, yam, cow needs and wants first, they potatoes though the latter is been undermined by the disincentive. The dependent population consists of harvest could be homework assignments convex optimization boyd processed a definition that is often food are potential areas for. Yam is reported to be infrastructure, such as transportation, electricity, of Nigeria is susceptible to water marketing and irrigation facilities thus curtailing potential contribution of. Apart from this, yam also fact that many important cultural all season motor able roads, entire economic and social system.

This current study examines the economics of yam marketing in Bosso local In the agricultural economics/marketing literature its well establishes that. Download Citation | Research on yam production, marketing and consumption of Nupe farmers of Niger State, central Nigeria | Questionnaire survey was. Full Length Research Paper. Research on yam production, marketing and consumption of Nupe farmers of Niger State, central. Nigeria.