thesis summary and conclusion sample

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Thesis summary and conclusion sample

Writing a conclusion for your research paper can be difficult.

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Resume lesson plans high school How to write a conclusion for your research paper. Summarize the main points. How to write an excellent thesis conclusion. You can also experiment with other conclusion styles, however, using the summarizing format can help you be certain that you are including each element as it relates to your paper. If you get overwhelmed, try sticking to a basic summarizing format for your conclusion.
Best best essay writing sites online Your reader will probably wonder: "Why should I care?. To avoid repetitioninstead of just writing a summary of each chapter, you can write more reflectively here. This investigation will review the volume of passengers using the Monash University Clayton-Caulfield inter-campus bus in order to recommend adjustments to the service if needed. However, the United States is seeing a serious decline in plasma reactor development that is critical to plasma processing steps in the manufacture of VLSI microelectronic circuits. Plasma processing thesis summary and conclusion sample be identified as a component program of the Federal Initiative on advanced materials synthesis and processing that currently is being developed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The critical role of plasma processing technology in industry is illustrated in Chapter 2. Plasmas alter the normal pathways through which chemical systems evolve from one stable state to another, thus providing the potential to produce materials with properties that are not attainable by any other means.

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Plasmas alter the normal pathways through which chemical systems evolve from one stable state to another, thus providing the potential to produce materials with properties that are not attainable by any other means.

Applications of plasma-based systems used to process materials are diverse because of the broad range of plasma conditions, geometries, and excitation methods that may be used. The scientific underpinnings of plasma applications are multidisciplinary and include elements of electrodynamics, atomic science, surface science, computer science, and industrial process control.

Because of the diversity of applications and the multidisciplinary nature of the science, scientific understanding lags technology. This report highlights this critical issue. A summary of the many industrial applications of plasma-based systems for processing materials is included in Chapter 2.

Electronics and aerospace are the two major industries that are served by plasma processing technologies, although the automotive industry is likely to become a significant user of plasma-processed materials like those now in widespread use in the aerospace industry. The critical role of plasma processing technology in industry is illustrated in Chapter 2. For the electronics industry more than for any other considered by the panel, the impact of—and the critical and urgent need for—plasma-based materials processing is overwhelming.

Thus Chapter 3 further elucidates plasma processing of electronic materials and, in particular, the use of plasmas in fabricating microelectronic components. The plasma equipment industry is an integral part of the electronics industry and has experienced dramatic growth in recent years because of the increasing use of plasma processes to meet the demands of fabricating devices with continually shrinking dimensions.

In this country, the plasma equipment industry. In Japan, on the other hand, equipment vendors and device manufacturers are tightly linked and are often parts of the same company. Plasma processes used today in fabricating microelectronic devices have been developed largely by time-consuming, costly, empirical exploration. The chemical and physical complexity of plasma-surface interactions has so far eluded the accurate numerical simulation that would enable process design.

Similarly, plasma reactors have also been developed by trial and error. This is due, in part, to the fact that reactor design is intimately intertwined with the materials process for which it will be used. Nonetheless, fundamental studies of surface processes and plasma phenomena—both experimental and numerical—have contributed to process development by providing key insights that enable limitation of the broad process-variable operating space.

The state of the science that underpins plasma processing technology in the United States is outlined in Chapter 4. Although an impressive arsenal of both experimental and numerical tools has been developed, significant gaps in understanding and lack of instrumentation limit progress. The broad interdisciplinary nature of plasma processing is highlighted in the discussion of education issues outlined in Chapter 5 , which addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with providing a science education in the area of plasma processing.

For example, graduate programs specifically focused on plasma processing are rare because of insufficient funding of university research programs in this field. By contrast, both Japan and France have national initiatives that support education and research in plasma processing. Finding and Conclusion : In recent years, the number of applications requiring plasmas in the processing of materials has increased dramatically.

Plasma processing is now indispensable to the fabrication of electronic components and is widely used in the aerospace industry and other industries. However, the United States is seeing a serious decline in plasma reactor development that is critical to plasma processing steps in the manufacture of VLSI microelectronic circuits.

In the interest of the U. Finding and Conclusion : The demand for technology development is outstripping scientific understanding of many low-energy plasma processes. The central scientific problem underlying plasma processing concerns the interaction of low-energy collisional plasmas with solid surfaces.

Understanding this problem requires knowledge and expertise drawn from plasma physics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics, chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, materials science, computer science, and computer engineering. In the absence of a coordinated approach, the diversity of the applications and of the science tends to diffuse the focus of both.

Finding : Technically, U. However, poor coordination and inefficient transfer of insights gained from this research have inhibited its use in the design of new plasma reactors and processes. Finding : The Panel on Plasma Processing of Materials finds that plasma processing of materials is a critical technology that is necessary to implement key recommendations contained in the National Research Council report Materials Science and Engineering for the s National Academy Press, Washington, D.

Government Printing Office, Washington, D. Specifically, plasma processing is an essential element in the synthesis and processing arsenal for manufacturing electronic, photonic, ceramic, composite, high-performance metal, and alloy materials. Plasma processing should be identified as a component program of the Federal Initiative on advanced materials synthesis and processing that currently is being developed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Through such a Plasma Processing Program, federal funds should be allocated specifically to stimulate focused research in plasma processing, both basic and applied, consistent with the long-term economic and defense goals of the nation. The Plasma Processing Program should not only provide focus on common goals and promote coordination of the research performed by the national laboratories, universities, and industrial laboratories, but also integrate plasma equipment suppliers into the program.

Finding and Conclusion : Currently, computer-based modeling and plasma simulation are inadequate for developing plasma reactors. As a result, the detailed descriptions required to guide the transfer of processes from one reactor to another or to scale processes from a small to a large reactor are not available. Until we understand how geometry, electromagnetic design, and plasma-surface interactions affect material properties, the choice of plasma reactor for a given process will not be obvious, and costly trial-and-error methods will continue to be used.

Yet there is no fundamental obstacle to improved modeling and simulation nor to the eventual creation of computer-aided design CAD tools for designing plasma reactors. The key missing ingredients are the following:. A reliable and extensive plasma data base against which the accuracy of simulations of plasmas can be compared. Plasma measurement technologies are sophisticated, but at present experiments are performed on a large variety of different reactors under widely varying conditions.

A coordinated effort to diagnose simple, reference reactors is necessary to generate the necessary data base for evaluation of simulation results and to test new and old experimental methodology. A reliable and extensive input data base for calculating plasma generation, transport, and surface interaction. The dearth of basic data needed for simulation of plasma generation, transport, and surface reaction processes results directly from insufficient generation of data, insufficient data compilation, insufficient distribution of data, and insufficient funding of these activities.

The critical basic data needed for simulations and experiments have not been prioritized. For plasma-surface interactions, in particular, lack of data has precluded the formation of mechanistic models on which simulation tools are based. Further experimental studies are needed to elucidate these mechanisms. Efficient numerical algorithms and supercomputers for simulating magnetized plasmas in three dimensions. The advent of unprecedented supercomputer capability in the next 5 to 10 years will have a major impact in this area, provided that current simulation methods are expanded to account for multidimensional effects in magnetized plasmas.

The Plasma Processing Program should include a thrust toward development of computer-aided design tools for developing and designing new plasma reactors. The Plasma Processing Program should emphasize a coordinated approach toward generating the diagnostic and basic data needed for improved plasma and plasma-surface simulation capability. A program to extend current algorithms for plasma reactor simulation should be included among the activities funded under the umbrella of the federal High.

Finding and Conclusion : In the coming decade, custom-designed and custom-manufactured chips, i. This market, in turn, will belong to the flexible manufacturer who uses a common set of processes and equipment to fabricate many different circuit designs.

Such flexibility in processing will result only from real understanding of processes and reactors. On the other hand, plasma processes in use today have been developed using a combination of intuition, empiricism, and statistical optimization.

Although it is unlikely that detailed, quantitative, first-principles-based simulation tools will be available for process design in the near future, design aids such as expert systems, which can be used to guide engineers in selecting initial conditions from which the final process is derived, could be developed if gaps in our fundamental understanding of plasma chemistry were filled. Finding and Conclusion : Three areas are recognized by the panel as needing concerted, coordinated experimental and theoretical research: surface processes, plasma generation and transport, and plasma-surface interactions.

Next, restate the thesis of your research paper. You can do this by revising your original thesis that you presented in the introduction of your paper. The thesis statement in your conclusion should be worded differently than what you wrote in your introduction. This element can also be effectively written in one sentence. Next, you can sum up the main points of your research paper. It's helpful to read through your paper a second time to pick out only the most relevant facts and arguments.

You shouldn't need to include any more information than the main arguments or facts that you presented in your paper. The purpose of summarizing the key points is to remind the reader of the importance of the research topic. Here's an example to help illustrate how to do this:. This increase in pollution has contributed to massive decreases in marine life, fish die-off, increased respiratory illness in neighborhood populations and has contributed to the shortage of clean drinking water.

After discussing the main points of your argument, you can present the significance of these points. For instance, after stating the main points you made in your argument, you might discuss how the impacts of your topic affect a specific outcome. Likewise, you might present the results of studies or other findings that can help add emphasis to how you present the significance of your information. In the future, the EPA hopes this research will lead to a decrease in the pollutant concentration in our freshwater systems.

As you finish up your conclusion, you might create a call to action or pose an idea that gets your readers thinking further about your argument. You might also use this sentence to address any questions that were left unanswered in the body paragraphs of your paper.

More research and innovation are needed to maintain our clean water while still supporting the agricultural needs of our economy. Here are some helpful tips to keep in mind when you write your research paper conclusion:. You can also experiment with other conclusion styles, however, using the summarizing format can help you be certain that you are including each element as it relates to your paper.

The following examples help illustrate what an effective research paper conclusion looks like and what an ineffective and disorganized conclusion looks like. The examples can help you outline and form your conclusion. An effective conclusion will contain all five elements of summing up your research paper.

The increase in water pollution since has contributed to the decrease in aquatic wildlife as well as the increase in unsafe drinking water. With the growth of sugar farming, more and more pollutants are entering our freshwater supplies. Ecologists and marine biologists are continuing to measure the water quality, and researchers are continuing to find ways to combat the pollution run-off from commercial farms.

If we cannot combat the ill effects that commercial farming has on our clean water, our freshwater ecosystems and drinking water supplies will surely diminish. In this example, some elements are missing and the thesis statement is not clear. Here is what a disorganized and ineffective conclusion might look like:. Drinking water becomes unsanitary and unsafe with pollution. If we do not fix the state of our freshwater systems, our health can suffer. Researchers are still trying to help, but they have not resolved the issue of the water pollution.

As citizens, it is our responsibility to help keep our waters clean and avoid polluting rivers, lakes and oceans. While it is possible to tell from this conclusion that the topic may have been water pollution, there is no clear statement of the topic. Additionally, it is difficult to tell whether the first sentence is even a thesis statement.

When you write your conclusion, consider the type of conclusion you are writing, and include each element that is appropriate for your conclusion type. By following each step, you can format and write an effective and impactful concluding paragraph for your research paper.

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