In «How the Civil War Began» by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War wasn't slavery, as numerous believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for money. Rest of Overview: the remainder of the essay will provide the reasons and evidence for that primary declaration.
Or in other words, what's the main point the author is trying to help make and which are the supporting tips he or she utilizes to show it? Does the author mention any opposing some ideas, and if so, just what does she or he do to refute them? Let me reveal a sample sort of phrase:. As a whole, you wish to make sure that you always use the author's title additionally the article name once you begin summarizing, and that you utilize the author's last title in the last sentence besides making it clear you're nevertheless dealing with mcdougal's ideas.
In a study paper, you'll then place a parenthetical citation or footnote, which informs your reader you're completed making use of that source. If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply that which you learn about evaluating literary works to analyzing other texts. You will need to consider what is effective and inadequate.
You'll evaluate just what the author does that works and just what doesn't work to aid the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, particularly when you are just starting out writing, the task of fitting a big subject into an essay may feel daunting and you may perhaps not understand how to start. Text, Reader, and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you'll want to think about what type of text it is and exactly what the writer desired to have the audience think, do, or think.
The primary concern your analysis will response is, «just how effective ended up being the writer at persuading that one market? Context means unique: how the article fits to the reputation for conversation of this issue, the historical moment in time as soon as the article is written, and moment in time when you checks out this article. Inside context, Exigence is synonymous with «assumptions,» «bias,» or «worldview. Breaking the large concept down into these five components might help you can get started and organize your thinking.
In your paper, you will most probably desire to deal with from three to all five of those elements. Each of this following elements is one paragraph of one's analysis. You'll respond to the concerns that will help you produce some ideas for every paragraph. Tugend tells the reader that multi-tasking can only be effective if it is done in ways that support the task.
The conclusion brings effective closure to the article. If the party is over, was it a good party? Was it worth attending? Was it memorable? Will you talk about it later? The best take-away for any article you read is to be able to use some of the material yourself in your own writing. Make your own point, using the words of the author you read. Stand on some shoulders, will you? Read the article all the way through. Set it aside and think about it.
Then read it again. This time, using a pen or highlighter, underline the main points in each paragraph. Focus on what Tugend is telling her reader in each paragraph. Then look at your list. Tugend may connect several points together in a few paragraphs. Circle or block together those points that seem to connect to each other. Her overall thrust is a major point for that part of the article. Give that block of points a title. This is one main point of the article. It is. If you were to make a presentation on multi-tasking in a public speaking class, you could use her article alone to inform your audience of multi-tasking.
This is the first step to creating a summary. Since summaries are often used in research writing, always check out the author. A summary should provide a brief overview of the author. You can state the name of the article and when and where it was published as well. Do some leg-work. Find out what you can about the author. Who is she and what has she written and where has she been published? Is the publication in which she has written a credible venue — is it a respected and responsible journal or book publisher, based on its own publication history?
What makes the author qualified to write about the topic she has chosen? As a columnist for that world-renowned newspaper she has no doubt established herself over a period of years as one who can clearly identify a subject, research it thoroughly, write with clarity to a selected group of people, and connect with that audience on a level that makes people want to read her column. Since she has other publishing credits, she is known by the publishing community and is respected by her peers. She is considered a trustworthy source of information.
And the New York Times is no fly-by-night scrap of yellow journalism; it was founded in and has published almost 60, issues for over years. Its readership is worldwide. Who is likely to read the article in question? Do you think that the audience likely to be made up of people who are open or closed to new information and ideas or are settled with the ideas they currently have? What makes you think this? Check out the language used: the terminology being used, the complexity or simplicity of sentence structure, the length of the article and the main focus.
What readers are most likely to be interested in the article? What is the topic of the article? State it in your own words. Why is it important to her? Her thesis connects to the overall point of the article. Next, identify those main points that you titled in your outline. Finally, examine the conclusion. What is the take-away the author provides to the reader? An Analysis is quite different from a Summary.
In order to analyze an article you will reflect on those things you did for the summary, including the following:. In an analysis, you move from making note of credibility and audience to figuring out particulars of the essay. These particulars include the following. You should be able to:. Be reminded that you have already examined the following in your Summary. Your Analysis should examine the article from your own perspective.
An Analysis need not be long, and it need not focus on each part equally. If the sources are well-documented and extensive, then you may not need to go over them with a magnifying glass! Has the author used sources to support her ideas? What types of sources have been used?
Where were the sources published? Are those publications reliable? You need to look back and see what information was gathered and how it was used to support the point the author is making. Is the author using the source material as it was originally intended, or has she twisted or misshaped the material to suit herself?
In popular publications newspapers and magazines the writer provides in-text information about sources. Does the author strive to inform or persuade using a variety of views and positions? Another writer suggests …. Does it also contribute to the body of information available on this topic? If the article merely rehashes the ideas of one or two people without using those ideas to see the issue from another perspective, then perhaps the article has not contributed to the body of work currently available.
In the long run, if no contribution has been made, then the article will fall by the wayside. When you research a topic for the sake of writing a research paper, you must develop your own thesis based on your original idea and the source materials that you have read in connection with your idea. You work together with those sources to bring your ideas to the table in a new way. In responding to sources, you:. Imagine you have all of your sources around a table.
You start the conversation by posing your original idea. You may ask your sources to share their perspective on the idea.
Check out our samples of analysis essays to understand more about how to write one of your own. Frankenstein, a famous Gothic novel written by Mary Shelley that was published in , is notorious for the debates it has stirred among academics and….
Forrest Gump, a landmark film by Robert Zemeckis released in , is mentioned by countless people as a moral tale of great insight. The film…. It is not a secret that the world today is obsessed with appearances. Visual attractiveness is one of the key factors when people make choices…. Throughout recent decades, the food industry has remained at the center of public debates.
Although medicine has reached the level when many diseases can be cured or at least effectively stopped, there are cases when nothing can help a…. Youth—especially the teenage years—is a period of life when an individual is especially vulnerable in terms of his or her personality being affected by the…. One is that this…. Nevertheless, the persistent hyperbole…. By Angus Kennedy Europe might not be dead yet, but the patient is on life support and all its vital signs seem to be crashing.
By Rob Clowes The social web: Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and the host of other technologies that invite us to connect to each other through a…. By Maahwish Mirza The emergence of the English Defence League, attacks motivated by a far-right ideology in Norway, and a controversial denunciation by Prime Minister….
By Mark Carrigan We all find it hard to admit that we were wrong, yet this is precisely what the feminist writer and journalist Natasha…. By Michele Ledda Asked about the persistence of historical determinism in the 20th century in an interview given two years before her death, Hannah Arendt…. Remember Me. What is your profession? Another simple way is just to state the main idea of the article in one sentence. A third introduction would explain the context of the publishing of the article or the cultural circumstances that most people would know about that topic.
I have an exam in 2 days that will ask me to write to summarize and analyze" an article. I wonder how it looks like to have both a summary and analysis! I am a bit confused about how to structure it and how to start my introduction. I'm not sure how you can do a personal response without using a personal pronoun.
However, if that is your assignment, you can say: This article makes the reader feel The author is believable because The current situation of Hi Karen! I'm so glad that this information helped you. I hope you will share this with other students. I know that many English instructors are graduate students who are not terribly experienced teachers and have a lot of work to do in their own studies.
After over 20 years of focusing on teaching writing, I wanted to share what I had learned from my students about how to write these essays more clearly and easily. Most of my information comes from working with students and analyzing their essays to see what worked best. Once again, thank you! I wish I would've seen these articles at the beginning of my English class! You provide the type of information that I can easily follow. I have an instructor for my class this semester that has not made herself available for classes or who bothers to answer emails or texts.
Had I known about this site, I think I would've done just fine taking my class online! Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects.
Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. I really appreciate the effort put into your work. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given.
Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words.
I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably:. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way.
What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe. The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim.
I don't use the term "analytical argumentative essay" in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it "persuasive essay," or "argument essay" and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response.
If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on "How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample.
Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.
But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument.
Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby?
How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples.
Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world.
I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in , I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States.
Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :.
I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources.
In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, "Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often.
This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing.
Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after.
Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me.
Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting.
Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too.
The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS on January 29, Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction.
How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. This page is a great method to connect to others.
Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it.
I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped.
This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well.
Yes--I should add that to the hub. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them.
I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Marine Biology. Electrical Engineering. Computer Science. Medical Science. Writing Tutorials. Performing Arts.
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