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Help with my criminal law content pearson score essays

Help with my criminal law content

Negotiating a Solution. Free and Low-Cost Legal Services. Understanding Your Legal Problem. Preparing to Meet a Lawyer. Introduction to Self-Representation. Legal Research. Building Your Case. Legal Writing. Presenting in Court. Administrative Tribunals. Defamation: Libel and Slander. Lawsuits and Youth. Starting a Lawsuit. Supreme Court. Family Law Basics. Family Justice Counsellors. Family Mediation. Family Duty Counsel. Family Law: Online Resources. Laws, Rules and Forms.

Defending Yourself Against a Criminal Charge. Conditional Sentences, Probation and Discharges. Criminal Sentencing and Records. Parent Guide to Separation and Divorce. Teen Guide to Separation and Divorce. Domestic Violence and Immigration. Domestic Violence and Protection Orders. Complaints against an Employer. Discrimination in the Workplace. Foreign Workers and Domestic Workers.

You have rights. Employment Insurance. Disability Assistance. Income Assistance for Youth. Breach of such laws created an obligation of law or vinculum juris discharged by payment of monetary compensation or damages. The criminal law of imperial Rome is collected in Books 47—48 of the Digest. The first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. From this point, criminal law formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity.

Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious, potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules. Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes. Physical or corporal punishment may be imposed such as whipping or caning , although these punishments are prohibited in much of the world.

Individuals may be incarcerated in prison or jail in a variety of conditions depending on the jurisdiction. Confinement may be solitary. Length of incarceration may vary from a day to life. Government supervision may be imposed, including house arrest , and convicts may be required to conform to particularized guidelines as part of a parole or probation regimen. Fines also may be imposed, seizing money or property from a person convicted of a crime.

Five objectives are widely accepted for enforcement of the criminal law by punishments : retribution , deterrence , incapacitation , rehabilitation and restoration. Jurisdictions differ on the value to be placed on each.

Many laws are enforced by threat of criminal punishment , and the range of the punishment varies with the jurisdiction. The scope of criminal law is too vast to catalog intelligently. Nevertheless, the following are some of the more typical aspects of criminal law. The criminal law generally prohibits undesirable acts. Thus, proof of a crime requires proof of some act. Scholars label this the requirement of an actus reus or guilty act.

Some crimes — particularly modern regulatory offenses — require no more, and they are known as strict liability offenses E. Under the Road traffic Act it is a strict liability offence to drive a vehicle with an alcohol concentration above the prescribed limit. Nevertheless, because of the potentially severe consequences of criminal conviction, judges at common law also sought proof of an intent to do some bad thing, the mens rea or guilty mind. As to crimes of which both actus reus and mens rea are requirements, judges have concluded that the elements must be present at precisely the same moment and it is not enough that they occurred sequentially at different times.

Actus reus is Latin for " guilty act " and is the physical element of committing a crime. It may be accomplished by an action, by threat of action, or exceptionally, by an omission to act, which is a legal duty to act. For example, the act of A striking B might suffice, or a parent's failure to give food to a young child also may provide the actus reus for a crime. Where the actus reus is a failure to act, there must be a duty of care.

A duty can arise through contract , [10] a voluntary undertaking, [11] a blood relation with whom one lives, [12] and occasionally through one's official position. Since discontinuation of power is not a voluntary act, not grossly negligent, and is in the patient's best interests, no crime takes place. It was reasonable for them to conclude that treatment was not in the patient's best interest, and should therefore be stopped, when there was no prospect of improvement.

It was never lawful to take active steps to cause or accelerate death, although in certain circumstances it was lawful to withhold life sustaining treatment, including feeding, without which the patient would die. An actus reus may be nullified by an absence of causation. For example, a crime involves harm to a person, the person's action must be the but for cause and proximate cause of the harm. Causation is not broken simply because a victim is particularly vulnerable.

This is known as the thin skull rule. A mistake in medical treatment typically will not sever the chain, unless the mistakes are in themselves "so potent in causing death. Mens rea is another Latin phrase, meaning "guilty mind". This is the mental element of the crime. A guilty mind means an intention to commit some wrongful act. Intention under criminal law is separate from a person's motive [21] although motive does not exist in Scots law.

A lower threshold of mens rea is satisfied when a defendant recognizes an act is dangerous but decides to commit it anyway. This is recklessness. It is the mental state of mind of the person at the time the actus reus was committed. For instance, if C tears a gas meter from a wall to get the money inside, and knows this will let flammable gas escape into a neighbour's house, he could be liable for poisoning. In this way, the importance of mens rea has been reduced in some areas of the criminal law but is obviously still an important part in the criminal system.

Wrongfulness of intent also may vary the seriousness of an offense and possibly reduce the punishment but this is not always the case. A killing committed with specific intent to kill or with conscious recognition that death or serious bodily harm will result, would be murder, whereas a killing effected by reckless acts lacking such a consciousness could be manslaughter. The doctrine of transferred malice means, for instance, that if a man intends to strike a person with his belt, but the belt bounces off and hits another, mens rea is transferred from the intended target to the person who actually was struck.

In Scotland, one would not be charged with assault due to transferred intent, but instead assault due to recklessness. Strict liability can be described as criminal or civil liability notwithstanding the lack of mens rea or intent by the defendant. Not all crimes require specific intent, and the threshold of culpability required may be reduced or demoted. For example, it might be sufficient to show that a defendant acted negligently , rather than intentionally or recklessly. In offenses of absolute liability , other than the prohibited act, it may not be necessary to show the act was intentional.

Generally, crimes must include an intentional act, and "intent" is an element that must be proved in order to find a crime occurred. The idea of a "strict liability crime" is an oxymoron. The few exceptions are not truly crimes at all — but are administrative regulations and civil penalties created by statute, such as crimes against the traffic or highway code.

A murder , defined broadly, is an unlawful killing. Unlawful killing is probably the act most frequently targeted by the criminal law. In many jurisdictions , the crime of murder is divided into various gradations of severity, e. Malice is a required element of murder. Manslaughter Culpable Homicide in Scotland is a lesser variety of killing committed in the absence of malice , brought about by reasonable provocation , or diminished capacity.

Involuntary manslaughter , where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Settled insanity is a possible defense. Many criminal codes protect the physical integrity of the body. The crime of battery is traditionally understood as an unlawful touching, although this does not include everyday knocks and jolts to which people silently consent as the result of presence in a crowd.

Creating a fear of imminent battery is an assault , and also may give rise to criminal liability. Non-consensual intercourse , or rape , is a particularly egregious form of battery. Property often is protected by the criminal law. Trespassing is unlawful entry onto the real property of another. Many criminal codes provide penalties for conversion , embezzlement , theft , all of which involve deprivations of the value of the property.

Robbery is a theft by force. Fraud in the UK is a breach of the Fraud Act by false representation, by failure to disclose information or by abuse of position. Some criminal codes criminalize association with a criminal venture or involvement in criminality that does not actually come to fruition. Some examples are aiding, abetting, conspiracy , and attempt. While crimes are typically broken into degrees or classes to punish appropriately, all offenses can be divided into 'mala in se' and 'mala prohibita' laws.

Both are Latin legal terms, mala in se meaning crimes that are thought to be inherently evil or morally wrong, and thus will be widely regarded as crimes regardless of jurisdiction. Mala in se offenses are felonies, property crimes, immoral acts and corrupt acts by public officials. Mala prohibita , on the other hand, refers to offenses that do not have wrongfulness associated with them. Parking in a restricted area, driving the wrong way down a one-way street, jaywalking or unlicensed fishing are examples of acts that are prohibited by statute, but without which are not considered wrong.

Mala prohibita statutes are usually imposed strictly, as there does not need to be mens rea component for punishment under those offenses, just the act itself. For this reason, it can be argued that offenses that are mala prohibita are not really crimes at all. Public international law deals extensively and increasingly with criminal conduct that is heinous and ghastly enough to affect entire societies and regions. The formative source of modern international criminal law was the Nuremberg trials following the Second World War in which the leaders of Nazism were prosecuted for their part in genocide and atrocities across Europe.

The Nuremberg trials marked the beginning of criminal fault for individuals, where individuals acting on behalf of a government can be tried for violations of international law without the benefit of sovereign immunity. In an International criminal court was established in the Rome Statute. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Body of law that relates to crimes. For the historic British laws punishing nonconformists, see Penal law British. For game, see Criminal Case video game.

For the film, see Criminal Law film. Main article: Element criminal law. Main article: Actus reus. Main article: Mens rea. Main article: Strict liability criminal. Main articles: Murder and Culpable homicide. Main articles: Assault , Battery crime , Rape , and Sexual abuse. Main articles: Accomplice , Aid and abet , and Inchoate offenses. Main article: Criminal defenses. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN John's University NYC. Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved May 22, Baker Archived from the original on Retrieved Church [] 1 QB Church had a fight with a woman which rendered her unconscious.

He attempted to revive her, but gave up, believing her to be dead. He threw her, still alive, in a nearby river, where she drowned. The court held that Mr. Church was not guilty of murder because he did not ever desire to kill her , but was guilty of manslaughter. The "chain of events," his act of throwing her into the water and his desire to hit her, coincided. In this manner, it does not matter when a guilty mind and act coincide, as long as at some point they do.

See also, Fagan v.

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Bankruptcy was her only option. From the very first meeting I could tell I picked the right attorney. He treated my mother, who was very nervous, as if she was his own mom. And after complications arose I highly recommend th In the simplest terms, criminal defense refers to the legal protections awarded to all individuals who find themselves accused of a criminal offense.

It offers a balance in the legal system and ensures that the power is not entirely held in the hands of government prosecutors and law enforcement professionals. Criminal defense lawyers work to ensure that defendants are treated fairly. The outcome can, however, be significantly impacted by the skills and knowledge of the criminal defense attorney you choose to hire. To win your case, make sure you have the best legal experts across all of Middlesex County, Suffolk County, and Essex County on your side.

At Contant Law P. A criminal defense attorney has a number of jobs and responsibilities, but these can be divided into three primary areas: a full investigation of the facts of the case, researching the law, and presenting the best possible defense. This third aspect is crucial. Sometimes it involves litigating issues both before and at trial.

But it also includes illustrating the important aspects of the defense to the prosecutor. Done properly, this can result in dismissal or reduction of charges, more lenient sentences, and less restrictions on freedom. There is also a more personal aspect to the job of a criminal defense lawyer.

They work with their client to achieve the best possible result. This involves being clear and honest about the facts of each case both good and bad , educating them as to the potential outcomes of the case, and ensuring that they fully understand what is happening at every stage.

Perhaps most importantly, they help their clients deal with the enormous stress of the situation and guide them to the best possible result. At Contant Law, P. We pride ourselves on a practical service, which allows our clients to achieve the justice they deserve after a difficult situation. Your needs will be our guideline. Finally, the chapters provide a favorable flow from one area of criminal law to the next.

In some spots, I was not able to get back right away to original page after clicking on some of the illustrations. I had to go totally out of the page and back to downloads to get back into the text. Could be an issue with my computer, just not sure. However, a lot of the links did work. Appeared to contain common issues relative to Criminal Law and Criminal Justice that may create some controversial discussion, but nothing appearing to be unbiased, culturally or otherwise.

I thought this textbook would be one I could be comfortable with adopting for my class. It contains the major topics, relative to Criminal Law, that are consistent with the topics in many of the leading textbooks for purchase and that I have used before. In conclusion, this book appears to be a good textbook overall based on the above reasons provided in the review above and one that I may consider recommending to others.

Reviewing the TOC provides a comprehensive overview of the subject matter found in typical Criminal Law textbooks. In comparison to another book, they cover the same material such as sources and limitations of law, jurisdiction and defining In comparison to another book, they cover the same material such as sources and limitations of law, jurisdiction and defining elements of a crime. This text utilizes reliable sourced information that are accessible in the text to check for accuracy. I believe the book is presented in a neutral manner and is unbiased.

The information has a mixed of old and new content indicative of various criminal law books. Different types of dated content are necessary to understand application of law and diverse decisions by judicial bodies. Clarity in this text comes from the chunked structure, followed by practical examples and exercises. This book is consistent with the learning objectives, content and exercises to match objectives. The consistency should be helpful for those needing to be in compliance with Bloom's Taxonomy.

This book is complied nicely. Instead of reading a very long page of information online, the sections were divided by subject matter and thoroughly covered content in a succinctly. Structurally, the text was easy to navigate and read. The charts and images were not distorted or distracting. I did not get a sense that the book was culturally insensitive. The focus of the text was an introduction to the topic of criminal law and is neutral in its presentation of cases and facts. The text appears comprehensive but the lack of a Table of Contents page makes it difficult to assess at first glance the scope of the work.

It is written in a way that it could be easily updated by adding relevant cases e. I can see such concepts being made relevant by a switch to the case du jour. The text was inclusive and relevant for today's criminal justice system debates and controversies. I would have liked to know the author and the TOC should have been displayed at the front-end. Other than that, great work! Criminal law textbooks require a number of specific topics in order to meet the expectations of the course.

This textbook contains those essential elements. The table of contents very clearly outlines each chapters and subsection so that An appendix contains a listing of relevant cited case citations for further review. There does not appear to be a glossary or index apart from the appendix but each chapter concludes with an "End of Chapter" section that lists answers to exercises, questions, case listings, summaries, and links to applicable cases, articles, and websites.

This text follows the standard format that most criminal law texts adopt. Each subsection within the 14 chapters can be easily updated with seminal cases that may emerge. Most of the content within this text will remain intact but the format allows for efficient updates, as necessary. The author utilizes examples that will be of interest for a number of years. This was one of the text's key strengths. This text was extremely accessible to students of all levels.

It contained excellent examples and explanations that illustrated each of the main concepts. I especially enjoyed the author's writing style. I found the prose both well-written and conversational, which contributes to the strength of this text. The presentation of the material throughout each chapter was complemented by interesting examples and critical thinking exercises that encourage application of the material. This text followed a consistent framework throughout.

Each chapter was laid out in the established format containing each of the content areas. The material was presented with applicable exercises and questions throughout. Each chapter concludes with an "End of Chapter" section that lists answers to exercises, questions, case listings, summaries, and links to applicable cases, articles, and websites. I found the summaries and exercises especially useful. Key words are italicized for emphasis and quick reference.

The chapters were easy to follow as they contained a number of subheadings to keep the material organized. Further, each chapter is made up of specific learning objectives that conclude with exercises and reference material. Each chapter is made up of specific learning objectives that can be easily assigned based on content areas within the course.

These objectives are fairly brief and contain exercises and reference material at the conclusion. I found this approach to be a key strength of this text since it offers a framework for assignment creation and discussion of key points within each chapter. When you look at how many learning objectives are actually contained within the entire text, there are hundreds of links to websites with reference material and exercises that students can complete independently or as part of a classroom discussion.

I also enjoyed the pictures, graphics, and illustrations used to develop the material. Each objective contains an interesting component entitled "key takeaways" that lists a sentence or two describing the main points to recall.

I checked a number of the links within the text and they all worked for me. I also used the table of contents to navigate through the text and was able to get to each section very easily. The table of contents and home buttons appear on the upper right corner and allow the reader to quickly locate the area that they need.

The table of contents lists each chapter and unit by number and title topic for ease of use. I do not recall noticing any grammatical errors. This is exceptionally important since a textbook and author lose credibility when there are a number of grammatical issues. I would certainly adopt this text. I found it as sufficient as any other criminal law text offered for purchase.

Though the text lacks both an index and a glossary, these are unnecessary in a searchable electronic document. A table of contents is likewise unnecessary in a PDF in which bookmarks have been added to navigate the contents of the text.

Such is the case here; however the text, by default, should open with the bookmarks displayed. The lack of these traditional elements would only be inconvenient for the undoubtedly small percentage of students who prefer to print the whole book.

Bearing in mind that the purpose of the text is to provide a broad overview of the subject for undergraduate students, the key concepts and summaries are accurate. Periodic updates will be necessary due to developments in both statutory and case law. The extensive use of links to external sites might pose a problem should the site addresses change.

New terms are clearly introduced to the reader and subsequently integrated into the text; however, the author identifies these new terms inconsistently see Consistency below. The text is consistent in terms of both its visual and stylistic presentation, but less so in its introduction of key terms, which the author introduces or uses in italics, bold, and blue with no discernible purpose.

The blue font, though more eye-catching, is confusing at times because it is also used extensively throughout the text for hyperlinks. To compound the confusion, the author chose not to underline these links. The chapters and sections also lend themselves for use as selected readings. The author has organized the text in a manner that will be familiar anyone who has every used a survey text in substantive criminal law.

The sequential progression of this content is appropriate and the amount of space given to each topic is balanced for the most part though the author spends more time explaining the legal system than the traditional criminal law survey text. The author has included a significant number of graphic embellishments to set off ancillary material from the body of the text and graphic aids.

Neither add much to the text and both are stylistically problematic—making too much use of unnecessary colors and graphic effects as well as contributing to a number of odd page breaks throughout the text.

Some of the graphic aids are too complicated. Others employ an inappropriate graphic layout for the information being presented. The remaining charts would be more appealing and easier to comprehend if they were re-done in simple, black and white, line art. There were a few minor errors in grammar and punctuation—no glaring problems—and overall it was quite grammatically solid. This is an excellent introductory text for undergraduates. The textbook does a good job of introducing the basic legal concepts of criminal law, but it would not be appropriate for a law school course as it does not have the depth or technical The textbook does a good job of introducing the basic legal concepts of criminal law, but it would not be appropriate for a law school course as it does not have the depth or technical.

However, there is not a table of contents, index or glossary incorporated into the body of the text. This makes it rather difficult to navigate from section to section without having to scroll up and down unnecessarily through text to find things. The book has an accurate presentation of general information given that the book is not meant to be a treatise in law school.

Most of the content is up-to-date and will not be obsolete quickly. However, there are external links that may expire and that may require vigilance by the instructor in ensuring the currency of the link. Updates should be relatively easy as the text is written in a modular way. The book is written in a concise way that is extremely "user friendly" with accessible prose.

The usage of visual aids and formatting techniques to emphasize different concepts further aids the reader's understanding. The text is internally consistent in style, terminology, formatting and presentation of information. The text is written in a modular way that would be easy to reorganize without any disruption to the reader.

If left in its current form, the text would benefit from subheadings that are numbered into even more specific subsets with indentations. The organization, structure and flow of the material is one of the greatest strengths of the book. It has a natural sequence that is appealing and logical.

Images and charts are often distorted and the text is not always formatted in the most readable style--the consistent spacing of text is monotonous to the eye. Varying the paragraph and sentence spacing as well as ensuring page breaks and headings are logically placed is essential and missing in the text. The book is topically sound, covering the appropriate subjects for an introduction to criminal law.

Unfortunately, there is no index or glossary or table of contents within the text. This concern, This concern, along with other issues I have with the text, are issues that should be resolved through the editing process. However, this book deals with broad concepts appropriately. Criminal law is always evolving. However, the core concepts provided in this text have and should continue to stand the test of time.

If adopting the text, I would consider saving all hyperlinked materials to a location over which the professor has control, thereby ensuring students would have access for the duration of the course. The author does an excellent job of writing in understandable language with careful discussion and explanation of key technical terms.

The book is consistent in its approach, terminology and depth of treatment of the covered topics. The book is arranged by chapter and then section — i. The logical use of such section numbers allows for shorter assignment of readings. The book provides a basic introduction of criminal law, the US legal system and its constitutional protections before delving into traditional areas of coverage in a criminal law text — general elements of and defenses to a crime and specific offenses.

As discussed in the previous response, the chapters are broken down into logical sections. Page breaks are often in the wrong place, fonts and spacing are inconsistent and many of the charts and illustrations are fuzzy and difficult to read. As a result of the "star" ratings system, this review may appear to be very positive. Indeed, the author should be applauded for creating a very strong manuscript appropriate for undergraduate students and law students seeking to supplement their understanding of criminal law issues.

Unfortunately, the text, as currently available, is extremely difficult to fully utilize given the lack of table of contents, index and glossary and the obvious need for a final polish to correct page breaks, font inconsistencies, and blurry charts. A professor interested in adopting this book should anticipate devoting significant time to revising and editing for use in his or her course -- work which could ultimately be broadly disseminated pursuant to the creative commons licensing.

Absent such efforts, students would immediately appreciate the difference in this open textbook and a traditional one, likely to their detriment. For a text aimed at undergraduates, very comprehensive; it covers all of the topics in criminal law that ought to be covered.

Definitely not out-of-date. The book provides plenty of contemporary examples and refers to new cases. Of course, at some point in the future, a new edition would be appropriate. No problems at all. In fact, good transitions from one topic to the next and the book and each chapter were well-organized.

Please see comment above. Again, I thought that it was easy to read. There were not large pieces of text that were hard to swallow. I thought that the orgzanization made sense. Some topics ought to be introduced before others.

The introduction did a good job of setting up the rest of the book. It's hard to write a textbook about any legal topic that would be appropriate for undergraduates. This book strikes the right balance. It's as good as any other text on criminal law that I've encountered so far. Criminal Law uses a two-step process to augment learning, called the applied approach.

First, after building a strong foundation from scratch, Criminal Law introduces you to crimes and defenses that have been broken down into separate components. It is so much easier to memorize and comprehend the subject matter when it is simplified this way. However, becoming proficient in the law takes more than just memorization. You must be trained to take the laws you have studied and apply them to various fact patterns. Most students are expected to do this automatically, but application must be seen, experienced, and practiced before it comes naturally.

Thus the second step of the applied approach is reviewing examples of the application of law to facts after dissecting and analyzing each legal concept. Some of the examples come from cases, and some are purely fictional. All the examples are memorable, even quirky, so they will stick in your mind and be available when you need them the most like during an exam. After a few chapters, you will notice that you no longer obsess over an explanation that doesn't completely make sense the first time you read it—you will just skip to the example.

The examples clarify the principles for you, lightening the workload significantly. Content Accuracy rating: 5 The textbook is generally accurate and error-free. Clarity rating: 5 The textbook works well as the primary textbook for an upper-division, undergraduate textbook. Consistency rating: 5 I found the textbook to be internally consistent and easily supplemented with outside information. Modularity rating: 5 With the exception of the first two chapters, both of which provide general background and fundamental principles surrounding criminal law, the textbook chapters are easily re-arranged to fit different course schedules.

Interface rating: 5 Neither I, nor my students, faced any significant interface issues using this textbook. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I have not identified any grammatical errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 I did not find the textbook to be culturally insensitive or offensive.

Comments Overall, I would recommend this textbook to instructors teaching an upper-division, undergraduate course in criminal law. Content Accuracy rating: 3 The content appears to be unbiased. Clarity rating: 4 The text is written in a way that should be accessible to most undergraduate students. Consistency rating: 5 The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework. Modularity rating: 5 The text gets high marks on modularity. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 With a few exceptions, the text is grammatical.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4 The text is not overtly insensitive or offensive. Content Accuracy rating: 2 On one occasion the year cited on an important case from was cited as a case. Consistency rating: 4 Framework is consistent and terminology is accurate but often includes too many civil law references. Modularity rating: 4 Great modularity, but not clear how material can be integrated with other source material.

Interface rating: 3 I encountered a couple of dead links. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I did not notice any grammatical errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 The textbook raises the complex issues of race and ethnicity in criminal law in a responsible and sensitive manner.

Comments This OER textbook seems to be an excellent start to an interactive textbook on Criminal Law, unfortunately, I am not ready to adopt in its current form. Content Accuracy rating: 5 I found very few if any errors in this textbook. Consistency rating: 5 This book was consistent all the way through. Modularity rating: 5 I really liked how the chapters are divided up into reasonable chunks with clear and bold headings.

Interface rating: 5 I did not notice any problems in this area, and heard no complaints from students either. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I did not notice any grammatical errors -- and I greatly appreciated how the case and statutory citations were all correct!! Cultural Relevance rating: 5 I do not recall reading any portions of the texts including examples that were insensitive or offensive.

Comments This is an overall excellent textbook! Content Accuracy rating: 5 The broad concepts covered in this book and the materials used to present them contains no inaccurate information or bias presentation. Clarity rating: 5 The book is very easy to follow and written in such a way as students of all levels should be able to read and understand the materials. Consistency rating: 5 The book generally is consistent throughout as it relates to the layout of chapters, terminology, formatting and presentation of information.

Modularity rating: 5 The text is written in a logical, easy to follow, modular format that allows for easy reorganization and assignments for students. Interface rating: 4 I did not see any major problems with student textbook interface. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I did not notice any glaring grammatical errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5 The book appears to be culturally appropriate for the course and subject matter. Comments I would certainly consider adopting this textbook for my Criminal Law course. Content Accuracy rating: 5 I am not a legal expert and cannot comment specifically to the accuracy; however, I do appreciate the long list of individuals provided that were identified as having reviewed the material prior to publication specifically for that purpose.

Clarity rating: 5 Criminal Law is an easy read and any terms that would be unfamiliar to the undergraduate student is well defined and used in examples. Consistency rating: 5 Criminal law is written in a way that is easy to follow and each chapter is laid out in the same fashion which makes the material very easy to navigate.

Modularity rating: 5 The chapters are broken up into easy to read subunits and there are several references to other areas of the book if there is a reference that needs to be made. Interface rating: 5 All links throughout the book were active and images look clear. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 There were no grammatical errors noted throughout the text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5 There was nothing that stood out as anything that may be offensive within the material or the examples. Comments I am excited that there is a simple, easy to read foundational text in criminal law that can be shared with my forensic students.

Content Accuracy rating: 3 Some of the topics warrant more in-depth treatment. Clarity rating: 4 The book is consistently cursory, does that count? Consistency rating: 2 The book is consistently cursory, does that count? Modularity rating: 3 there is a general flow from one chapter to the next, and the chapters are so brief that it would be easy to assign small reading sections.

Interface rating: 4 I didn't experience any navigational difficulties Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I didn't notice any glaring errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 2 No examples, so no problems of potential offensiveness! Comments I wouldn't adopt this textbook for a college course. Clarity rating: 4 Clarity is good. The book uses short, concise sentences.

The format makes it easy to follow. Consistency rating: 4 The formatting and content are consistent. Modularity rating: 5 It is divided into logical, easy-to-follow modules. Interface rating: 4 So far as I can tell, the interface is fine. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I did not catch any errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 4 The book stays within the middle of the political spectrum, with a slight tendency towards libertarian views.

Content Accuracy rating: 4 The content is accurate based on a random sampling of the material; the links to supplemental worked and that content was unbiased. Clarity rating: 5 Very clear language and appropriate for mid-level undergraduate students. Consistency rating: 4 Framework is good with the exception of the a couple of Key Takeaway boxes were not consistently formatted in color.

Modularity rating: 5 This was excellent! Interface rating: 5 The interface is great. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 There were no obvious grammatical errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 I liked the relevance and updated content and examples. Comments I appreciate the care taken to create an open source book that is comprehensive, easy to navigate and meets accessibility standards. Content Accuracy rating: 4 The content in this textbook appears to be accurate.

Clarity rating: 5 The book is written in plain language that allows for clarity of information. Consistency rating: 5 The text is, for the most part, consistent throughout in terms of the order or layout from chapter to chapter. Modularity rating: 5 Again, the book is arranged in a modular format via chapter and sections. Comments I thought this textbook would be one I could be comfortable with adopting for my class.

Content Accuracy rating: 5 This text utilizes reliable sourced information that are accessible in the text to check for accuracy. Clarity rating: 5 Clarity in this text comes from the chunked structure, followed by practical examples and exercises. Consistency rating: 5 Yes. Modularity rating: 5 This book is complied nicely.

Interface rating: 5 Structurally, the text was easy to navigate and read. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I did not identify any grammatical errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 4 I did not get a sense that the book was culturally insensitive. Comments I appreciate the unnamed author taking their time to write such a comprehensive text. Content Accuracy rating: 5 It appeared very well researched. Clarity rating: 5 Great writing. Consistency rating: 3 Decent, but again my concern was involving some of the framing and lack of TOC.

Modularity rating: 5 I think it has modularity. Interface rating: 5 The interface was well done. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 Excellent. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 The text was inclusive and relevant for today's criminal justice system debates and controversies. Comments I would have liked to know the author and the TOC should have been displayed at the front-end.

Content Accuracy rating: 5 I found no evidence of inaccurate information or bias presented within this text. Consistency rating: 5 This text followed a consistent framework throughout. Modularity rating: 5 Each chapter is made up of specific learning objectives that can be easily assigned based on content areas within the course.

Interface rating: 5 I checked a number of the links within the text and they all worked for me. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I do not recall noticing any grammatical errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 I found no culturally insensitive or offensive examples presented within this text.

Comments I would certainly adopt this text. Content Accuracy rating: 5 Bearing in mind that the purpose of the text is to provide a broad overview of the subject for undergraduate students, the key concepts and summaries are accurate. Consistency rating: 4 The text is consistent in terms of both its visual and stylistic presentation, but less so in its introduction of key terms, which the author introduces or uses in italics, bold, and blue with no discernible purpose.

Interface rating: 2 The author has included a significant number of graphic embellishments to set off ancillary material from the body of the text and graphic aids. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 There were a few minor errors in grammar and punctuation—no glaring problems—and overall it was quite grammatically solid.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5 Not applicable. Content Accuracy rating: 5 The book has an accurate presentation of general information given that the book is not meant to be a treatise in law school. Clarity rating: 5 The book is written in a concise way that is extremely "user friendly" with accessible prose. Consistency rating: 5 The text is internally consistent in style, terminology, formatting and presentation of information.

Modularity rating: 4 The text is written in a modular way that would be easy to reorganize without any disruption to the reader. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 The grammar is fine with no noticeable errors. Cultural Relevance rating: 4 The text is culturally appropriate. Consistency rating: 5 The book is consistent in its approach, terminology and depth of treatment of the covered topics. Modularity rating: 4 The book is arranged by chapter and then section — i.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5 I noticed several very minor grammatical issues but overall it was very well written. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 The cultural relevance is appropriate for the course. Comments As a result of the "star" ratings system, this review may appear to be very positive.

Clarity rating: 5 Probably its best feature. I also liked the flow charts. Consistency rating: 5 No problems at all. Modularity rating: 5 Please see comment above. Interface rating: 5 No problems at all. Grammatical Errors rating: 5 Extremely well-written. Cultural Relevance rating: 5 Again, absolutely no problems here. Comments It's hard to write a textbook about any legal topic that would be appropriate for undergraduates.

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If you enlist the services of a lawyer, you will have to pay their fees, though you may be eligible for legal aid. For proceedings under administrative law, court fees are payable. It is therefore a good idea to explore the scope for settling the conflict in a different way, without going to court, for instance by enlisting the aid of a mediator or a legal adviser.

Court fees are not payable for criminal proceedings. In civil proceedings, a bailiff is needed to serve a writ of summons on the other party. A bailiff will also recover the outstanding claims awarded. In some situations, such as divorce proceedings, it is obligatory to hire a lawyer. The way lawyers and bailiffs calculate their fees is not standardised, and it is not always transparent. It is sensible to make enquiries and to reach a clear understanding about these fees in advance.

Court fees are payable as a contribution to the costs of the proceedings before a district court. They have to be paid in advance to the court that will be hearing your case. Witnesses and experts who are called to testify incur travel and accommodation expenses.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN John's University NYC. Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved May 22, Baker Archived from the original on Retrieved Church [] 1 QB Church had a fight with a woman which rendered her unconscious.

He attempted to revive her, but gave up, believing her to be dead. He threw her, still alive, in a nearby river, where she drowned. The court held that Mr. Church was not guilty of murder because he did not ever desire to kill her , but was guilty of manslaughter.

The "chain of events," his act of throwing her into the water and his desire to hit her, coincided. In this manner, it does not matter when a guilty mind and act coincide, as long as at some point they do. See also, Fagan v. Stone and Dobinson [] QB , where an ill tended sister named Fanny could not leave bed, was not cared for at all and literally rotted in her own filth.

This is gross negligence manslaughter. Dytham [] QB , where a policeman on duty stood and watched three men kick another to death. Miller [] 1 All ER , a squatter flicked away a still lit cigarette , which landed on a mattress. He failed to take action, and after the building had burned down, he was convicted of arson.

He failed to correct the dangerous situation he created, as he was duty bound to do. See also, R v. Santana-Bermudez where a thug with a needle failed to tell a policewoman searching his pockets that he had one. Pagett [] Crim LR , where ' but for' the defendant using his pregnant girlfriend for a human shield from police fire, she would not have died.

Pagget's conduct foreseeably procured the heavy police response. Kimsey [] Crim LR 35, where 2 girls were racing their cars dangerously and crashed. One died, but the other was found slightly at fault for her death and convicted. Blaue [] where a Jehovah's witness who refuse blood transfusions on religious grounds was stabbed and without accepting life saving treatment died. Williams [] Crim LR where a hitchhiker who jumped from a car and died, apparently because the driver tried to steal his wallet, was a "daft" intervening act.

Roberts [] Crim LR 27, where a girl getting drunk jumped from a speeding car to avoid sexual advances and was injured and R v. Majoram [] Crim LR where thugs kicked in the victims door scared him to jumping from the window. These actions were foreseeable and therefore creating liability for injuries. Cheshire [] 3 All ER ; see also, R v. Jordan [] 40 Cr App R , where a stab victim recovering well in hospital was given an antibiotic. The victim was allergic, but he was given it the next day too, and died.

The hospital's actions intervened and pardoned the defendant through condemning themselves instead. Mohan [] 2 All ER , intention defined as "a decision to bring about Cunningham [] 2 All ER , where the defendant did not realise, and was not liable; also R v.

Latimer 17 QBD ; though for an entirely different offense, e. Criminal Law, 3rd ed. The Foundation Press, Inc. Retrieved 24 April Surendra Malik; Sudeep Malik Eastern Book Company. Supreme Court on Death Sentence in Murder cases. Alok Bhasin Law relating to Sexual Harassment at work. Supreme Court Criminal Digest Supreme Court Cases Criminal.

Vibhute Shamsul Huda's Principle of the Law of Crimes. Kelkar's Revised By K. Chandrasekharan Pillai Kelkar's Criminal Procedure. EBC General Principles of Criminal Law. Ahmad Siddiques Revised By S. A Qadri Srivastava's Revised By R.

Chaudhary Srivastava's Principle of Criminal Law. Bhavani Lal Extraordinary Trials from Law Courts. Sumeet Malik Malik's Criminal Court Handbook. Gupta Medico Legal Aspect of Sexual Offences. Kelkar Revised by K. CHndrshekharan Pillai Farmer, Lindsay Law and History Review.

JSTOR Fletcher, George P. Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. Oxford University Press. Rethinking Criminal Law. Gorr, Michael; Sterling Harwood, eds. Controversies in Criminal Law. Westview Press. Gross, Hyman A Theory of Criminal Justice reissue ed. Hall, Jerome Lexis Law Pub. Williams, Glanville Textbook of Criminal Law. Barzilai, Gad The Israel Democracy Institute.

Punishment and Responsibility. Harwood, Sterling Crime and Punishment: Philosophic Explorations. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Murphy, Jeffrie Forgiveness and Mercy. Cambridge University Press. Smith, K. Clarendon Press. Basic Books. Ormerod, David Smith and Hogan: Criminal Law. R v Brown 1 AC Criminal procedure investigation. Law portal. Adversarial system Bail Bill of attainder Criminal jurisdiction Deferred prosecution agreement Ex post facto law Extradition Grand jury Habeas corpus Indictment Inquisitorial system Nolle prosequi Precognition Preliminary hearing Statute of limitations.

Criminal defenses Criminal law Evidence Legal abuse. Category Index Outline Portal. Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany. Spain France data United States Japan. Categories : Criminal law. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Actus reus Mens rea Causation Concurrence. Felony Infraction also called violation Misdemeanor.