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I would like to be contacted by Shoplet. There's 82 out of sheets in the box. Thanks for looking! Most of our stuff here at Jibijoe's Trading Post has been collected and cherished by its previous owners over the years. While we are unsure where it has been displayed or stored over the years Sensitive buyers beware.

We do offer our unconditional 30 day money back guarantee. My father has owned an office supply and furniture company since the 's. We recently opened the Red Door Consignment Gallery. A quality furniture consignment gallery, in the same space in which he still operates a used office furniture store. It is a large building and for many years he has kept office supplies in a heated room upstairs.

I am finding a wealth of vintage office supplies, including Southworth paper. This particular box is for 1, sheets and it is still shrink wrapped. Paper happens to work perfectly for origami paper and the light blue was nice I will list other kinds that are in the closet. I am not sure who used blue paper but it does look beautiful and stands out for resumes. PA there will be no shipping charges. I enter the weight Southworth Ivory 24 lb. Southworth Paper For Resumes Ivory 24 lb.

Both the paper and envelopes are new. Box has been opened. Please read all information below before bidding. Additional Picture's: If you want additional pictures. Please let us know. We will be glad to send detailed picture's at your request. Questions: Should you have any questions on any of our auctions. Please feel free to email us. We try to respond to all questions as soon as possible. We check email frequently throughout the day.

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If you want to add shipping insurance you need to tell us at time of purchase and before you pay so we can add it to the invoice. Some breakable items include shipping insurance in the price of shipping.

If you elect not to add shipping insurance. Seller assumes no responsibility for shipping damages or broken items. We have no control over handling of our packages once they are out of our hands. We make every effort to pack all items safely and securely. If the listing doesn't give international shipping costs. Please email us a request with your country and zip code for a estimated shipping quote. We do not charge an international handling fee.

Communication: We do our best to communicate in an efficient and effective mann. The corner of the box is torn but the paper is like new. It is letter size paper great for collectors or for use. It is plain finish 20lb weight. The box was a full ream of sheets and there is very little. If any, used out of it. For auction a box of Southworth resume paper.

The box has been opened and a few of the pages have been used. The box is almost full. See pictures. Good luck on your bidding. Please pay using Paypal. I will ship U. P lease continue reading for more information about our shop and policies. Our store Magnum Thrift is new to eBay. But we've been selling locally for years. We look forward to this new venture! We're excited to provide great items and our outstanding customer service to a new clientele.

We encourage everyone to follow us to keep up with the extreme deals we'll be offering! Please contact us with any questions or concerns you may have. We're more than happy to talk about our items! We're able to combine shipping if it's feasible. Please contact us beforehand and we'll work out a personalized shipping rate for you.

Tracking is always included at no extra cost to you. We strive to ship out all of our items within one business day after cleared payment has been received. We tend to use recycled boxes and packaging as it helps to maintain low shipping costs and keeps usable material out of the landfill.

We apologize as we currently do not ship internationally unless otherwise noted in the listing. If you're located in Alaska. Hawaii or Puerto Rico- please contact us for a personalized shipping rate. Up for bid is a new in box. There are sheets left were used but the rest are still new and crisp in the box. Comes with the box. Perfect for thesis and graduation papers. Offered for sale are miscellaneous boxes of parchment paper. Awards, folders for awards and gold seals.

My husband coached various children's sports leagues throughout the years and always made it special for them with recognition awards Included is a box of Southworth Ivory Parchment Paper 24lb. The box holds 80 sheets. There may be a few sheets missing. But it is close to full. Also included is a box of Southworth Fine Business Paper. Parchment Deed 24lb. Originally the box had sheets, there are approx.

The third box contains some awards already printed up. There are some misc sheets and six folders to present the awards in. The last item are 2" round metallic gold labels to stick on the award letters. The container held 42 labels. However there are 46 enclosed.

Please ask before bidding. I check my account regularly when I have listings. Smoke— All items are from a smoke free environment. If I happen to purchase something from a sale that has a smoke odor. I'll mention that in the listing. Pets— None in my home. Please notify me within two days of receipt of item if you need to return it. Shipping— I try to ship within two days of receiving your payment.

I generally ship using United States Postal Service. I estimate shipping charges using the UPS calculator and add a small amount to help cover the cost of packaging tape and padded envelopes. Satisfaction— Please let me know if you are not satisfied I try to describe the items accurately.

SouthWorth White Linen Paper 32lb. Used box of Southworth White Linen Paper 32lb. Works on Laser. Inkjet and Copiers. Approx Sheets. This item has been open and box has been taped shut. There is approx. A few sheets may have been used. For sale is an opened and partially used box of white. Over half of the box remains. Any questions please ask.

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Sample resume carpenter. College athlete resume cover letter examples. Mla citation essay in book. Introduction paragraph for a philosopy essay. Dismissal of gough whitlam essay. Tubingen, West Germany: Narr. Research on the measurement of affec- tive variables: Some remaining questions. Oiler, J. Research in language testing. Scherer, C. The forgetting rate in learning German.

German Quarterly, 30, Scherer, G. A psycho- linguistic experiment in foreign-language teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill. Sheingold, K. Memory for a salient childhood event. Neisser Ed. San Francisco: W. Smythe, P. Second language retention over varying time intervals. Modern Language Journal, 57, Stern, H. Cana- dian Modern Language Review, 33, French from age eight, or eleven? Valdman, A. Language attrition and the administration of secondary school and college foreign language instruction.

Freed Eds. Row- ley, MA: Newbury House. A pilot program in teaching Spanish: An intensive approach. Modern Language Journal, 52, A skill in a foreign or second language certainly can be maintained after formal language training language training that takes place mainly in institutional and classroom settings has ended. Not only can language learners "take it with them," but they also can improve language skills after formal training.

In fact, some language learners feel that it is only once they are on their own that they begin to learn the language for the purpose of com- municating, and they can begin using it in a far wider variety of ways than those typical of the foreign lan- guage classroom. By definition, second language learners reside in the country of the language being learned, while foreign language learners do not.

Thus second language learners experience few problems finding resources e. More serious problems of independent learning face foreign language learn- ers, as opposed to second language learners. Many of the strategies outlined in this chapter are therefore intended primarily for foreign language learners, although second language learners will of course bene- fit from them as well.

Although some learners blossom after they finish language classes, even more learners, sadly, begin to lose their language skills soon after they leave language training. The subject of language loss or language skill attrition is an emerging issue for researchers, who are con- cerned that all the hard work and time spent in the classroom goes for naught after the final bell see Wel- tens, ; Oxford, a, b.

Learners themselves, not researchers and teachers, are often the most con- cerned about this problem. Complaints of former lan- guage students such as the following are all too famil- iar: "I took two years of Spanish, and now I can hardly order a beer or a cup of coffee in Spanish.

I've forgotten everything already. The answer depends on a host of factors, including the quality of the language training, the degree to which the learner was involved and motivated to learn, the strategies the learner used to learn, and the relevance of the training to the learner's needs. Assuming that these factors were favorable, and that during the training the learner reached some level of proficiency, several approaches to maintaining this proficiency can be taken after the training ends.

One approach is the use of language learning strategies. As referred to here, these are steps learners take to enhance their learning. Some strategies deal directly with the language e. If the fac- tors just mentioned were particularly favorable duriing formal language training, then maintenance may lead to expansion and improvement of language skills; this is a matter of degree, not of kind. This chapter is addressed as much to learners as it is to teachers; the ideas and information here are of direct concern to learners, especially thoie who have finished formal studies of the language and who are learning independently of a teacher.

For teachers, some ideas outlined here can be incor- porated into language courses to provide learners with greater opportunity to make language learning a life- long and autonomous process. Indeed, teachers can be assured of a greater long-term success rate in students who have been suitably equipped to continue their learn- ing independently.

For learners, this information sum- marizes the range of strategies available, and provides a starting point for maintaining language skills inde- pendently. In addition, researchers in the area of lan- guage skill attrition may find this chapter useful as a source of hypotheses to be tested. The Importance of Language Learning Strategies Many of the best language teachers today have realized that the greatest benefit they can bestow on their learners is to help them to "learn how to learn.

Among the most effective of these tools are strat- egies that are useful not only for the classroom setting but also for the outside world. While learning strategies are important within the classroom, they become crit- ical after formal language training is over. Used judi- ciously, such strategies are the major personal resource by which learners are able to maintain foreign language skills independently.

Former students no longer have a teacher to structure and present language material or to provide opportunities for practice. Language learners can learn about effective strategies through a variety of materials e. Learners trained in the use of certain strategies are more likely to continue their language learning after courses have been completed, and thus maintain their foreign language skills, than learners who have had no grounding in strategies.

In addition, many strategies that are useful after formal training can also be used to good effect in the classroom. While all students use some learning strategies during formal language training, they are often unaware of them. Many students, moreover, tend to use a limited range of strategies, and do not always use the most efficient and effective ones for theo. Training in strategy use helps learners become avrare of the strategies they use and the wide variety of strategies available.

If strategy training is given during formal class- room time and is integrated with the regular language learning process, graduates will have a greater range of strategies at their disposal after the course, and will be better able to choose the most cost-effective ones for independent learning circumstances. Teachers and students should realize that learners must judge for themselves which strategies are useful.

Indeed, learner training should help learners assess for themselves the relative useful- ness of different strategies. Most people know what is "good for them"--too many teachers seek to dictate what is good for their learners, rather than encouraging them to make informed judgments for themselves. It must also be remembered that any assess- ment of strategies' usefulness is based on several important assumptions. One is that the learners con- cerned are motivated to learn; that is, that they actively engage in some form of foreign language behavior.

Second, such assessments are generalizations, and they will, therefore, vary considerably from one indi- vidual to another and from one circumstance to another. This leads to a third assumption: that learners have different goals for language learning, and these goals will influence their choice of strategies. Much depends also on why the learner wishes to main- tain the foreign language--to visit the country, to listen to foreign radio programs, to get a better job, to be able to read technical materials, to pass a language test for graduate school, and so forth.

Because language uses are innumerable, and be- cause each particular strategy may be useful for main- taining several different language uses, it is impossible to indicate for each strategy the kinds of learners and uses for which it would be of greatest use. Only the indi- vidual learner can decide this. The strategies outlined here will certainly not all be useful across the board for all learners.

Most resourceful foreign language learn- ers will know whether a particular strategy is appro- priate for them, but they may often have to learn about specific strategies in the first place. Thus the relative likelihood of a given strategy to be useful for maintaining language skills after formal training is suggested cautiously here. A general dis- tinction is made between strategies that are likely to be very useful for independent language skill mainte- nance and those that are likely to be fairly useful.

Very Useful Strategies The strategies in this section are likely to be very useful to the independent language learner. These include communicative practice, developing routines, imitating native speakers, using every clue to get the meaning, reading purposefully, using all available resources, selective attention, asking questions, keeping the communication going, elaboration, silent rehearsal, lowering anxiety, self-encouragement, self-evaluation, and self-monitoring.

These strategies are also useful for initial learning in the context of formal instruction, but they assume added urgency and meaning when the former student is on his or her own. Teachers who r k? Communicative Practice Perhaps the most important strategies for main- taining foreign language skills independently involve practicing the language in natural, communicative ways. The term communicative practice strategies in fact refers to a number of strategies or steps an inde- pendent learner may take.

These include: first, creating practice opportunities seeking out situations and resources that have the potential of providing practice in the foreign language , and second, practicing com- municatively taking advantage of these opportunities to practice the language. These two are, of course, closely related; there is little point in creating opportunities if they are not actually used for practice. Creating practice opportunities and using them means consciously seeking out, or developing on one's own, resources i.

Examples include going to movies and social events, listening to radio broadcasts or records, writing to foreign friends, and reading books or magazines in the target language. It is important to choose or develop resources that are interesting and motivating. Individ- ual preferences differ. For example, one learner may enjoy listening to popular songs in the target language, while another prefers to watch foreign sports broad- casts on television; a third may go for good foreign novels; and a fourth may love seeing a play or an opera in the target language; but all four may enjoy par- ticipating in a regular conversation group.

These activities are all potentially fun and motivating for the people concerned. An added benefit is that they increase the learner's self-confidence. The more the learner engages in these activities, the more self-assured he or she becomes. Following are some suggested resources that may provide communicative practice in a target 0 r". Such resources fall into two broad categories: technological and human.

Technological Resources. Technology offers ways for the independent language learner to continue building language skills through practice. The "lowest" form of technology, the printed media, is of course the cheapest. A host of sources exist for printed foreign language materials. The resourceful independent learner will lot have much difficulty finding it. Newsstands often carry foreign language newspapers and magazines.

Maga- zines are published on almost every conceivable topic, from dollhouses to aircraft. Learners can gain much from subscribing to magazines from abroad. Many peo- ple have hobbies, and a foreign language magazine on a hobby is likely to become compelling reading. Books can be obtained from shops and libraries, as well as through international lending services.

Among sound-only media are tapes and records that learners can use to practice the language on their own. While records must be bought, the learner can make tapes. Recording sources include records, of course, as well as radio discussed shortly. Now that cassette decks are available for cars, many learners listen to tapes in the foreign language while driving to work.

International shortwave radio stations offer a wide variety of programs in many languages. Many of these programs are designed for expatriates and are thus suitable for the more advanced learner , but others are intended for indigenous people and are suitable for the intermediate learner. Moreover, radio stations also broadcast in foreign languages e. Some stations also broad- cast lessons for learners wishing to improve their own language e.

For further information on shortwave broadcast- ing, see Crookall Sound-and-image media include television and videocassettes. Not many cinemas show films in the original foreign language versions, ,except in cities with large foreign populations. Local television also does not carry much in the way of foreign language programs, though there are notable exceptions e.

An alternative to these is, of course, the videocassette. However, a number of prob- lems may arise. One is finding sources, either of pre- recorded tapes, or of material to record oneself. Although prerecorded foreign language tapes are not typically found in the usual video shops and clubs, services may specialize, for example, in foreign lan- guage films.

Some former students may be fortunate enough to have friends abroad who might record programs from their television sets. For example, in Europe many foreign language programs from neighboring countries can be picked up using a dish antenna. In the United States, various foreign language programs, such as Soviet broadcasts, can be picked up. The problem of DBS is, of course, cost. Another medium with great potential is the com- puter.

Computer-assisted language instruction is a technological resource that appears to offer increasing promise, both for in-class practice and for independent learning for a detailed discussion, see Otto, this vol- ume. A considerable number of programs are avail- able for microcomputers, including those designed specifically for foreign language practice and those written for other purposes, but in a foreign language.

Although language instruction by computer is con- stantly developing, computers are still unable to recognize and correct faulty pronunciation. However, a large number of interesting language programs exist, for example, for practicing rules, developing infer- encing skills, and using social cooperation. Computer programs written in a foreign language but teaching topics such as economics may be obtained by writing to foreign manufacturers.

This can be a highly effective means of maintaining foreign language skills. In addition, many entertainment com- puter programs, such as adventure games from foreign countries, provide excellent practice opportunities.

The next level of sophistication is international com- puter networking using packet switching and satellite systems. This also has much potential, especially for the computer-minded independent learner. Computer networks may provide foreign language material in several ways. On-line database and videotex systems simply pour out data, some of which may be obtainable in a foreign language.

The amount of foreign language material on national sys- tems is, of course, limited, but it exists e. Computer-minded independent learn- ers can, however, link up internationally to systems in foreign countries and thus obtain any amount of foreign language material. Related to such ser- vices is the already widespread bulletin board, pio- neered in the United Kingdom and the United States, and some of these are run in a foreign language. One major advantage, often overlooked in discussions on using such systems for foreign language learning, should be mentioned.

While on line, communication not only becomes meaningful, but it becomes urgent. On- line cost is a factor, and the necessity to work fast puts the learner in a situation of having to think fast and appropriately in the foreign language. Moreover, in such a situation the learner is engaged in using the language for a practical purpose, and ceases to focus on the language as an object of study.

Human Resources. Technology is ey one approach to obtaining practice. Native speakers of the foreign language will always be one of the best resources for language practice. It is probably through residing in a foreign country that an independent learner has the greatest chance of moving from lan- guage maintenance to improvement. Visiting a foreign country is an informal immersion into the foreign language and culture and the success of more formal immersion programs is well-known.

When sur- rounded by the language and the culture, the learner generally has no choice but to try to communicate in the language. Immersion in the target culture also helps the learner understand how the language is used in its wider social context. All the language-related subtleties of gestures, facial expressions, and tone of voice become much clearer and more understandable in the cultural setting where the language is spoken natively.

Being in a community where the target language is the primary medium of communication may be difficult or agoniz- ing at first; the learner may experience culture shock. However, after a while such difficulties recede, and the learner gains increased self-confidence in the language and culture.

Zimmer Loew this volume presents a full discussion of the language-maintenance benefits of travel and study abroad. Even without traveling to the country where the language is spoken, it is often possible to find native speakers in one's home community see Jenks, this volume. Making friends with native speakers a the target language is often possible, usually by seeking them out individually or by finding an association, such as an international friendship club, that includes numerous native speakers.

In the United Kingdom and the United States, many towns have a cercle frangais, for example, which serves the dual purpose of providing members with a social forum and bringing together those interested in maintaining French language skills and meeting native speakers. Casual chatting with friends in the target lan- guage--either abroad or at home--is one of the best ways to maintain language skills independently.

Natural opportunities to communicate in the new language will arise if the learner makes fries ds with native speakers. Another way of making friends, but at a distance, is to seek out pen friends. Various agencies exist to encourage such correspon- dence. Aston has noted that for most language learners, making friends with target-language speak- ers is considered one of the most important reasons for language learning.

Aston stated that the communicative syllabi of lin- guistic notions and functions usually fail to include categories for the kind of language that goes on in friendly conversations. These syllabi focus on functions that help speakers and listeners overcome "information and opinion gaps" through informing, persuading, negotiating, asking questions, and so on.

While these functions are no doubt important, they do not form the backbone of most friendly conversations, which do not usually try to overcome information and opinion gaps. Such conversations typically focus on the development of the friendship itself, a sense of being allied, of having a mutual acceptance or understanding--what Aston calls "comity" rather than "communication.

Friends joke, laugh, quip, and make what is sometimes, perhaps misguidedly, called "small talk. It may be a dif- ferent kind of talk from that taught in communicative syllabi, but it is certainly every bit as important to the learner. From the point of view of maintaining foreign language skills, making friends and chatting in the native language is extremely valuable.

All the activities named here, especially those involving getting to know native speakers as friends or visiting the country where the language is spoken, may increase the learner's motivation and identification with the culture of the target language. The more prac- tice the learner has, and the more he or she takes an active role in creating or finding opportunities to practice, the stronger the motivation is likely to become.

Developing Routines and Imitating Native Speakers Two useful strategies that come into play when the autonomous learner practices the language are devel- oping routines and imitating. While these strategies are helpful at every stage of language learning, the inde- pendent learner especially stands to benefit from them.

Developing routines means being aware of and using prefabricated or formalized speech routines in natural settings. These include the common idioms that serve to grease the wheels of social communication or indicate typical actions, such as ca va? Imitating native speakers often helps autonomous language learners improve their pronunciation, use of structures, and other elements of the language.

It is helpful to pay close attention to the speech and writing of native speakers and writers both well- and less well- educated and to imitate elements that occur commonly or appear important. Using Every Clue to Get the Meaning Using every clue for getting the meaning is using all available information to guess meanings of new items in the second language, predict outcomes, or fill in gaps in one's own understanding. This strategy is not only essential in the classroom-based learning phase, but it is also necessary for maintaining language skills inde- pendently.

It is used to aid understanding both spoken and written forms of the language. Using every clue means using any and all possible information sources to understand what is going on in the target language. The learner's knowledge of the topic under dis- cussion, or related topics, often helps learners get the drift of a conversation, an article, or a news broadcast. Awareness of the social situation, including the status of the individuals involved, often provides important information for getting the meaning.

Close observation of the speaker's tone of voice, emphasis, body language i. In reading, one source of clues to meaning is text structure. The reader should preview the material before reading, noting the introductions, summaries, conclusions, key questions, titles, headings, transitions, and ways of dividing the text. Many clues are found by noticing the author's use of words, phrases, numbers, and letters that indicate importance or priority e. Tak- ing a look at graphs, pictures, tables, and appendices can help the reader to get an idea of the key points or the kinds of examples the author considers important.

Now that training is over, the former student is on his or her own and must pay special attention to all pos- sible sources of information. The teacher is no longer available to explain meaning or to provide hints or coaching. Taking responsibility for one's own learning means that the learner must become especially obser- vant, alert to all potential sources that can help bring the meaning to light through inferencing.

Purposeful Reading The more advanced independent learner should probably do a good deal of reading in the foreign lan- guage. One important strategy for maintaining and ex- panding reading skills is to read with a clear purpose. Each of these purposes represents a different approach to the text. Depending on the purpose, the reader may scan the text for particular items of interest, or skim the text for the author's main ideas. At other times it is necessary to read more carefully.

There is a difference between reading to learn the language and reading for information or pleasure. In reading for the purpose of learning the language, the learner should read texts concerning topics with which the learner is somewhat familiar, so that a lack of understanding of the topic does not unnecessarily impede focusing on the language. When reading for information, the learner should focus on the content and not become bogged down in textual details.

Using All Available Resources To guess meanings or find ways to express themselves, independent language learners must be resourceful. In addition to using all possible clues to meaning, they should seek print and nonprint mate- rials to use as supplementary resources related to the language and the culture. Dictionaries, word lists, phrase books, encyclo- pedias, grammar books, publications on the culture and history of the country where the language is spoken, and other printed resources may be called into play to help the learner understand what is heard or read in the targc language.

These resources may also be used to help ' : learner find the right word or expression to use in speaking or writing. Tapes, computer-assisted instruction, television, radio, and other nonprint media, all of great use in maintaining language skills, are sources of practice as well as information.

Selective attention is a preparatory, organizing principle that helps the autono- mous, post-training learner to take responsibility for what he or she hears or reads. This strategy can also be applied to the written language. For example, the learner can plan to pay attention to the way in which a writer uses scientific terminology.

Asking Questions The independent learner will find that asking questions of native speakers is a strategy of great value. Asking questions is also an important strategy for initial classroom learning. Many question types are useful. The learner may ask a native speaker to repeat, clarify, paraphrase, explain, give examples, or tell if a rule fits a particular situation. Asking for verification or correction is often helpful. Former students must not be either too arrogant or too afraid to ask questions.

The former student is not expected to know everything. The best attitude is one of alert humility, in which the learner knows that he or she still has much to learn and is open and active in seeking new information. Native speakers of the target language are generally glad to help; they do not usually ridicule the learner's attempts to obtain information. Keeping the Communication Going Communication strategies are very important in the early stages of language learning.

These strategies are Although the main purpose of communication strat- egies is to enhance communication, these strategies may also aid in learning. Some possible communication strategies include using filler words in the target language such as uh, let's see, or well , using synonyms or more general words, talking around the subject circumlocution , describing the object for lack of the right term, invent- ing a word that might convey the meaning, and sub- stituting a wrong word that might convey a related meaning.

Other communication strategies are gestur- ing, miming, switching to the native language tempo- rarily, changing the subject, and avoiding subjects for which one lacks the necessary vocabulary or structures. Independent learners trying to maintain language skills may have an increased need to use some of these communication strategies.

They must make a particu- lar effort to find opportunities to communicate and to keep the communication going. Staying in a conver- sation in the target language will certainly help learn- ers maintain and expand language skills, even though the main purpose may be communication rather than learning.

Remembering A few memory strategies are particularly useful for independent learners. These include elaboration and silent rehearsal. Elaboration, a very general memory strategy, is simply relating new information to other concepts in memory by means of mental associations. These associations may be simple or complex, common- place or bizarre.

For example, a learner may associate the French word falaise cliff with the English fall plus the French aise, or ease. The learner who is trying to maintain skills independently will need to continue to make many such mental associations. This is very useful, even to the more advanced learner. Silent rehearsal has the advantage of allowing the learner to practice mentally and to link the sound and meaning to other concepts in memory before having to express the word or phrase aloud.

Some methods of foreign language instruction specifically include a "silent period" during which the learner is not required to speak and is allowed to silently rehearse. This principle can still be of use when applied to new words and phrases that the more advanced, auto- nomous learner encounters.

The only danger is that the learner can be reluctant to move beyond silent rehearsal and never express the new words aloud, but this does not seem to be a common problem with learners who are really motivated to maintain language skills. Affective Strategies Learners use affective strategies to deal with their emotions, attitudes and motivations. These strategies are very useful for those who are on their own, without the support of classmates or teachers.

Two general kinds of affective strategies are lowering anxiety and self-encouragement. Learners can lower anxiety using various tech- niques, such as progressive relaxation, deep breathing, meditation, music, and humor. All of these techniques produce physical changes that enable learners to calm down and see things from a fresh perspective. Self-encouragement positive self-talk is a strategy that can help the learner persevere.

It involves occa- sionally saying positive things to oneself to feel more capable or confident as a language learner. Studies have shown that self-talk, either positive or negative, is a potent tool that influences the learner's self-concept as a person in general, or as a learner in particular. Positive self-talk can improve one's confidence, while negative self-talk can erode one's sense of capability.

Self-encouragement is particularly important when there is no teacher to provide support and praise. Former students must learn to be their own cheerleaders. Evaluating and Monitoring Strategies for evaluating progress and monitoring errors3 are very important for maintaining language skills after formal language instruction ends. The reason for this is that such strategies naturally focus on learner independence; and in the post-training situa- tion, the learner is, more than ever, autonomous.

Independent learners can train themselves to evalu- ate their overall progress, even without classroom tests and semester grades. In listening, the autonomous learner can estimate the amount of the conversation he or she understands less than half? In reading, the learner can determine what proportion of a reading passage is comprehended everything? The area of speaking skills offers many ways to evaluate prog- ress, especially when comparing one occasion with another.

Learners can listen to their own speech on tape using a tape recorder; count the number of times they are asked to repeat something during a face-to face or telephone conversation; and carefully observe other people's responses to their speech--do they seem relaxed or frustrated?

To self-evaluate writing skills, the learner can from time to time review samples of his or her own work and note specific problems, particu- larly in spelling, sentence length, and ability to express complex thoughts. Learners can also compare their writing with that of native speakers of the language.

Self-monitoring means analyzing one's own errors and correcting one's own mistakes. Learners need not feel ashamed or embarrassed about making errors. A learner who makes no errors is a learner who is not using the language. Self-monitoring helps learners to learn from their errors and become better language learners. It is especially useful when there is no teacher to help point out or correct errors.

Self-monitoring can be broken down into several aspects. One aspect is recognizing the errors; this is the essential first step toward using one's errors to help improve language skills. Assessing the seriousness of the errors some are serious, some are not is the next step. Next the learner focuses on the most important errors and then tries to find out why a particular error was made not knowing the rule? Knowledge of why the error was made can help the learner to avoid making the same error, or a similar error, the next time.

Above all, learners, es- pecially independent learners, must accept the inev- itability of errors and must feel that they are useful for further positive growth in the target language. Fairly Useful Strategies The next set of strategies is likely to be fairly useful for language skill maintenance and improvement.

Again, the utility of these strategies depends largely on the individual learner and the particular situation. The strategies included here are: taking notes, high- lighting, rule learning, reasoning, a variety of addi- tional memory strategies, goal-setting, and planning. Taking Notes Learners who do not have the support of a formal classroom setting and daily or weekly assignments may find that their language learning skills become rusty because of lack of structure.

Simply put, note-taking is writing down important things, in either the target lan- guage or the learner's native language. Note-taking can also be a self-management tool that involves, and can help develop, a high degree of self-awareness about lan- guage learning progress. Note-taking may be consi- dered a basically cognitive strategy that can also be used for the purpose of self-management.

Some independent learners find it useful to carry a special language-learning notebook around each day, or to have it on hand whenever there is a chance to use the target language. This notebook can be used for many different purposes: to keep a list of new words or expres- sions heard or read in the target language; to write down words, phrases, or structures that are not under- stood and need to be looked up; to record new grammar rules; to note sociolinguistic observations e. The notebook can be organized into sections for each of these purposes, or some of the purposes can be linked in one section.

For example, a section called "New Words, Phrases, and Structures" could include new lin- guistic material that the learner has understood, and new material that he or she has not immediately under- stood and needs to look up later. Another section called "Notes on What I Have Read and Heard" might include comments on content, style, and sociolinguistic aspects.

Still another section called "Comments on My Lan- guage Progress" might include error lists, reasons for errors, comments on learning strategies, and amount of time spent. The sections of the language notebook can be labeled or even color-coded, using a different color for each different purpose of the notebook. Highlighting Highlighting involves marking, underlining, star- ring, or otherwise finding ways to emphasize important or new points.

The independent language learner might find it valuable to highlight new words, phrases, or structures in a reading passage. Colored markers are especially effective highlight- ing tools for autonomous language learners.

Different colors can be used for different kinds of information- - pink for new words, yellow for new structures, green for interesting ideas, and so on. Rule Learning Rule learning strategies are often used in the class- room. Independent language learnerh may also con- sider some of these strategies useful, although they are not overemphasized here.

In this discussion, foe word "rule" broadly refers to correct use of words, phrases, struc- tures, spelling, pronunciation, and form in general. The independent learner, wlin does not have a teacher to point out rules, needs to take initiative in discovering language rules and applying them. Rule generation I revisio;t refers to generating one's own internal rules about the target language and revising them when new information appears.

The learner in essence builds a formal mouel of the lan- guage bit by bit, and revises the model as time goes by. If new information confirms the hypothesis, learners are more likely to accept the rule as correct. But if new information discredits the learner-generated rule, learners must revise the rule. This often takes place naturally, without much con- scious thought on the part of the learner.

However, the process of hypothesis-generation and hypothesis-testing about the rules of language can also be conscious. Learners find rule generation and revision especially useful for pronunciation. Rule exercises are a way to practice rules, orally or in writing. For example, learners might indepen- dently review grammar points by using exercises in a language textbook. Many learners find that when they are on their own, after language training has ceased, they like to go back to their old language textbook and run through the exercises.

The exercises sometimes take on greater meaning and utility once the learner is in the position of havi. Reasoning Reasoning strategies are another type of formal language learning strategy. Reasoning strategies, including deductive reasoning, analysis of word parts, and contrastive analysis across languages, may con- tinue to be useful to learners who have finished class- room language training.

Deductive reasoning is a syllogistic, "if-then" model for reasoning about specific elements of the target lan- guage. It is often used in rule generation and revision, discussed previously. Analysis of word or phrase parts is useful to some independent language learners. It involves finding the meaning of a target language expression or word by breaking it down into parts. Contrastive analysis across languages means ana- lyzing elements of the first and second language to determine similarities.

Independent learners should concentrate on trying to think in the foreign language, rather than constantly comparing and contrasting lan- guages. However, it is sometimes useful to make con- trasts, as long as those contrasts do not impede the learner. For example, in French the word eventuelle- ment might, to the native English speaker, seem equiv- alent to eventually, which means that something will definitely happen sometime; but contrastive analysis would indicate that the word is a false friend not an exact cognate that really means maybe or possibly.

This cPstinction turns out to be quite important in con- versation. More Remembering Earlier in this chapter, memory strategies were described that might be very useful to former students. Additional strategies include the loci method, situa- tionalism, auditory association, mental imagery, physi- cal sensation, whole passage learning, and repetition. The loci method involves remembering foreign lan- guage information by remembering its location on the page, on a sign post, or in a mental picture.

Situation- alism means remembering a new word or phrase by associating it with the situation in which it was first heard or read by the learner. Auditory association is associating a new target language word or phrase with a known word that sounds like it. Mental imagery means using a mental image to help the reader remember a word or phrase with a physical sensation or feeling. Repetition implies repeating a new word or phrase as a means of memorizing it. Of course, learners' sensory preferences i.

Independent learners should consider which, if any, memory strategies helped them during their classroom learning phase, and continue using any that seem relevant. Goal-Setting and Planning Goal-setting and planning strategies may be of some use to learners who are no longer in language classes.

Goals may be written down in the learner's language notebook, or they may be stored mentally. Planning5 involves planning for and rehearsing the language elements needed to carry out an upcoming language task. For example, if a learner must go to the town hall to request a special form in the target lan- guage, it would be useful for the learner to consider the kinds of vocabulary, structures, and functions needed to perform the task.

Conclusions This chapter has offered reasons for the importance of learning strategies, particularly to the more informal situation occurring after formal language training has come to an end and learners are left to fend for them- selves. Two broad groups of language-learning strat- egies were described, those likely to be very useful to independent language learners, and those likely to be fairly useful.

The teacher's role during formal language train- ing includes, among other things, providing useful information on strategies to enable learners to become active, independenl and self-directed. Language learn- ing need not end when the last class is over or when the diplomas are handed out.

The classroom may help pave the way, but it cannot substitute for lifelong education. For many, school's end may well be just a beginning. New strategies appear here, and different names are used for many of their strategies in the interest of clarity, especially for the ley reader.

Nonfiction u well u fiction programs can be obtained through foreign friend,s, who record them for vou from television broad- casts. A potontial problem is compattlxlity ofstandards. Overcoming these problems is not difficult, but it may be costly, as it involves the use of multistandard equipment or copying services.

These strategies are of listed among "metacognitive strate- gies" by learning strategy researchers. These strategies, too, are often called metacognitive. This strategy is usually known under its more technical name of "functional planning. For fuller discussions of language learning strategies, see Wenden and Rubin and Oxford in press. In addition, see Holec and Dickinson for general information and further references on autonomous or self-directed language learning.

Casual chat and the teaching of lan- guage as comity. Crookall, D. Learner traiuing: A neglected strat- egy. Rigs and posts: Radio reception technology for foreign language learning. System, 12 2 , Dickinson, L. Self-instruction in language learn- ing. Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motiva- tion. Holec, H. Autonomy and foreign language learn- ing.

Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe. Norbrook, H. Extensive listening: How radio can aid comprehension. O'Malley, J. Learning strat- egy applications with students of English as a second language. Oxford, R. Language loss: A review with impli- cations for foreign language teaching.

Modern Lan- guage Journal, 66 2 , Technical issues in designing and. Learning Strategies 49 Oxford, R. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Rubin, J. How to be a more suc- cessful language learner. Weltens, B. The attrition of foreign language skills: A literature review. Applied Linguistics, 8, 1 , Wenden, A. Learner strategies in language learning.

Fullerton Ave. First, however, it is useful to review in some detail the special characteristics of self-instructional language study as used in the scores of colleges and universities that offer programs in various foreign languages through the methods established by the National Association of Self- Instructional Language Programs NASILP.

The Four Ts of Self-Instruction Self-accessed language study, in the academic con- text, is built on "four Ts" text, tapes, tutor, and tester. Clearly, not all of these components play a direct role in self-instructional language skills maintenance; never- theless, individuals will find it useful to be aware of the basic elements of a self-instructional language curricu- lum designed for formal academic settings. Although many texts written for classroom use are readily adaptable to self-instruction, it cannot be assumed that a book that proves successful in the classroom will be equally useful as a basis for self- instructional language study.

Most notably, a self-study text must include grammatical explanations that are complete and readily understood, as there will be no teacher to elaborate on, or decipher, grammar notes. However, the book must be rigorously audio-intensive that is, stressing the primacy of the oral-aural skills as the basis of language, rather than teaching a language for reading knowledge, which in the self-instructional context amounts to little more than code-breaking.

Tapes Until recently, language tapes were audio-only. While it is certainly true that audiocassettes will con- tinue to provide the principal simulation of reality for text packages in the next several years, largely because an audio component is less costly to produce than video, several audio-video-enhanced texts are available.

The use of video e. Whether audio-only or audio-video, the tape component of a language learning package is central to study of the language as an oral medium. Indeed, in most self- instructional academic curricula, use of the text the printed page is preparatory to work with cassette tapes. If language is regarded, for purposes of study, as principally a mode of oral expression, then it follows that language learning is based on aural comprehen- sion and vocalization, just as learning to play the piano has far more to do with work at the keyboard than with texts on music theory.

Tutors The tutor sometimes called a "driller" and the tutorial session are central to any self-instructional academic course. Typically, a tutorial group consists of four or five students and the tutor--the latter being an educated native speaker of the preferred dialect of the language being studied. While the tutor may be some- what knowledgeable about linguistic pedagogical theory and language teaching methodologies, such expertise is not pertinent in a tutorially assisted program of lan- guage self-instruction.

Rather, the tutor avoids most functions of the typical classroom teacher and confines tutorial activity to drilling prelearned materials in the target language. Dwyer describes the roles of student and tutor in the self- instructional African language program at Michigan State University: "The individual learner is the key ingredient. The responsibility of the tutor and the language coordinator must be seen as essentially supportive of the learner.

As defined in NASILP publications developed for its member colleges, the tutor's primary function is to provide practice and correction using materials that the student already has learned through several hours of self-study with text and tapes. The tutor never provides grammatical explanations even if competent to do so , because interaction with the native speaker is for the purpose of iteractive language use, not explanation of grammar or, worse, linguistic speculation. All oral transactions are in the target lan- guage, never in English.

Furthermore, the tutor rein- forces and corrects student performance only for vocabulary items and grammatical structured with which the student is acquainted. This point is especially important because the introduction of extraneous words and alternate phrasing serves only to confuse the learn- er at a time when clarity, not complexity, should be the tutor's objective.

The tutor is well acquainted with what the student should know, providing intensive practice only of the patterns and vocabulary that the student is responsible for knowing. Before each session, the tutor gathers var- ious simple visual aids that help control the interaction with the students e.

The most successful tutors are resourceful in collecting or making simple "props" to enhance and enliven the tutorial session by providing a tangible simulation of reality. Students do not participate in tutorial drills with open textbooks. In other words, the ability to converse fluently cannot be tied to written cues or prompts, and reliance on the printed page for oral com- munication would imply that the spoken language derives from its written form--rather than vice versa.

Foreign language learners who recognize the over- arching value of native-speaker speech and recorded cassette speech occasionally complain of confusion when they are exposed to the differing accents of speak- ers from various countries or regions in which the language is spoken.

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