thesis claim lead in data warrant

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The Memory Stick memory card or MS card is a removable digital data storage device. It offers a maximum storage of 32 GB SinceSony has gradually abandoned its card format. There are three main categories of Memory Stick:. There are several generations of Memory Stick:. We will write for you an essay on any given topic for 3 hours. Examples of non-volatile memory technology are Read Only Memory ROMflash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices such as hard disks, floppy disks and magnetic tape.

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Thesis claim lead in data warrant

It is, in other words, the main argument. The grounds of an argument are the evidence and facts that help support the claim. Finally, the warrant , which is either implied or stated explicitly, is the assumption that links the grounds to the claim. In this example, in order to assert the claim that a dog is nearby, we provide evidence and specific facts—or the grounds—by acknowledging that we hear barking and howling.

Since we know that dogs bark and howl i. In this case, to assert the claim that additional research needs to be made on how online communication affects relationships, the author shows how the original article needs to account for technological, demographic, and modality limitations in the study. Since we know that when a study lacks a perspective, it would be beneficial to do more research i. The other three elements—backing, qualifier, and rebuttal—are not fundamental to a Toulmin argument, but may be added as necessary.

Using these elements wisely can help writers construct full, nuanced arguments. Backing refers to any additional support of the warrant. In many cases, the warrant is implied, and therefore the backing provides support for the warrant by giving a specific example that justifies the warrant. The qualifier shows that a claim may not be true in all circumstances. When you explain how your argument is most appropriate for certain contexts, the reader can recognize that you acknowledge the multiple ways to view the complex issue.

Statement of Benefits: You should conclude by explaining to the opposing side why they would benefit from accepting your position. Introduction: The issue of whether children should wear school uniforms is subject to some debate.

Opposing View: Some parents think that requiring children to wear uniforms is best. Statement of Validity Understanding : Those parents who support uniforms argue that, when all students wear the same uniform, the students can develop a unified sense of school pride and inclusiveness. Statement of Your Position : Students should not be required to wear school uniforms.

Mandatory uniforms would forbid choices that allow students to be creative and express themselves through clothing. Statement of Contexts: However, even if uniforms might hypothetically promote inclusivity, in most real-life contexts, administrators can use uniform policies to enforce conformity. Students should have the option to explore their identity through clothing without the fear of being ostracized. Statement of Benefits: Though both sides seek to promote students' best interests, students should not be required to wear school uniforms.

By giving students freedom over their choice, students can explore their self-identity by choosing how to present themselves to their peers. The Classical Method of structuring an argument is another common way to organize your points. Originally devised by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and then later developed by Roman thinkers like Cicero and Quintilian , classical arguments tend to focus on issues of definition and the careful application of evidence.

Thus, the underlying assumption of classical argumentation is that, when all parties understand the issue perfectly, the correct course of action will be clear. Introduction Exordium : Introduce the issue and explain its significance. Statement of Background Narratio : Present vital contextual or historical information to the audience to further their understanding of the issue. By doing so, you provide the reader with a working knowledge about the topic independent of your own stance.

Proposition Propositio : After you provide the reader with contextual knowledge, you are ready to state your claims which relate to the information you have provided previously. This section outlines your major points for the reader. Proof Confirmatio : You should explain your reasons and evidence to the reader.

Be sure to thoroughly justify your reasons. In this section, if necessary, you can provide supplementary evidence and subpoints. Refutation Refuatio : In this section, you address anticipated counterarguments that disagree with your thesis. Conclusion Peroratio : You should summarize your main points. The use of pathos here makes the reader more inclined to consider your argument.

Introduction Exordium : Millions of workers are paid a set hourly wage nationwide. The federal minimum wage is standardized to protect workers from being paid too little. Research points to many viewpoints on how much to pay these workers. Some families cannot afford to support their households on the current wages provided for performing a minimum wage job. Statement of Background Narratio : Currently, millions of American workers struggle to make ends meet on a minimum wage.

Some work multiple jobs to provide for their families. Proposition Propositio : The current federal minimum wage should be increased to better accommodate millions of overworked Americans. By raising the minimum wage, workers can spend more time cultivating their livelihoods. The pay raise will alleviate the stress of these workers. Their lives would benefit from this raise because it affects multiple areas of their lives.

Refutation Refuatio : There is some evidence that raising the federal wage might increase the cost of living. However, other evidence contradicts this or suggests that the increase would not be great. Additionally, worries about a cost of living increase must be balanced with the benefits of providing necessary funds to millions of hardworking Americans.

Conclusion Peroratio : If the federal minimum wage was raised, many workers could alleviate some of their financial burdens. As a result, their emotional wellbeing would improve overall. Though some argue that the cost of living could increase, the benefits outweigh the potential drawbacks.

MENTORING STUDENT NURSE ESSAY

You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text. The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay. In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Narrative essays are usually assigned as writing exercises at high school or in university composition classes.

They may also form part of a university application. When you are prompted to tell a story about your own life or experiences, a narrative essay is usually the right response. What kind of story is relevant, interesting, and possible to tell within the word count? The best kind of story for a narrative essay is one you can use to reflect on a particular theme or lesson, or that takes a surprising turn somewhere along the way. The point of a narrative essay is how you tell the story and the point you make with it, not the subject of the story itself.

The key difference is that a narrative essay is designed to tell a complete story, while a descriptive essay is meant to convey an intense description of a particular place, object, or concept. Narrative and descriptive essays both allow you to write more personally and creatively than other kinds of essays , and similar writing skills can apply to both.

An expository essay is a broad form that varies in length according to the scope of the assignment. Expository essays are often assigned as a writing exercise or as part of an exam, in which case a five-paragraph essay of around words may be appropriate. Comparisons in essays are generally structured in one of two ways:. You will sometimes be asked to hand in an essay outline before you start writing your essay.

Your supervisor wants to see that you have a clear idea of your structure so that writing will go smoothly. Even when you do not have to hand it in, writing an essay outline is an important part of the writing process. If you have to hand in your essay outline , you may be given specific guidelines stating whether you have to use full sentences.

When writing an essay outline for yourself, the choice is yours. Some students find it helpful to write out their ideas in full sentences, while others prefer to summarize them in short phrases. You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay. The goal of a rhetorical analysis is to explain the effect a piece of writing or oratory has on its audience, how successful it is, and the devices and appeals it uses to achieve its goals.

For example, you could also treat an advertisement or political cartoon as a text. Pathos appeals to the emotions, trying to make the audience feel angry or sympathetic, for example. Collectively, these three appeals are sometimes called the rhetorical triangle. They are central to rhetorical analysis , though a piece of rhetoric might not necessarily use all of them.

Want to contact us directly? No problem. We are always here for you. Scribbr specializes in editing study-related documents. We proofread:. Scribbr uses industry-standard citation styles from the Citation Styles Language project. Frequently asked questions See all.

Home Frequently asked questions What are claims, supports, and warrants? What are claims, supports, and warrants? Frequently asked questions: Writing an essay What is a topic sentence? What is an essay? How do I know what type of essay to write? What type of essay is most common at university? Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example: In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political theory.

What is the structure of an essay? Why is structure important in an essay? What is a thesis statement? How can I come up with a thesis statement? Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis : Ask a question about your topic. Write your initial answer. Develop your answer and include reasons. Where does the thesis statement go in an essay? Why do I need a thesis statement?

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons: It gives your writing direction and focus. It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point. Why are topic sentences important? Where does the topic sentence go in a paragraph? What are some examples of topic sentences? Here are three examples of topic sentences you could use for each of the three body paragraphs : Research has shown that the meat industry has severe environmental impacts.

However, many plant-based foods are also produced in environmentally damaging ways. What goes in an essay introduction? Relevant background information that the reader needs to know. A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument. What is a hook? How long is an essay conclusion? What goes in an essay conclusion?

When do I need to compare and contrast? It is, in other words, the main argument. The grounds of an argument are the evidence and facts that help support the claim. Finally, the warrant , which is either implied or stated explicitly, is the assumption that links the grounds to the claim.

In this example, in order to assert the claim that a dog is nearby, we provide evidence and specific facts—or the grounds—by acknowledging that we hear barking and howling. Since we know that dogs bark and howl i. In this case, to assert the claim that additional research needs to be made on how online communication affects relationships, the author shows how the original article needs to account for technological, demographic, and modality limitations in the study. Since we know that when a study lacks a perspective, it would be beneficial to do more research i.

The other three elements—backing, qualifier, and rebuttal—are not fundamental to a Toulmin argument, but may be added as necessary. Using these elements wisely can help writers construct full, nuanced arguments. Backing refers to any additional support of the warrant.

In many cases, the warrant is implied, and therefore the backing provides support for the warrant by giving a specific example that justifies the warrant. The qualifier shows that a claim may not be true in all circumstances.

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They are usually more controversial than designative or definitiveclaims. Example: Cold mornings suck. Advocative: These claims involve advocating a course of action, and can be controversial. Designative and definitive claims are sometimes called descriptive claims: they describe anunderstanding of reality as it is. Evaluative and advocative claims are sometimes calledprescriptive claims; they prescribe the way things should be.

Whatever the claim may be, an argument is not effective without sufficient grounding; in theabsence of evidence, all claims are merely opinion. Academic essays largely consist of providingdetailed evidence to support reasonable claims.

What data can be offered in support of theargument? Some types of grounding are more highly valued than others in the context ofacademic writing. Acceptable grounds include quotes or paraphrased ideas from publishedexperts on the topic in question; research undertaken by government entities or universities;generally accepted historical facts; conclusions based on supervised experiments; statistics fromreliable sources.

Unacceptable grounds include outdated data, research and statistics taken fromunbiased or non-academic sources; personal life experiences; personal opinion. Warrants are perceptions, beliefs, intellectual agreements, values, assumptions, or theories thatare culturally, historically, and situationally specific.

Every argument is founded on warrants. Warrants are those things you must believe in order for your grounds to work in support of yourclaim. However, warrants are rarely stated outright. Usually, they? The key to a good argument is making surethat the warrants you rely on are strong.

Acceptable warrants shift depending on a variety offactors, and different warrants justify different forms of grounding to support the claims beingmade. Here are a few examples of warrants that could underlie claims regarding a cold morning: bodilysenses such as touch are reliable ways of making judgments about the world; scientificmeasurement a thermometer is a trustworthy source of evidence; opinion polls are reliable;majority consensus should help dictate how we lead our lives; air temperature is importantenough to govern our daily lives.

Reservations constitute questions that cast doubt on the argument. They may ask us to consideralternate positions, explanations, or perspectives. What might someone who disagrees with yousay in opposition to your claims? It can be useful to explicitly articulate such reservations inorder to refute them with your own rebuttal.

The more serious or significant a potentialcounterargument may be, the more necessary it is to acknowledge and rebut it. Qualifiers limit or lessen the weight of the claim. Qualification and concession? Use the order calculator below and get started!

Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry. Skip to content Paper instructions With social media and way too many news outlets, the world has evolved to globalization and instant access to all sorts of information and points of view. However, as it has become easier to develop an opinion, it has also become easier to make wrong assumptions in making that opinion, and that is not something that can be done in an essay.

To avoid this, Stephen Toulmin, a British philosopher, developed a rhetoric method to build a persuasive argument without making a mistake when building it. I have personally found that method to be quite useful when structuring an essay because it helps to expand the domain of whatever topic that is meant to be discussed in the essay.

I could even affirm that the Toulmin method of argumentation is one of the greatest tools to make the argument of an essay relevant and unquestionable. Stephen Toulmin was a British philosopher that lived throughout most of the 20th century. Toulmin wrote a book titled The Uses of Argument , where he explains an argumentation model that helps to improve the rhetoric and persuasion of a thesis statement. The Toulmin method uses six elements to build a proper argument. These elements consist of the claim, grounds, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal.

First, the claim is the central idea or affirmation that an argument wants to prove. That claim is supported by the grounds , which are the uncontroverted, verified facts that prove your thesis is correct, without any fallacy or mistake in the reasoning behind the argument. The grounds give place to the warrant , which is the assumption that connects the grounds to the main idea, or the claim.

An example of the Toulmin method structure:. Claim : The street is safely guarded in the night. An example is the following:. Backing : The policemen prevented a guy from stealing the mirrors of a car in the street last night. A qualifier is a phrase that can recognize that the argument is still subjective and it does not intend to be held as absolute truth.

For example:. Rebuttal : A neighbor saw the police officers eating donuts inside their car in the street two nights ago. The neighbor assumed they were up to no efficiency guarding the street. It is essential that the argument debunks any possible objection to it and makes it invalid and untrue. With the Toulmin method explained, it is much easier to structure paragraphs that build an essay that strongly defends a thesis statement. First, the introduction paragraph in an essay can be perceived as the paragraph that will first affirm the claim, as well as the question that the claim is answering and why that question needs to be answered with the claim that the essay is building.

The introduction needs to feel relevant for the reader so he feels compelled to read the rest of what you have to say. In other words, the introduction needs to highlight why the essay is worth reading. There is usually an essay structure than can be further used to develop a Toulmin argument.

The body paragraphs are the format to expand the elements that support the claim. Also, there needs to be a paragraph that is dedicated to the rebuttal , or the counterarguments that may come up while aiming to prove the veracity of the claim. The strength of the thesis statement will be higher if it prevails over the opposing point of view.

In a world of blind belief, a posture that is proven to stick more to the truth speaks very highly of the writer who formulates the argument. Finally, there needs to be a conclusion paragraph in the essay. This essay might be the easiest one to make when writing an essay because it summarizes what has already been said throughout the essay in a way that the reader clearly understands why the essay was written.

The essay needs to be wrapped up in a convincing, overwhelming way so that the relevance of its purpose resonates with the reader.

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Smith that hydrochlorothiazide will lower her blood pressure. But she may respond "How do you know? Because in my experience it works experience 3. Because it interferes with a specific biochemical process that will lower blood pressure basic science 4. Because many well designed studies have shown that the drug is effective in lowering blood pressure clinical science. Clearly there is a wide variety of available warrants for use in an argument with some being stronger than others.

With the use of stronger warrants we become more confident in the validity of the argument and are more likely to accept the claim. As most arguments are not absolute in nature, Toulmin introduced qualifiers Q into his model as a way to express the relative strengths of warrants in supporting the conclusions that they justify.

If a warrant allows us to unequivocally accept a claim given the appropriate data, we can qualify the claim with "definitely" or "necessarily". If there is any uncertainty surrounding the warrant we may be forced to qualify the claim with terms such as "probably" or "possibly". By convention the qualifier is considered separate from the warrant. Taking hydrochlorothiazide does not necessarily guarantee that blood pressure will be lowered.

In this case we need to qualify our warrant by stating that hydrochlorothiazide is usually effective in lowering blood pressure. A rebuttal R acknowledges limitations of the argument and may be put forward to indicate conditions in which the warrant is not applicable and consequently the conclusion can be overturned. A rebuttal in the case of Mrs. Smith may be that she is currently on a medication that interacts with hydrochlorothiazide.

A more efficacious medication may be suggested and thus act as a rebuttal. Perhaps Mrs. Smith's particular set of values, whatever they may be, prevent her from using the medication. With the introduction of qualifiers and the search for counterclaims and rebuttals, the Toulmin model can be used to analyze more complex Stage 3 and 4 arguments such as those commonly encountered in the practice of medicine.

Relation to Evidence Based Medicine. Currently there is much controversy among the proponents and critics of evidence-based medicine in regards to the role of external evidence, individual clinical expertise and data from the individual patient in the clinical decision making process. Harley Dickinson has illustrated the role of such information in the clinical context through the use of Toulmin model of argumentation. Dickinson argues that when introduced in argument information can either be " warrant-using " or " warrant-establishing ".

Warrant-using information acts as the basis for a conclusion and attempts to answer "What information do you have to go on? In the clinical context, warrant-using information relates to the individual patient and is obtained through the patient interview, physical examination and investigative tests. In the case of Mrs. Smith, warrant-using information would include the measurement of her moderately elevated blood pressure on physical examination.

Warrant-establishing information serves as the backing or justification of the warrant used to make the leap from the data to the conclusion. Essentially, this form of information is used to answer "How did you get there? In relation to evidence-based medicine, warrant-establishing information is typically derived from systematic research such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis.

However, clinicians may often find themselves in situations where there is little, if any, research data available. In such situations clinicians may use clinical expertise as their warrant. Smith warrant-establishing information would include randomized controlled trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrochlorothiazide in lowering blood pressure.

Research evidence does not necessitate a clinician to make a particular decision. Evidence is not the absolute truth as it relates to the particular group of people participating in research studies. When we generalize from evidence obtained from a study to our patients we are simply improving our confidence in using a particular warrant.

Hierarchy of Evidence. Preference and greater weight is given to studies with less apparent bias such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Of the five levels of evidence, level I evidence is considered the freest of bias. Physicians should look to use the highest available evidence from the hierarchy.

The Centre for Evidence Based Medicine provides a document discussing the hierarchy of evidence and grades of recommendation. Carter, a year-old non-smoking woman, presents with acute bronchitis and requests antibiotic therapy. Her condition is most likely viral in etiology and you deny her request for antibiotic medication.

You develop a treatment plan focussed on supportive measures. She demands an explanation for the treatment plan you've developed. You inform her that antibiotics are ineffective in treating acute bronchitis of viral etiology. She still insists on you prescribing the medication and says that she always gets antibiotics when she is sick and they always make her feel better. In support of your warrant you refer to the findings of several clinical and basic science studies and discuss how prescribing antibiotics in this situation could help promote the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Subclaims serve a variety of purposes: introducing evidence;providing explanations, definitions, or important background information; establishing opposingviewpoints that the argument will respond to. Claims generally fall into four basic categories Designative: These claims involve questions of fact? Example: It? Definitive: These claims involve questions of definition? These claims may or may not generate disagreement. Evaluative: These claims involve making a value judgment, especially concerning ethical,social, or political worth.

They are usually more controversial than designative or definitiveclaims. Example: Cold mornings suck. Advocative: These claims involve advocating a course of action, and can be controversial. Designative and definitive claims are sometimes called descriptive claims: they describe anunderstanding of reality as it is. Evaluative and advocative claims are sometimes calledprescriptive claims; they prescribe the way things should be.

Whatever the claim may be, an argument is not effective without sufficient grounding; in theabsence of evidence, all claims are merely opinion. Academic essays largely consist of providingdetailed evidence to support reasonable claims. What data can be offered in support of theargument? Some types of grounding are more highly valued than others in the context ofacademic writing. Acceptable grounds include quotes or paraphrased ideas from publishedexperts on the topic in question; research undertaken by government entities or universities;generally accepted historical facts; conclusions based on supervised experiments; statistics fromreliable sources.

Unacceptable grounds include outdated data, research and statistics taken fromunbiased or non-academic sources; personal life experiences; personal opinion. Warrants are perceptions, beliefs, intellectual agreements, values, assumptions, or theories thatare culturally, historically, and situationally specific. Every argument is founded on warrants. Warrants are those things you must believe in order for your grounds to work in support of yourclaim.

However, warrants are rarely stated outright. Usually, they? The key to a good argument is making surethat the warrants you rely on are strong. Acceptable warrants shift depending on a variety offactors, and different warrants justify different forms of grounding to support the claims beingmade. Here are a few examples of warrants that could underlie claims regarding a cold morning: bodilysenses such as touch are reliable ways of making judgments about the world; scientificmeasurement a thermometer is a trustworthy source of evidence; opinion polls are reliable;majority consensus should help dictate how we lead our lives; air temperature is importantenough to govern our daily lives.

Reservations constitute questions that cast doubt on the argument. They may ask us to consideralternate positions, explanations, or perspectives. What might someone who disagrees with yousay in opposition to your claims?