Explanatory information about the reporting requirement can be found on the Australian Government Department of Education and Training website. The Program includes:. The Curriculum, Assessment and Certification Authority in each Australian state or territory ACACA agency is responsible for the assessment and reporting that contributes to the Senior Secondary Certificate for that state or territory. An external scaling test provides additional moderation of assessment results for students meeting the requirements for the awarding of a Tertiary Entrance Statement.
Schools have the responsibility for administering assessment. Grades are awarded A—E. Grade standards are course-specific but can be very generally summarised as:. The certificates that are available to be awarded on completion of senior secondary education typically Year 12 in the ACT are:. Assessment is the process of gathering information and making judgements about student achievement for a variety of purposes.
In NSW these purposes include:. The external HSC examination is used to moderate school-based assessments. Achievement in each course is reported by an examination mark, an assessment mark, an HSC mark the average of the first two and a performance band. Student performance in each HSC course is measured against defined standards. HSC marks for each course are divided into bands and each band aligns with a description of a typical performance by a student within that mark range.
The performance bands for a two unit course are as follows:. For an Extension course, the bands are E4 highest level of performance to E1. Eligible students who leave school before receiving their HSC will receive the RoSA, which lists the grades they have achieved to date see below for more about grades. Teachers award grades in each course a student studies in Years 10 and Students leaving school before completing the HSC also have the choice of taking literacy and numeracy tests to use as evidence of their literacy and numeracy skills.
The NT uses the South Australian curriculum. SACE subjects are school assessed at Stage 1. The performance standards, which are provided in each subject outline, describe in detail the level of achievement required to obtain a grade:. For more information, visit the SACE website. Each year, students study a number of courses or subjects.
In each subject, skills and knowledge are assessed against a number of standards. Schools use a range of internal and external assessments to measure how well students meet these standards. When a student achieves a standard, they gain a number of credits. Students must achieve a certain number of credits to gain an NCEA certificate. Secondary school students will receive results for all internal or external standards that are assessed as part of NCEA.
During the school year, students receive results for internally assessed work. These results are sent by the school to NZQA throughout the year. In January, students can access a Results Notice, which provides results for internal and external assessment from the previous year. These results are available online. General subjects have three internal assessments set and marked by schools and one external assessment set and marked by the QCAA.
Students in each subject will sit the external assessments at the same time in schools across Queensland. Applied subjects have four internal assessments set and marked by schools. VET assessment varies depending on the type of course. It may include observation, written assessment, questioning, work samples or third-party feedback.
Eligible students undertaking an individual learning program, will receive the QCIA. Student work in the SACE is assessed through the use of performance standards. Reporting at the end of the compulsory years in South Australia.
Nervous systems are found in most multicellular animals, but vary greatly in complexity. Nerves that transmit signals from the CNS are called motor nerves or efferent nerves , while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory nerves or afferent nerves.
Spinal nerves are mixed nerves that serve both functions. The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic , autonomic , and enteric nervous systems. Somatic nerves mediate voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state.
The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. Nerves that exit directly from the brain are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. Many animals have sense organs that can detect their environment. These sense organs contain sensory receptors , which are sensory neurons that convert stimuli into electrical signals.
Hormones are signaling molecules transported in the blood to distant organs to regulate their function. In vertebrates , the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. In humans specifically, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.
Many other organs that are part of other body systems have secondary endocrine functions, including bone , kidneys , liver , heart and gonads. For example, kidneys secrete the endocrine hormone erythropoietin. Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids , eicosanoids , leukotrienes , or prostaglandins. Endocrine glands have no ducts , are vascular, and commonly have intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones.
In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands , sweat glands , and glands within the gastrointestinal tract , tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Animals can reproduce in one of two ways: asexual and sexual. Nearly all animals engage in some form of sexual reproduction. The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, and develop into a new sponge.
This may take place through fragmentation ; budding , such as in Hydra and other cnidarians ; or parthenogenesis , where fertile eggs are produced without mating , such as in aphids. Animal development begins with the formation of a zygote that results from the fusion of a sperm and egg during fertilization.
Gastrulation occurs, whereby morphogenetic movements convert the cell mass into a three germ layers that comprise the ectoderm , mesoderm and endoderm. The end of gastrulation signals the beginning of organogenesis , whereby the three germ layers form the internal organs of the organism. Cellular differentiation is influenced by extracellular signals such as growth factors that are exchanged to adjacent cells, which is called juxtracrine signaling, or to neighboring cells over short distances, which is called paracrine signaling.
These signaling pathways allows for cell rearrangement and ensures that organs form at specific sites within the organism. The immune system is a network of biological processes that detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens.
Many species have two major subsystems of the immune system. The innate immune system provides a preconfigured response to broad groups of situations and stimuli. The adaptive immune system provides a tailored response to each stimulus by learning to recognize molecules it has previously encountered.
Both use molecules and cells to perform their functions. Nearly all organisms have some kind of immune system. Bacteria have a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against virus infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient plants and animals and remain in their modern descendants. These mechanisms include phagocytosis , antimicrobial peptides called defensins , and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates , including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt to recognize pathogens more efficiently.
Adaptive or acquired immunity creates an immunological memory leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Behaviors play a central a role in animals' interaction with each other and with their environment. An animal's nervous system activates and coordinates its behaviors.
Fixed action patterns , for instance, are genetically determined and stereotyped behaviors that occur without learning. Other behaviors that have emerged as a result of natural selection include foraging , mating , and altruism. Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of life , the interaction between organisms and their environment.
By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter , decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.
The Earth's physical environment is shaped by solar energy and topography. Variation in solar energy input drives weather and climate patterns. Weather is the day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years.
On the windward side of a mountain, for example, air rises and cools, with water changing from gaseous to liquid or solid form, resulting in precipitation such as rain or snow. In contrast, conditions tend to be dry on the leeward side of a mountain due to the lack of precipitation as air descends and warms, and moisture remains as water vapor in the atmosphere.
Temperature and precipitation are the main factors that shape terrestrial biomes. A population is the number of organisms of the same species that occupy an area and reproduce from generation to generation. Population growth during short-term intervals can be determined using the population growth rate equation , which takes into consideration birth , death , and immigration rates.
In the longer term, the exponential growth of a population tends to slow down as it reaches its carrying capacity , which can be modeled using the logistic equation. In human populations , new technologies such as the Green revolution have helped increase the Earth's carrying capacity for humans over time, which has stymied the attempted predictions of impending population decline, the famous of which was by Thomas Malthus in the 18th century.
A community is a group of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area at the same time. A biological interaction is the effect that a pair of organisms living together in a community have on each other. They can be either of the same species intraspecific interactions , or of different species interspecific interactions. These effects may be short-term, like pollination and predation , or long-term; both often strongly influence the evolution of the species involved.
A long-term interaction is called a symbiosis. Symbioses range from mutualism , beneficial to both partners, to competition , harmful to both partners. Every species participates as a consumer, resource, or both in consumer—resource interactions , which form the core of food chains or food webs. And those that eat secondary consumers are tertiary consumers and so on.
Omnivorous heterotrophs are able to consume at multiple levels. Finally, there are decomposers that feed on the waste products or dead bodies of organisms. On average, the total amount of energy incorporated into the biomass of a trophic level per unit of time is about one-tenth of the energy of the trophic level that it consumes.
Waste and dead material used by decomposers as well as heat lost from metabolism make up the other ninety percent of energy that is not consumed by the next trophic level. In the global ecosystem or biosphere , matter exist as different interacting compartments, which can be biotic or abiotic as well as accessible or inaccessible, depending on their forms and locations.
A biogeochemical cycle is a pathway by which specific elements of matter are turned over or moved through the biotic biosphere and the abiotic lithosphere , atmosphere , and hydrosphere compartments of Earth. There are biogeochemical cycles for nitrogen , carbon , and water. In some cycles there are reservoirs where a substance remains or is sequestered for a long period of time. Climate change includes both global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.
Though there have been previous periods of climatic change , since the midth century humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale. Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of Earth 's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species , their habitats , and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends of biodiversity loss , species extinctions , and the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society. Organizations and citizens are responding to the current biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research, monitoring, and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biological disambiguation. Science that studies life. Biology deals with the study of life. Index Outline Glossary History Timeline. Key components. Branches of biology Biologist List List of journals.
Agricultural science Biomedical sciences Health technology Pharming. Further information: History of biology. Further information: Chemistry. Further information: Organic chemistry. Further information: Biochemistry. Further information: Cell biology. Further information: Bioenergetics. Further information: Classical genetics. Further information: Genomics and Proteomics. Further information: Molecular biology. Further information: Evolutionary developmental biology.
Further information: Evolutionary biology. Further information: Phylogenetics and Biodiversity. Life timeline. This box: view talk edit. Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Arthropods Molluscs. Earth formed mya. Earliest water. Earliest life. LHB meteorites. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Earliest multicellular life. Earliest fungi.
Sexual reproduction. Earliest plants. Earliest animals. Ediacaran biota. Cambrian explosion. Earliest tetrapods. Further information: Microbiology. Further information: Protistology. Further information: Botany.
Further information: Mycology. Further information: Zoology. Further information: Virology. Further information: Plant morphology , Plant anatomy , and Plant physiology. Further information: Plant reproduction. Further information: Anatomy and Physiology. Further information: Osmoregulation and Urinary system. Further information: Nutrition. Further information: Muscle contraction. Further information: Neuroscience and Neuroethology.
Further information: Endocrinology. Further information: Developmental biology and Embryology. Further information: Immunology. Further information: Ethology. Further information: Population ecology. Biology in fiction Glossary of biology List of biological websites List of biologists List of biology journals List of biology topics List of life sciences List of omics topics in biology National Association of Biology Teachers Outline of biology Periodic table of life sciences in Tinbergen's four questions Reproduction Science tourism Terminology of biology.
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Topics related to biology. Biologist Notable biologists History of biology Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Timeline of biology and organic chemistry List of geneticists and biochemists.
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